« ForrigeFortsett »
3. The Restoration and Extension of the Sardinian Monarchy by the Congrats of Viiraia. Victor Emanuel I returned, May 20, 1814, to Turin, his continental territories having been restored by the peace of I'aris. Half of Savoy was left in the hands of the French; which, however, was restored by the treaty of Paris in 1815 (November 20), together with Monaco. On the other hand, Carouge and Cbesnc, with 12,700 inhabitants, were reded to Geneva (October 23,1816). The rnugress of Vienna was desirous of strengthening the kings of Sardinia, as holders of the passes of the Alps, and England wished to establish a commercial intercourse with the court of Turin. Genoa, therefore, was annexed as a duchy to the Sardinian monarchy, December 14, 1814. Victor Emanuel restored, as far as was practicable, the old constitution, readmitted the Jesuits, subscribed the holy alliance, and established a rigorous censorship. In 1818, he confirmed the sales of the royal domains made by the French, and appropriated an annual sum of 400,000 lire for the indemnification of the emigrants, who had lost their estates. A? an ally of England, he obtained a pertiiiiuent and honorable peace with the Barrnry powers, through the British admiral ford Exmouth. In March, 1821, in consequence of the troubles which resitted in the occupation of the country by the Austrians, he abdicated the crown, in favor of his brother, Charles Felix. (See Piedmontese Revolution.) The measures which were adopted subsequently to the suppression of the insurrection, were directed to realize the plan of the congress of Vienna in erecting Sardinia into a partition wall between Austria and France. In compliance with the terms of the convention concluded between the Sardinian general delta Torre and the Austrian, Prussian and Russian ambassador, Sardinia was occupied by Austrian troops, for which Austria was to receive II ,250,000 a yew, besides provisions. Rigorous measures were taken to extirpate "revolutionary principles," as they were styled. In the universities of Turin and Genoa, and other institutions of education, a strict supervision over the conduct of the students was maintained; the Jesuits were admitted into Savoy and the island of Sardinia; the royal schools were committed to their care, and, in 1823, the provincial college was put under their direction. The Jews were subjected to severe burdens and great disabilities. To protect the Genoese commerce against
the Barbary corsairs, the whole navy of Sardinia (consisting of one frigate and eight smaller vessels) was ordered to sea, but effected nothing. Through the mediation of Great Britain, however, a peace was concluded in 1825, Sardinia agreeing to make certain presents to the dey of Algiers and the bey of Tunis. The congress of Verona (1822) provided for the gradual evacuation of the country by foreign troops, which was completed towards the close of 1823; but, at the same time, as apprehensions were entertained from the Piedmontese fugitives hi Switzerland, such representations were made to the federal diet as not only to effect their removal, but to impose restrictions upon the Swiss press. Intercourse with Spain was broken even previously to the invasion of that country by the French; and the prince of Carignan (the present king), who had been banished from court on account of his conduct during the Piedmontese insurrection, served as a volunteer under the duke d'Angoulfime. Still Sardinia embraced the Austrian politics with more cordiality than the French, both in regard to her domestic administration, and in her Italian policy in general. A royal edict, of 1825, prohibited any person learning to read or write, who had not property to the amount of 1500 lire (about $400), and any one studying at the university who had not as much more in the funds. Translations of the works of Gothe, Wieland, and Schiller, were also protiibited within the Sardinian states. Charles Felix died March 29, 1831, and was succeeded by Charles Albert, prince of Carignan. Some troubles broke out in Sardinia: the Genoese merchants offered the king a large sum of money to induce him to consent to the independence of Genoa; but the offer was rejected, and his majesty was actually besieged in Genoa, until relieved by Austrian troops.—See the articles Italy, and Italy, Travels in, with the works there referred to; see also Manno's Storia di Sardegna (Turin, 1825); Mimaut's Histoire de Sardaigne (Pans, 1825); and De la Marmora's Voyage de Sardaigne (1826). Sardonyx. (See Chalcedony.) Sarmatians. The Sclavonians and other nations, who inhabited the northern parts of Europe and Asia, were called by the ancients Sarmatians. European Sarniatia comprehended (according to Gatterer, who, however, extended it too far) Poland from the Vistula, Prussia, Courland, Livonia, Russia, and European Tartary, together with the Crimea; Asiatic
Sarmatia embraced Asiatic Russia, Siberia and Mongolia. The Sarmatians were nomadic tribes. They were probably descendants of the Medes, and dwelt originally in Asia, l>etween the Don, the Wolga, " and mount Caucasus. They were allies of king IV1 ithridates VI of Pontus, even at that time were settled on the west of the Don, and afterwards extended over the country between the Don and the Danube. They were, at times, formidable to the Asiatic kings. Among the most remarkable of them were the Jazyges and the Roxolani. They carried on long and bloody, but for the most part unsuccessful, wars against the Romans. A part of them, with other Imrbarians, entered Gaul A. D. 407; the remainder weitJ conquered by Attila, but after his death submitted to the emperor Marcian, who assigned them a residence on the Don. Here they afterwards united themselves to the Goths, and formed with them one nation.
