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valuable editions or Polybius, Athenaeus, Arrian, Epictetus, &c, and especially of Herodotus (6 vols., 1816). His academical writings were published in 1807 (2 vols.), and in 1824 appeared his Lexicon Herodoteum (2 vols.). He died in 1830.
Schweitz, or Schwttz; a canton of Switzerland, bounded N. W. and N. by Zug and Zurich, E. by Glarus, S. by l.'ri. and W. by Underwalden and Lucerne; population, 36,040, nearly all Germans, and Catholics; square miles, 336. It is surrounded by Alpine mountains, between which are a few valleys, tolerably fertile. The chief mountains are Mvtten, 6300 feet high; Righi, 6000; and Pragel, 5500. The soil is better adapted to pasturage than tillage, and the wealth of the inhabitants consists in cattle. It was here that, in the beginning of the 14th century, the standard of Swiss liberty was first erected; and this petty canton had the honor of giving its name to the confederation. (See Switzerland.) The capital of the canton, of the same name, two miles from lake Lowerz, is situated in a fertile valley, between the mountains of Mytten and Kiglii; population, 5000.
Schwewn. (See Meeklenburg-Sckwetin.)
SciiwKRiN, Kurt Christopher, count, Prussian field-marshal, was bom in 1684, in Swedish Pomerania, and, after having served in the Dutch armies, entered the Prussian service in 1720, with the rank of major-general. Frederic II, who ascended the throne in 1740, esteemed him very highly, created him field-marshal, and count, and gave him the command of his forces in the Austrian succession war (1741). I n 1756, he was again placed in command of one of the Prussian armies, and fell at the head of his troops, before Prague, in 1757. (See Seven Years' Ifar; consult also Frederic's Hisloire de man Temps.)
Scii.ly Islands; a group of islands, situated at the western extremity of the English channel, about thirty miles westward of the Land's End, and belonging to the county of Cornwall. The islands are numerous; but six only of them are inhabited. The views from them arc picturesque. The inhabitants ore chiefly engaged in agriculture, in fishing, and in the manufacture of kelp. The crops principally raised ore borlev, )>case and oats, with a small proportion of wheat. The number of • inhabitants in all the islands is about 2000, of which St. Mary's, the largest, and best, cultivated of the whole group, contains 1270.
Scio (Chios, called by the Turin Saki-Adassi), one of the largest and richest islands of the Grecian archipelago, contains 392 square miles. It is separated from the continent of Asia on the ea^t by a narrow strait (Stretto di Capo bianro). and has a healthy climate. But little attention is paid to raising groin or keeping cattle, but it produces abundantly silk, cotton, turpentine, marble, fruits, and particularly wine (Chian wine was celebrated even in antiquity), oranges, lemons and mastic (to the amount of eighty tons a year, valued at 800,000 piasters). Thr beauty of the females is celebrated. <>n this island, remains of ancient art am still to be seen; among others, die school of Homer, the fountains of Helen, tlie ruins of Delphinium, Cordomissa, and a temple of Neptune. The chief city, of the same name, on the eastern coast of the island, has a harbor, spacious, but very difficult of access, and about 20,000 inhabitants. The population of the whole bland was estimated, before the Greek revolution, at upwards of 120,000; mostly Greeks. When Greece revolted, in 1821, the Sciots attempted to drive away the Turkish garrison. The Turks threw themselves into the citadel, and continued the contest with the inhabitants till 1822, when a Turkish fleet landed, under the command of the capudon pacha, and a massacre began, in which, after many thousands had fallen in battle, from April 14 to 20, 40,000 persons, without distinction of age or sex, were put to the sword, and some of them cruelly tortured. The fugitives escaped to the mountain fastnesses or to the opposite continent, or, in Greek vessels, to the other islands. At length the Greek fleet attacked the Turks, and destroyed several of their vessels with fire-ships. The capudan pacha was obliged to retreat, half consumed, from his ship lying in flames, and to land upon the shore, where he hod, a short time before, murdered the innocent without compunction, and where he now perished in the greatest tortures. But the Greeks were not strong enough to occupy the island, and the vengeance of the Turks now assailed the mastic villages, the people of which had remained quiet during the revolution. June 19, 1829, these villages were burnt, and 30,000 Christians murdered or sold into slavery. In March, 1823, the population of the island was only 16,000. Scio from that time has remained under the dominion of the Turks. Fabvior's attempt to reconquer Scio, in 1827, failed. A part of the unhappy Sciots fled to the ships of the French admiral De Rigny.—Before the devastation of Scio, there was a school in its chief city, and it was the see of a Greek and Roman bishop. It has been lately reported that the sultan had ordered the restoration of the property and estates of the Sciots without reservation. In 1770, a naval engagement took place between the Russians and Turks, between this island and Tschesme, which lies on the opposite coast of Natolia; a part of the Turkish fleet was burned by the Russians.
