are twenty-five institutions of this kind, with 10,404 depositors, and an amount invested of £340,721. In Ireland, there are eightythree, returns from sixty-two of which give 34,038 depositors, and an amount invested of £945,991. (See Pratt's History »f Saringt Banks.) The first savings bank in America was opened in Philadelphia, in November, 1816. In Boston, an institution was incorporated in December of the same year; but its action did not begin until February following. Since that time, these societies have become quite numerous, and, with hardly an exception, have been exceedingly prosperous. That of New York has the largest funds: next in magnitude is the institution at Boston; then those of Philadelphia, Baltimore, Salem, New Bedford. Perhaps the number may amount to forty or fifty; for most of the northern maritime cities, and the larger manufacturing towns, afford strong encouragement to such projects. In Boston, the number of depositors exceeds ten thousand, and the amount of funds cannot he short of a million aud a half of dollars.

Savo.-varola, Gerouimo, an Italian monk, celebrated for his eloquence, and his melancholy fate, was born at Ferrara, September 21, 1452, and was designed for the medical profession. Religious enthusiasm led him, at the age of fourteen, to leave his father's house secretly, and enter the order of Dominicans. Several years later, he began to preach at Florence, but with so little success that he determined to abandon the pulpit; and, retiring to Bologna, he devoted himself to metaphysical and physical studies. The reputation of his alente and learning induced Lorenzo do' Medici to invite him to return to Florence. Here Savonarola began to preach again; and his discourses attracted such crowds that the church could not contain them. His extraordinary sanctity and his powerfu 1 eloquence gained him great influence over the minds of the Florentines, and he was poiboldened to assume a prophetic tone, and to urge with vehemence, and in public, the necessity of a reform in the church. The multitude looked upon him as divinely inspired, while some ridiculed him as a tanatic, and others denounced him as an impostor. He soon broke ofl" nil connexion with his patron Lorenzo, whose character he assailed, with prophecies of his approaching fail. He refused to make the •-imofuary visit to that chief, which it was bis duty' to do as prior of St. Mark's, and, "hen Lorenzo went himself to St. Mark's, refused to see him. Although Lorenzo oV Medici was repeatedly urged to adopt

VOL. xi. 19

severe measures against him, he refused, either from lenity, or from his respect for the character of the preacher. When Lorenzo lay on his death-bed (1492), Savonarola obtained admission to him, and spoke to the dying man with the dignity of his office. After the death of Lorenzo, and the expulsion of his son Pietro, Savonarola took the most active part in the political affairs of Florence. He put himself at the head of those who demanded a more democratical form of government, asserted that God had commissioned him to declare that the legislative power must be extended to the citizens, that he himself had been the ambassador of the Florentines to heaven, and that Christ had consented to be dieir king. The newly elected magistrates accordingly laid down their offices, and the legislative functions were intrusted to a council of the citizens, which chose a committee from their own number for the dis«harge of the duty. Dissensions, however, distracted the new republic; the aristocratical and democratical parties persecuted each other with great fury, the former consisting of the friends of the old order of things, and the latter of die devout admirers of the monk. But the zeal of Savonarola was not content with revolutionizing Florence; he meditated the reform of the Roman court, and of the irregularities of the clergy. The pontificate of Alexander VI could not fail to supply causes of complaint on both heads. He accordingly wrote, as his eulogists assure us, to the Christian princes, declaringthat the church was going to ruin, and that it was their duty to convoke a general council, before which he wasreadyto prove that the church was without a head, and that the reigning pope was not a true bishop, had never been worthy of the title, nor even of the name of a Christian. Alexander excommunicated him, aud the bull of excommunication was read in the cathedral at Florence; but Savonarola despised the thunders of the Vatican, and continued to preach. His influence was still further increased by the failure of an attempt of Pietro de' Medici to restore his family authority. But another party had, meanwhile, arisen in opposition to him. His innovations in St. Mark's and other monasteries had excited the enmity of the monks, especially of the Franciscans of the strict observance, who denounced him from the pulpit as an excommunicated heretic. Fra Domenico da Rescia, a monk of his convent, offered, ir. the heat of his fanatical zeal, to prove the truth of his master's iliHliiimi, by passing through fire, if one of his opponents would undergo the nme ordeal m defence of their opinions. The challenge was accepted by a Franciscan monk, and Savonarola, with his champion, appeared at the head of a large procession, chanting the Psalm Ixviii, " Let God arise, and let his enemies be scattered." The Franciscan also presented himself, the fire was kindled, ami Domenico was ready to enter the flames, bearing the host in his hands. But the crowd exclaimed against this sacrilege, as they termed it; and, as Domenico persisted in his determination, be thus happily escaped the ordeal for which he had offered himself. But this event was fetal to Savonarola. The people loaded him with insults, and lie was finally thrown into prison. A spiritual court, under the direction of two papal commissioners, was held for his trial. His firmness and eloquence at first threw his judges into confusion, but, being examined on the rack, he confessed that he had felsely arrogated supernatural powers. He was condemned, with some of his adherent, to lie first strangled, and then burnt, and the sentence was executed May 23, 1498, in presence of a large multitude, some of whom considered him as a martyr and a saint. This extraordinary man left, besides letters, a Treatise against Astrology, and several philosophical and ascctical works (Opera, Lyons, 1633—40, 6 vols.). His sermons (Prediche, Florence, 1490), though wanting in the characteristics of finished discourses, contain powerful and stirring passages. (See Reformation.) Savoy {Savoia, Italian; Savoie,French); a duchy belonging to the Sardinian monarchy (see Sardinia), and bordering on Franco, Switzerland, and Piedmont, with a superficial extent of 3750 square miles, and a population of 501,165. The greatest part of the duchy consists of lofty mountains and forests, alternating with deep and narrow valleys. The Cottian and Pennine Alps belong in port to Savoy, and the Gray Alps separate it from Piedmont. (See JHps.) Mont Blanc (q. v.), the loftiest summit in Europe, is in Suvoy. The Iseran, the Little St. Bernard, and mount Cenis, over wliich an artificial road leads from Savoy to Piedmont, are also in this duchy. (See Jtlps, Roads over.) Many of the summits are covered with |>erpetual snow and ice. Savoy is watered by the Klione, the Isere, the Arve, which flows through the valeof Chamouni (q. v.), and the Arc. The lake of (Jeneva is on the borders. The smaller lakes are those of Bourget and Annecy. Near the lake