Sarpi, Pietro. (See Paul of Venice.) Sarrace.tia, or Side-sadole Flower. The species of sarracenia are among the most singular productions of the vegetable world. They are exclusively North American, and, according to Mr. Nuttall, are not found west of the Alleghanies. The leaves have the form of a long tube or funnel, conic or swollen, often containing water, and terminated by an appendage, which varies in form in the different species. The flowers resemble, in size and form, those of the splatter-dock or yellow water-lily (nuphar). All inhabit marshy grounds. 'I he S. purpurea is the most common species, and by far the most widely diffused, being frequently met with from Hudson's bay to Carolina: the stems are eight or ten inches high, arising from the centre of the leaves, simple, leafless, and are terminated with large flowers, of a green color mixed with reddish-brown; the leaves have a large heart-sha|>ed ap|)endage, smooth externally, and covered within with scattered whitish horizontal hairs. The other species are confined to the Southern States.
StRSAPARiLLA. The roots of the smitax snrsnpariila, and doubtless of other species of smilax (for all those plants closely resemble each other in their sensible properties), arc very long and slender, with a wrinkled burk, brown externally and white within, and have a small woody heurt. They are inodorous, und have a mucilaginous and very slightly bitter taste; they seem to |>ossess no very "e principle, although they have en
joyed a very high repute, at dift'erent times, as a specific in venereal and scrofulous diseases: tliey have sudorific and diuretic pro|ierties, but only in a slight degree Sarsaparilla is one of the ingredients of the famous Rob of Laffecteur, as well asni" Swaim's Panacea, and various other similar remedies. The species of 6milax anvery numerous in the U. Suites, es|x-cialK iu the southern parts. They are green vines, usually spiny, with scattered leave*. and are very troublesome in tin; woods, in certain districts, forming impenetrable thickets. They are allied, in their botanical characters, to the as|»uragiis, but differ widely in habit; the leaves ar«t coriaccouor membranous, entire, nerved, and usually more or less heart-shaped; the leafstalks are generally provided with tendrils at the base. The flowers are dioecious, chiefly disposed in little axillary umbeL-. and the corolla is divided into six lobes: the male flowers have six stamens; the fruit is a small globulur berry, containing three seeds, or often one or two only, b\ reason of abortion. The S. China grow* in China and Japan, and the roots are employed in those countries for the sam* purposes, and have enjoyed the same reputation as our sartiuparilla. It is, besides, used for food. The true sarsaparilla has smooth, oval, membranous, heartshaped leaves, and grows in Mexico. Peru and Brazil: it is said, likewise, to inhabit the U. States; but it is not probable that our own is the same with tbr South American species.
Sarti, Joseph, a composer, was bom at Faeuza, in 172!», and died in lcXfi. H> was, for a long time, master of the chapel fo Catharine II, in St. Petersburg, who treated him very liberally. I le composed » grand Te-Deum for the taking of Oczakow, the bass of which was accompanied l« cannons of dift'erent calibre. A piece of music composed by him for Good Frida\. was performed by sixty-six singers and one hundred Russian horns, besides the usual instruments.