Scioto; a river of Ohio, the second in size of those which have their whole courses in this state. Its general course is south; its length about 170 miles; and it flows into the Ohio river by a mouth 150 yards wide, between Portsmouth and Alexandria. It is navigable for boats about 130 miles, and is connected with the Sandusky by a portage four miles long. The country watered by this river is known by the name of the Scioto country, and is remarkably fertile. On the eastern bank, about five miles above Columbus, is an almost inexhaustible quarry of marble, which receives a good polish, and is of a beautiful gray color.
Scipio Africanos (the elder), Publius Cornelius. The Cornelian family was rich in great men, among whom the conqueror of the formidable Hannibal is particularly distinguished. His father, who bore the same name, fought without success, but not without honor, against the Carthaginians, in the beginning of the second Punic war. In the bloody engagement on the river Ticinus, in Upper Italy, the young Scipio, hardly sixteen years old, took an active part, and is said to have saved the life of his wounded lather. From the still more fatal battle of Canute (B. C. 216), he escaped with the remains of the conquered army. The wreck of the cavalry, having assembled at Canubium, chose him for their commander, and he led them back to Rome. Here his remarkable firmness induced a company of young men of distinction, who had resolved to flee from Italy in despair, to remain and defend their country. With his drawn sword he stepped boldly among them, and threatened to kail whoever should refuse to take the oath that he proposed. Astounded by his boldness, they did as he desired, and aided to save Rome. Such spirit met with pubBe honor. At the age of twenty, he was made curule ediie, and, a few years after, was appointed proconsul in Spain. Here
he overcame the enemy, not merely by his courage and conduct, but also by his magnanimity and kindness. His first successful enterprise of importance was the conquest of New Carthage. With great boldness, he attacked the city on the side washed by the sea, which was almost defenceless, and easiest to be surmounted, with 500 of the most courageous soldiers, who waded through the low water at ebb tide, took one of the gates by storm, and, while the troops who were to assail the city on the land side were storming other parts, the enemy were so terrified that they hastened into the castle, and quickly surrendered this hold also. The Africans who were taken he sold for slaves; the Spaniards received their liberty. This treatment made a deep impression on the latter, and they separated from the Carthaginians. He gained still more esteem among the warlike Celtiberians, by restoringthe beautiful bride of the young prince Allucius, who was brought to him as a prisoner, and who had made a deep impression on his heart, as soon as he heard of her being betrothed to the prince. The ransom, which her overjoyed parents urged upon the conqueror, he bestowed upon the youthful pair. Allucius, as a token of his gratitude, immediately entered the Roman service with a body of chosen troops, and rendered important service. The next year, Scipio totally defeated Asdrubol, Hannibal's brother, notwithstanding his advantageous position, and compelled him to retreat to the Pyrenees. Thus the Carthaginians lost still more adherents in Spain. A near relative of Masinissa, king of Numidio, who was among the prisoners, he liberated, and conferred on him rich presents. This kindness procured for him the favor of the Numidian monarch, and led to the advantageous alliance which Rome scon after concluded with this powerful prince. The title of king, which the Spaniards offered to the victorious general, he steadfastly refused. He now labored to reduce the disaffected tribes in the interior of Spain. In the mean while, the Carthaginians collected a fresh army, which was led by Mago and Hanno. Scipio attacked them, and, after a long and bloody engagement, destroyed the greater part of them. The remainder, abandoned by their commanders, were allowed to retire undisturbed, in consequence of the intercession of Masinissa. Leaving his army in Spain, be now went to Africa, to induce Syphax, king of Masseesylia, to become the ally of Rome; in which he succeeded. After his return, he chastised the cities which had revolted during his absence. A short time after, he was attacked by a disease, which nearly cost him his hie, and induced several Spanish tribes to revolt again from the Romans; even two legions in his own army mutinied. But Scipio recovered, and by his energy and prudence quelled the disturbances. He also obtained possession, by negotiation, of the valuable city of Gades.