of Bourget is an intermittent spring, called the Miraculous Fountain, which ceases to flow during periods varying from twenty minutes to towards three hours. The enmate is very changeable, and in the course of a day the severest cold is often succeeded by a great heat. The sod is mostly rocky, and far from fertile ; but where it a susceptible of being brought into cutliration, it yields corn, though insufficient to supply the inhabitants, potatoes, hemp, flax, wine, chestnuts, and orchard fruits. The forests are extensive, and the pasture* good; grazing is therefore much attended to.—Gome, the marmot, chamois, tad ibex, are found in the mountains. Among the mineral productions are silver, copper, lead, iron, coal, and salt. The Savoyards speak a mixture of French and Italian. They are honest, faithful, frugal, and industrious, but poor. They are often compelled to quit their ungrateful soil ibrasubsistence (as porters, pedlars, etc.), but generally return with their earnings to their country. Chamberry, the capital, with 11,991 inhabitants, is the only considerable town. Savoy was anciently inhabit* it by the Allobroges. It was under the Roman dominion till 400, belonged to Burgundy till 530, to France till §79, to Aria till 1000, when it had its own counts, and. in 1416, was erected into a duchy. In 1792, it was conquered by the r rench, and incorporated with France, as the department of Mont Blanc. It was partly ceded to Sardinia by the first peace of Paris (1814), and by the second (1815),the remainder was given up to the Sardinian monarchy.—See Cribrario's JYotizit topn i Principi di Savoia (Turin, 18251

Saw-fish (pristis antiquorum); a fish of the family of sharks, remarkable for having the head prolonged in the form of a long, flat plate, having strong osseous spines implanted like teeth on each margiu, the whole bearing some resemblance to a saw. This forms a powerful weapon, with which it attacks whales and oilier cetaceous animals, towards whom this fish seems to bear an inveterate hostility. The habits of the saw-fish are otherwise, as well as their organization, the same as those of the sharks. It grows to the length of twelve or fifteen feet. The flesh « hard, coriaceous, and ill-tasted. Several species of saw-fish are now known. They inhabit all seas, from the polar ice to toe equatorial regions.

Saw-gin. (See Cotton.)