Sarto, Andrea del (his proper nan»is Jhdrea JannifrAi); a celebrated painter, of the Florentine school, bom at Florence, in 1488. His teachers were not of a high order, and he cultivated liii talents principally by the study of grea: masters, such as Leonardo and Michael Angelo. Some maintain that lie »us deficient in invention; whence, in sons of his com|)08itions, he made use of the engravings of Albert Durer, which had then become known. He painted man* pieces for his native city. Francis I induced him, by a considerable salary, to go to France in 1518. But his extravagant wife led hini into acts of ingratitude against the prince. He soon went back to Italy, and appropriated to the use of himself and his wile large sums, which had been given him, by his royal patron, to purchase the pictures of great masters in Italy. He repented, it L; true, of his faults, but could not recover the king's favor. Among other works, he painted, about this lime, the beautiful Sacrifice of Abraham, which has since been placed in the gallery of Dresden. The following anecdote is related of his wonderful skill in imitation :—He copied Raphael's portrait of Leo X so exquisitely as even to deceive Giulio Romano, who had aided Raphael in the drapery. Among his most celebrated works is a Burial in the palace Pitti, and the Dead Savior with Mary and the Saints, in the gallery of the grand-duke; also a beautiful Madonna, in die church of CAnnunziata, culled Madonna del sacco, and several others in Florence ; a Charity, now in Basle; Tobias with the Angel; and several Holy Families; the History of Joseph, in -two paintings, in the Paris museum. In 1529, when Florence was taken, the soldiers, on entering the refectory which contained his picture of the Last Supper, were struck with awe, and retired without committing any violence. He died of the plague, in 1530. His coloring in fresco, as well as in oil, was full of -weetness and force: his dra|>eries are easy and graceful. The naked, in his compositions, is excellently designed, but his figures want that force and vivacity which animate the works of other great painters, though they possess correctness, truth and simplicity. Sometimes lie is too anxious to produce effect. Giacomo At Pontormo was his pupil.
Si»r*, Old; a rotten borough in Wiltshire, two miles north of Salisbury. It was anciently a considerable city, and by the Romans called Sorbiodunum, though M present reduced to some ruins and intrenchments. Two members, however, are yet returned to parliament by the proprietors, and the election takes place in the field, on the spot where the last houses of the city stood. The present proprietor of Old Sarum (lord Caledon) paid about £60,000 for the small estate on which the borough stands. It was the original situation of Salisbury, and the bishop had a castle here; but the see was removed lo the present situation of Salisbury (q. v.), in the vear 1219. Before the refomia
tion in England, the most celebrated liturgy in use in that country was that styled secundum usum Sarum, compiled by the bishop of Salisbury, in the eleventh" century.
Sassafras. (See Laurel.)
Sassoferato; a painter, so called from the place of his birth, a town in the duchy of Urbino, States of the Church. His true name was (liamballista Salvi. He was born in 1605, learned the elements of his art from his lather, and afterwards studied under Domenichino, Guido and Albani. His works resemble those of the latter, and are executed with the same care. His paintings were chiefly the Madonna and Child, the latter sleeping. His heads are expressive and lovely.
Satan. (See Devil.)
Sate; an Egyptian goddess. (See Hieroglyphic*, vol. vi, p. 319.)
Satin; a soft, closely-woven silk, with a glossy surface. In the manufacture of other silken stufts, each half of the warp is raised alternately; but in weaving satin, the workman only raises the fifth or the eighth part of the warp; dius the woof is hidden beneath the warp, which, presenting an even, close and smooth surface, is the more capable of reflecting the rays of light. In this way satin acquires that lustre and brilliancy which distinguish it from most other kinds of silks. The chief seats of this branch of manufacture are Lyons in France, and Genoa and Florence in Italy. From the East Indies are imported those light stuffs called Indian or Chinese satins. They are either plain, damasked, striped, o|>en-worked, or embroidered. Both in lustre and execution, thev are far inferior to the Lyonese satins; they, however, possess this peculiar property, that, even after scouring, they retain their original gloss.
Satin-spaa; carbonate of lime, in delicate, almost compact, white fibres. (See Lame.)