—Thus the Carthaginians were wholly driven from Spain, and the greatest part of that country was subjected to Rome. The general entered Rome in triumph, amid the loudest acclamations of the people. Scarcely had he arrived, before he petitioned the senate for permission to conduct an army to Africa, that he might attack the enemy in their own country. In vain did Fabius Maxiuius exert his influence and eloquence to frustrate the design. Scipio was empowered to go to Sicily with an army and a fleet, in order, after mature deliberation on the means of effecting a landing on the coast of Africa, to execute the plan which he had formed. He arrived successfully at the island, and despatched his friend Ladius, with a detachment of troops and of the fleet, to the enemy's country. On landing, Ladius found the country almost destitute of soldiers, took and plundered several rich cities, laid waste the fields, and gained over Masinissa to the designs of Scipio. At the approach of the hostile fleet, he returned, laden with booty, to Sicily. Scipio now labored with redoubled activity to equip the troops for his great enterprise; and then hastened to the shores of Africa. His unexpected arrival spread terror among the Carthaginians, who were without an army or a good general But they succeeded in detaching the powerful Syphax from the Roman alliance, and he came with an army of 00,000 men to their aid. Towards winter, the Romans, were forced to retire to a distance from the city by the superiority of the enemy: the negotiations for peace produced no result. The proconsulate of Scipio in Africa, therefore, was prolonged, till the war should be terminated. The following spring, the affairs of the Romans took a more favorable turn. The camp of Syphax was assailed, and his whole army destroyed; Asdrubal suffered a similar fate. The defeat was dreadful, and none escaped but tin- commanders, with a few attendants. Nevertheless, the Carthaginians collected a new army with wonder
ful rapidity; but it was equally unable to withstand the Romans. Masmissa, associated with Ladius, had again defeated Syphax, and taken him prisoner. The beautiful Sophonisbe, the daughter of Asdrubal, by whom Syphax had been gained over to Carthage, Masinism longed to marry. Fearing the effect of ner charms, Scipio commanded her to be brought to the camp as a Roman prisoner. To avert such a disgrace, the king persuaded her to swallow poison. An armistice was now brought about between the Romans and their enemies; but the latter violated it. Hannibal had returned from Italy, to save his country, if possible; but he had now only the wreck of bis once formidable army. His spies, who fell into the hands of the Romans, Scipio ordered in lie led through all parts of the Roman camp, and then suffered them to return. Hannibal wished for an interview with the Roman commander; and not far from Zama, the two greatest generals of their time met (B. C. 202). They approached each other, for the first time, in the presence of their respective armies. For a long time they gazed upon each other in silence; then Hannibal advised a peace, and S|>oke of the fickleness of fortune. Scipio required of the Carthaginians unconditional submission; Hannibal promised to give up all the foreign possessions. This was not satisfactory to the Roman: and the generals separated and prepared for an engagement. The two armies fought with ardor; but their strength was unequal. Scipio had an excellent and welldisciplined infantry, and the numerous and valiant cavalry of Masinissa. Hannibal's troops, on the contrary, were mostly raw soldiers, or mercenaries. These fled at the first onset, and the veterans alone defended themselves with firmness. Their general stood by their side, as usual, to encourage their exertions. The Romans assailed them in vain, till Masinissa and Lselius attacked them in the rear. They now gave way, and nearly all fell victims to their perseverance. Hannibal scarcely succeeded in saving himself. He now advised a peace, which was granted on very hard conditions. Scipio's return through Italy to Rome resembled a triumphal procession; every one was eager to see the conqueror. At the gate of the city he received the congratulations of his fellow-citizens; and then followed the most magnificent triumph which Rome had ever witnessed. The spoils were immense. 120,000 pounds of silver were carried in the procession, to be deposited in the public treasury. The columns which the Romans proposed to erect in honor of Scipio be declined, but received the surname of ■Ifricanus. After this, he discharged, in a praiseworthy manner, the office ot censor; but he lost the favor of the people, because he defended with zeal the pretensions of the senate. Afterwards lie became bis brother's lieutenant, when the war broke out with Antiochus, king of Syria, and went to Greece, and thence to Asia. Here he had the misfortune to see bis only son fall into the hands of the enemy. As Antiochus wished for peace, be sent ambassadors to the Roman commanders, and promised the afflicted father that his son should be restored without a ransom. Scipio declared that he accepted their offer with gratitude, but warned the envoys not to imagine that he could be thus bribed to violate his duty. Nothing but complete submission could purchase peace. Soon after, Scipio was taken sick, and obliged to leave the army. As soon as Antiochus heard of it, he sent back his