Saxe, Maurice, count de, a celebrated military officer, was the natural son of Augustus, king of Poland, by the

ess of Konigsmark. He was bom at Dresden in 1696, and even in childhood displayed some presages of his warlike genius. At the age of twelve, he joined the allied army under the duke of Marlborough and the prince Eugene, and was present at the sieges of Lisle and Tournay, and at the battle of Malplaquet. His father then gave him a regiment of cavalry, with which be served in Sweden, and was at the taking of Stralsund. His mother procured his marriage with a German lady of rank, when he was but fifteen ; but the inconstancy of his temper occasioned a divorce after a few years. He was with prince Eugene, in Hungary, in the war with the Turks; but, after the treaties of Utrecht and Passarowitz, he withdrew to France, and was permanently attached to the service of that country by a brevet of maresckal-de-camp, given hiin in 1720, by the regent duke of Orleans. He applied himself to study at Paris, and made himself intimately acquainted with professional tactics. In 1726, he was a candidate for the duchy of Coin-land ; and he formed various other schemes of ambition at different periods. On the death of his father, he declined the command of the Saxon army, offered him by his brother Augustus HI, and joined the French on the Rhine, under the duke of Berwick. He distinguished himself at Dettingen and Philipsburg, and, in 1744, was rewarded with the staff of a marshal of France. He was employed in the war that followed the death of the emperor Charles VI, and, in 1745,gained the tamousbattle of Fontenoy, which was followed by the capture of Brussels, and many other places in Flanders. In 1747, he was victorious at Lafeldt, and, in the following year, took Maestricht, soon after which the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was concluded. Marshal Sue survived that event a little more than two years, dying November 30,1750. He wrote a treatise entitled Mes Rtveries, on the art of war (2 vols., quarto). General Grimoard, in 1794, published Lettre.i tt Mimoires choisis parmi Us Papiers originaux ilu M. de Saxe, depuis 1733 jusqwen 1750 (5 vols., 8vo.).

Saxe-coborg, Saxe-gotha, SaxeMeihingen, Saxe-yveimar, Saxe-alTenburg, Saxe-hilburghacsen. (See the articles Coburg, flotha, Meiningen, Weimar, AUenburg, HUburghausen, and Saxony.)

Saxifrage. The species of saxifraga are small herbaceous plants, with leaves entire or divided, ordinari ly crowded about the base of the stem; the small, delicate

flowers are usually disposed in a raceme or panicle. These plants are chiefly eonfined to cold climates and mountainous situations: many of them contribute largely to ornament the cold and desolate regions near the verge of perpetual snow, or within the arctic circle. The species of saxi/raga are much more common in Europe than in the U. States. More than a hundred and fifty are known, of which we have two that are common in many parts of the Union; two others, that are peculiar to the summits of some of the Alleghanies; and a third, which has been lately discovered on the White mountains of New Hampshire; the last, however, is identical with one from the north of Europe. Many of the European species have been discovered in the northern parts of Canada, and on the North-west coast; and there are some peculiar to these parts of our continent. The name is supposed to be derived from growing in the clefts of rocks. Many are of easy cultivation, and have long been favorites in the gardens; but the majority are delicate, and are liable to injury from mild and humid weather during the winter months.

Saxo Grammaticus ; a learned historian, who flourished in the twelfth century. He is supposed to have been a native of Denmark, of which kingdom, and its dependencies, he compiled an elaborate history, under the auspices of Absalom, bishop of Roschild. This work, which is said to have occupied him twenty years in its composition, has gone through several editions, especially those of Paris, 1514, Basle, 1534, and Sora in Denmark, 1644, folio: of these the latter is by far the most perfect. Saxo was a priest in the cathedral of Roschild, and is said to have been deputed on a mission to Paris, in 1161, for the purpose of inducing some of the monks of that capital to visit his native country, and assist in reforming the discipline of the religious orders there. He died in 1208.

Saxons, Land Of The. (See Transylvania.)