Satire; in the widest sense of the word, pungent ridicule or cutting censure of faults, vices or weaknesses; hence the phrase a "satirical person." In a narrower sense, in which it is more commonly used, it is a poem, of which ridicule and censure are the object and chief characteristic. This species of poetry had its origin with the Romans: the name is derived from tatur (by no means from satyr), and refers, originally, to the mixture of subjects treated, and of metres used, in the earlier productions of this kind. Satire is one of the latest branches of poetry cultivated, because it presupposes not merely much natural wit, but also acute observation, aucl much variety of life and manners to call this wit into exercise. In fact, it is ouly in an advanced state of society, where folly and vice force themselves on the public eye, that a taste can exist for this species of production. As the object of satire is always castigation, it is distinguished from mere wit, which may occupy itself simply with the In— dicrousness of particular relations. The form of satire is very varied. It may be in the shape of epistles, tales, dialogues, dramas (as with Aristophanes), songs, epics, fables, &c. The most common form of satire, however, is that of a simply didactic composition. The ancients wrote their satires in iambic and dactylic verse. The moderns generally use the iambus, sometimes the Alexandrine (q. v.), sometimes the iambic verse of five feet, the latter sometimes with, sometimes without rhyme. The proper didactic satire originated, as we have said, with the Romans; and its inventor was Lucilius: Horace, Juvenal and Persius developed it. Vulpius, Casaubon and Kdnig have written on the Roman satire. Of the modern satirists, we may mention, among the Italians, Ariosto, Alainanni, Salvator Rosa, Menzini, Dotti, Gaspuro Go/.zi, Alfieri, &c.; among the Spaniards, Cervantes, Quevedo and Saavedra; among the French, Regnier, Boilcau, and Voltaire, &c.; among the Germans, Seb. Brand, Ulr. Hutten, Fischart, Haller, Rabener, Lichtcnberg, Falk, Wielnnd, &.c.; among the English, Donne, Rochester, Drydeu, Butler, Pope, Swift, Young, Churchill, Johnson, Peter Pindar (Wolcot), Giftord, Mathias; among the Poles, Krasiczky. The Greeks had not the proper satire. The poem of Archilochus, and that of Simonides, were more properly lampoons; and the silli had probably a didactic form, but were of the nature of parody. Entirely different from the satire was the drama satyricon of the Greeks, invented by Pratinas—a mixture of tragic, at least heroic action with comic. These dramas served as interludes and after-pieces, and had a low comic character. We possess only 6ue— the Cyclops of Euripides.—See Eichstiidt, De Dramate Gracorum comico-satyrico, &c, and Herrmann and Pinzger on the same subject.
Satraps, in the Persian empire; tho governors of the provinces which were called satrapies. The term satrap is sometimes used to signify a petty despot
Saturation. A fluid, which holds in
solution as much of any substance as it can dissolve, is said to be saturated with it. But saturation with one substaxx-does not deprive tho fluid of its po»v: of acting on, and dissolving some other bodies; and in many cases it increase* this power. The word saturation is al-* employed in another sense. The union of two principles produces a body, tinproperties of which differ from thot>c- of its component parts: when the principles are in such proportion that neither predominates, they are said to lie saturated with each other; but if otherwise, the most predominant principle is said to l»subsaturatc;!, mid the other supersaturate.:.
Saturday [Saturni dies, Saturn's Hay so called from the planet Saturn; the seventh day of the week ; the Sabbath of the Jews. It is called by the Italian-. Sabbato; by the French, Samedi; and by the Germans, Sonnabend (Sunday eve. or in High German, Samstiu;, a corruption of Sabbaihstafr (Sabbath day); and in Low German, Sidcrdair, of the same ori gin as the English. (See Heck.)