Saxons, Saxont. Although the Saxons are first mentioned by Ptolemy, yet it cannot be doubted that they belong to the great northern German races, whose inroads into the Roman territories rendered the name of Cimbrians and Teutones so formidable. In the third century of the Christian era, they were a numerous, warlike and piratical people, whose devastations on the British and Belgian coasts gave rise to the appointment of a particular officer [comes lUtoris Saxonici) to defend these regions. In the middle of the fifth century, two considerable hordes of Saxons, under Hengist and Horsa, laid the foundations of the Saxon kingdoms tn Britain. (See Great Britain, and jine;loSaxons.) Those who remained in Germany, the Wcstphalians, Eastphalians and Engrians, occupied agreat extent of country, of vague and varying limits, which bore die general name of Saxony (Saehsen). Charlemagne waged a thirty years' war against the Saxons, and Wittekind, their national hero, with many of his countrymen, submitted to his arms, and embraced Christianity. (See Germany, History of.) In 845, mention is made of a duke of .iaxony ; and in the new kingdom of Germany, the Saxons were the most powerful of the six German nations, viz. the Eastern Franks, Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians, Suabians and Bavarians. In 919, Henry, duke of Saxony, was elected German king (see Henry /), and transmitted this dignity to his son, grandson and great-grandson.—(See Otho I, and Olho II.) The duchy afterwards passed (1125) to the Bavarian branch of die Guelf family, of which Henry the Lion (q. v.), celebrated for his contest with the emperor, was a member (1140—1195). After several changes, which it is unnecessary to enumerate here, Frederic die Warrior, margrave of Meissen and landgrave of Thuringia, became (1424) duke and elector of Saxony. (See Elector.) The union of these three countries rendered the Saxon elector one of the most powerful princes in Germany. After the death of Frederic the Good, son of Frederic the Warrior, Ernest and Albert, sons of die former, divided the family possessions between them (1485), and founded the Ernestine and Albertine Saxon lines, which still exist. The latter received Meissen, or Misnia, and now constitutes the royal Saxon house. (See Saxony, Kingdom of.) The former retained the electoral dignity and Thuringia. Ernest was succeeded in the electorate by his sons Frederic the Wise (148ti-1525)and John (1525-1532). The former is celebrated as the protector of Luther, the promoter of the reformation and the founder of the university of Wittenberg. But for his prudence, limitless, and |>crsonal influence with Maximilian and Charles, Luther would probably have met the fate of Huss. (See Reformation.) By the Wittenberg capitulation (May 19, 1547), the electoral dignity was transferred to the Albertine line, in the person of Maurice. (See the following article, and Maurice.) The Ernest

ine house is now divided into the two branches of Weimar and Golha, the laiter of which consists of the three lilies of Meiningen, Altenburg und Coburg. (See the separate articles.) Towards the clo*of die fifteenth century, Germany was divided into circles; and the large tract of country, known vaguely by the name of Saxony, was formed into the three circles of Upper Saxony, Lower Saxony and Westphalia, (q. v.) Upper Saxony was bounded by Poland, Silesia and Lusatia on the east, and by Franconia and Bohemia on the south. It comprised the electorates of Saxony anil Brandenburg, the duchy of Pomeraiiia, and a number of small principalities. Lower Saxony had Westphalia and the Rhine to the we«. and Sleswick with the Baltic to the north, and cominised the electorate of Hanover. the duchies of Mecklenburg, Brunswick and Holstein, the free cities of Hamburg. Bremen and Liibeck, with several smaller states. By the dissolution of the empire in 1800, the distinction of circle-* wan abolished., Kimgoom Of, lying in the north-east part of Germany, is bounded on the south by Bohemia, on the east and north by Prussia (the duchy of Saxony). and on the west by the Saxon principalities and Bavaria. It is divided into five circles—Meissen, Leipsic, Erzgebirge. Neustadt and Upper Lusatia—with a superficial extent of 5800 square miles, and a population (1828) of 1,414,528. The capital, Dresden, has 56,000 inhabitants, Leipsic 40,700. Chemnitz (10,000), Frevberg (12,000) and Bautzen (11,000) are the only other places with a population exceeding 10,000 inhabitants. The thee of the country is, to a great degree, mountainous. The Erzgebirge, which form? the boundary between Saxony and Bohemia, is more abrupt on the Bohemian than on the Saxon side (see Er^rebirgcl and most of the hills are green even to dieir summits. The climate is as mild a» that of any part of Europe in the same latitude. The soil is of moderate fertility. The mountainous districts in the south contain extensive forests, which are kept up with rare, as the chief supply of fuel for the mines, coal and turf lieiug much used for domestic fuel. In these districts, the valleys only are well cultivated; but in the level districts of the north, tillocr is general. The products are wheat, barley, oats, and other grain, some tobacco and hops, and, in a few favorable situations, grapes. The Elbe is the only navignlile river.f The odier rivers are the two Muldas, the two Elsters, the Queiss, &c. Saxony ia rich in minerals; silver, cobalt, lead, iron, copper, zinc, arsenic and quickslrer are among the metallic productions; other minerals are topaz, chrysolites, amethysts, agates, cornelians, garnet, cinnabar, porcelain-clay, &c. The chief mining operations are carried on in the Eragebirge, and are under excellent management. (See Freyberg, and Mine.) The value of the raw material produced is about 1,100,000 dollars, which, by the (irocesses of industry, acquires a value of 3,000,000 dollars; 10,000 men are employed in mining, and 50,000 in the sub3ent processes. Of the domestic ani, the chief attention has been bestowed on the sheep, which constitute one of the chief sources of national wealth in Saxony. The Merino breed was introduced into the country in 1765, and the native breed has been improved to a wonderful degree. The number of sheep in the kingdom is estimated at two millions, yielding annually upwards of 4,500,000 pounds of wool. Hogs are numerous, but not sufficient for domestic consumption. The inhabitants are, with the exception of 2000 Jews and 34,000 Wends, of German origin, and are distinguished for intelligence, industry and honesty. The Linguage is intermediate between High and Low German (see German LanF»age); that of the inhabitants of Dresden is the best, though it is an error to suppose that the purest German is spoken there. Saxony was the cradle of the reformation, (q. v.) The Lutherans are 1348,100; Roman Catholics, 48,000; Oreck Catholics, 100; Cnlvinists, 300; Hermhutters, 1600. The royal house has been Catholic since 1697. The nobility enjoys exemptions from some taxes, tolls, &c, and some feudal rights and privileges. The peasants are some of them subject to feudal services, and in some instances are serfs. The Saxon peasant ia loaded with taxes, and is not allowed to engage in the trades, which are carried oo by the citizens or the inhabitants of the towns, who are not nobles. Literary men, preachers, professors and teachers like*ne have particular privileges. In no wintry of Europe is education more attended to than in Saxony, and in no country, of equal extent, is the number of [rioting and book establishments so great The university of Leipsic (q. v.) is the principal institution for education. There -"■ common schools in all the parishes, and the lower classes are, very generally, ought to read and write; in some of- the

larger towns, there are also free schools for the poor. In addition to these, there are two princely schools (Fiirslenschvlen), founded from the revenues of suppressed convents, for the higher branches of education, fifteen gymnasia, two teachers' seminaries, one mining academy, one forest academy, and three military schools. There are also numerous public libraries, among which are that of the university of Leipsic, and the roval library at Dresden, with 220,000 printed books and 2700 manuscripts. The manufactures and trade are of greater extent than iu most inland countries. The weaving of linen is an employment of old date, and is carried on in almost every village: woollens are also manufactured in a number of towns; but both of these branches of industry have somewhat declined. Cotton spinning and weaving increased, to a great extent, towards the close of the last century; but the conveyance of the raw material is tedious and expensive. The manufactures connected with the mines are extensive. There are cannon founderies ntFreyberg and Dresden; cobalt is made into smalt; blue-dye, verdigris and green-dye are among the articles of manufacturing industry. The exports consist of wool and minerals, in a raw state, and of linen, yarn, woollens and lace. The iniports are silk, flax, cotton, coffee, sugar, wine, and sometimes com. The revenue, which is derived partly from taxes, and partly from the regalia and royal domains, amounts to 4,500,000 dollars"; the debt is 12,800,000. The peace establishment of the army consists of 13,300 men; the contingent to the German confederacy of 12,000. The government of Saxony is a monarchy, limited by the privileges of the estates. The margraviate of Upper Lusatiu has separate estates. Those of the hereditary lands consist of the prelates and higher nobility, the gentry and the burgesses. The estates have the power of laying taxes and advising on subjects of public importance. The higher offices of administration are intrusted to a privy cabinet, with three cabinet ministers, for foreign affairs, for the home department, and for war; the privy council, the board of finance, the military board, the department of internal administration (Landesregierung), the court of appeal for judicial questions, the board of taxes, and the ecclesiastical council and supreme consistory. In June, 1831, a new constitution was promised. The king of Saxony has the fourth vote in the German diet, and four votes in the plenum. The present

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