Saturn; originally an old Italian divinity, who was afterwards confounded with the Kronos (Kiwo,-) of die Greeks. Uranus and Ga?a (Terra) were the parents of the six Titans. The youngest of these Titans was Kronos (Time), who, when Uranus imprisoned his children, and thereby brought upon himself the anger of their mother, was instigated 1»> her to vengeance, armed himself-with .-. sharp knife, or sickle, and, as Hesiod says, cut off the privities of his father, whereupon Urunus was deprived of hi> sovereignty. The Titans set free their imprisoned brothers, and the government fell into the hands of Kronos. He then married Rhea, who bore him several sons and daughters. But, as he well knew that he should be dethrone*! b\ one of his sons, he devoured the children that were born to him. Jupiter alone, whom Rhea concealed in Crete, where Terra promised to educate him, was preserved. Rhea presented Kronos with a stone, in swaddling clothes, which h«swallowed instead of the new born infant. By means of an emetic, administered to him by Terra and Metis, he threw up the stone, as well as oil the children whom he had swallowed ; by the assistance of whom, Jupiter made" war upon him and the Titans, and dethroucJ him, after a contest of ten years. Kronos was, together with tho Titans, confined in the dungeons of Tartarus. whence, however, according to the later poets, they were released: according lo Pindar, Jupiter reeognised Kronos as the lord of the Fortunate Island in the western ocean. The unknown llesperia was considered as the land where r ran us, and the succeeding Titans, reigned. But when this land became more accurately known, Kronos, anil the golden age, were transferred to Italy. Kronos now becoming blended with Saturn, Saturn was represented as dethroned, cast out from his kingdom, and flying before his son; and as having selected a place of refuge in Italy, and concealed himself in Latium (from latere). There the aged king Janus shared with him his throne, and Saturn built upon the Saturnian mount (afterwards the Capitoline hill) the city of Saturuia. His temple stood in the Human forum, and in it were preserved the public treasures of the city. The Saturnian period was the golden age, which poets vied with eacli utlier in celebrating. At that time, the years rolled tranquilly away, and every moment offered an abundance of untroubled enjoyment. Saturn has also been toade the father of Chiron, the Centaur. Saturn. The thickness of the ring of the planet Saturn has lately been estimated by the Gentian astronomer Bessel at 29^ German miles (15 to a degree), lSS^j English geog. miles. (See Planets.) Saturnalia ; a feast among the Rom&na, in commemoration of the happy period under the reign of Saturn, when freedom aud equality prevailed, when truth, confidence and love, united all, and violence and oppression were unknown. It continued, at first, one day; iheu three; afterwards five; mid finally, under the Caesars, seven days, viz. from the 17th to the 23d of Deceiulier. The festival l>egan as soon as the woollen bands which had bound the feet of Saturn's statue through the year were removed. At the commencement of uiis festival, a great number of wax lapere were lighted in the temple of Saturn, as a sign that no more human victims were to l>e sacrificed. The slaves were freed from restraint during this season, wore caps as badges of freedom, and went about dressed in tunics, adorned with purple, and in white togas. MasMs and slaves changed places; and while the servants sat and banqueted at the tallies, thev were waited on by their masters and "their guests, who, if they did not do this, were obliged to submit to all sorts of ridiculous punishments. Jests and freedom every where prevailed ; and
all ceased from their various occupations. In the last days of the festival, which were added- in later times, presi nts were sent from one to another, particularly little injages of the gods, sigWa (seals),' &c.; whence these days were sometimes called Sigillaria, and jiersous were greeted with the acclamations of "lo Saturnalia! bona Saturnalia!" Some prisoners were also set free, who dedicated their chains to Saturn.
Satyrs. The Greek mythology includes, under the name of Satyrs (aareon, Tirupoi), as well as under those of Sileni, Fauns, and Pans, a species of beings who approach, more or less, to the nature of brutes, and particularly to the form of the goat. They were, originally, Peloponnesian wood-gods. The developement of the idea of these beings is due to the Attic drama, and the drama satyricon in particular. The early Greeks pictured them as long-eared, bald-headed, and as having small protuberances behind their ears. Later artists made them like Pan, giving them horns and goats' feet. (See Voss's Mythological Lelters, 2d vol. page 30.) In the representation of them by some artists, the brute characteristics, such as goats' feet, a tail, pointed ears and horns, predominate. Others mainly preserve the human form, and resemble the brutes only by their goats' ears and tails, and sometimes by the introduction of little horns, in the first stages of their growth. To this we must add, however, the general cast of the face, the cheek-bones, the beard, and the flesh hanging down upon the neck from the ears. At other times, the brute characteristics are softened into a mere clownish, rude and awkward human form. The common difference made between the Fauns and Satyrs is, that the former are represented with pointed ears and short tails; the latter, on the contrary, appear with goats' feet. The Sileni are considered to be the old Fauns. This is, however, erroneous. The Satyrs of the Greeks were, in fact, equivalent to the Fauns of the Romans. The whole race of Satyrs, Sileni, Fauns, and Pans, were generally regarded, among the ancients, as divinities of the woods and rural places, and grew up from different notions. The Satyrs and Sileni were the attendants of Bacchus, the signification of which cannot be determined, as the origin of these representations was early lost. Perhaps the idea of them arose from men dressed in the skins of leasts; or perhaps they were only symbolical, and