captive son without any conditions. With tears of joy the father embraced him, and immediately sent his thanks to Antiochus, and advised him not to encounter the Romans; but his advice was neglected. Nevertheless, lie procured the defeated king (B. C. 189) tolerable conditions of peace. After his return from Asia, Scipio retired into private life. Here be experienced with grief the ingratitude of his fellow-citizens. Cato the Censor, the inveterate enemy of dia Scipios, by constant accusations, procured an order" for Scipio to be brought before the public tribunal, to give an account of the money which he had received. He appeared, showed the people his accounts, and then tore them in pieces in their sight. "This is the day, he exclaimed with a firm voice and a calm countenance—" This is the day when Hannibal was beaten and Carthage overcome. Why waste the time in words; the gods expect us in the capitoL Follow me, Romans, and let us offer them our thanks." The people were filled -with shame, followed him directly, and left the accusers in the forum alone. Notwithstanding this, Scipio was summoned before the tribunal a second time by his enemies. He did not appear, but left the ungrateful city and retired to his villa at Linternum. As he was still persecuted, and his rural quiet disturbed, Tiberius Gracchus, the eloquent tribune of the people, at length undertook his defence, and showed the voi» xi. 23
Romans the baseness and injustice of their conduct. The persecutions now ceased; but Scipio soon fell sick, and died in his retirement He told his wife to have these words engraved upon bis monument: "Ungrateful country, thou shalt never possess my bones." He died three years after he had left Rome, in the year of the city 571 (B. C. 183). The same year, Hannibal, the most dangerous enemy of the Romans, died in Bithynia.
Scipio, Publius /Emitianus, surnamed Africanus the younger, son of the famous Paulus ./Emihiig, who conquered the powerful Perseus, king of Macedonia, was adopted by the son of the great Scipio. He began his public career at die age of thirty, when the Roman senate was about to despatch a new army to repress the disturbances in Spain. Exasperated by the constant failure of the wars against the Spanish tribes, the people obstinately refused to serve. At this juncture, Scipio came forward, and by a spirited and powerful harangue, made such an impression on the public mind, that a multitude of Romans of all classes voluntarily enlisted. B. C. 152, he accompanied the consul, Luc. Licinius Lucullus, to Spain, as legionary tribune, and, by his disinterestedness, courage, affability and firmness, gained the love and esteem of the army. He acquired peculiar respect by conquering a gigantic Spaniard, who had long irritated the Romans by his arrogant challenges. By his magnanimity and kindness he obtained more honorable victories over the hearts of the Spaniards. But Lucullus viewed the young hero with a jealous eye, and, in order to remove him from the army, commissioned him to obtain elephants from Masinissa, in Africa. He was entertained by the king with the greatest distinction, fully accomplished the object of his mission, and returned to Spain. A few years after this, he went to Africa a second time, at the commencement of the third Punic war, in the year of Rome 605; B. C. 149. He served under the consul M. Maulius Nepos, and,by his courage and vigilance, rendered important services to the cause of the Romans. When, owing to the negligence of the consul, the Carthaginians, in this campaign, suddenly fell upon the camp, Scipio saved the army from destruction by coming unexpectedly upon the rear of the enemy and forcing them to retire. A short time subsequent to this event, the same imprudent consul attacked Asdrubol in a position unfavorable for the Romans, and was obliged to retreat. Hotly pursued by the enemy, he would hare suffered a great loss, bad not Scipio confronted the pursuers with a body of 300 horse, and kept them in check till the rest of the troops had passed over the river. But a few hundred of the Roman foot-soldiers were still behind. No sooner had Scipio perceived their condition, than he hastened over the river with a detachment of cavalry, took possession of a piece of rising ground, attacked the enemy, and thus enabled the Romans to escape with only a trifling loss. He returned in triumph to the Roman camp, crowned by the grateful soldiers, who owed to him their safety, with a wreath of grass, woven on the place where they were rescued. By this proof of courage and conduct, Scipio gained universal esteem and admiration. Even the severe Calo was loud in his praise, and prophesied at his death, that by him alone could the proud rival of Rome, Carthage, be destroyed. Manlius, his commander, could not forbear to recomrnfaid the young hero, in the most emphatic manner, to the senate. Hence, the next year, contrary to the usual custom, he was unanimously chosen consul, and leader of the forces against the Carthaginians. Accompanied by Leelius, the worthy son of the Lselius renowned in the second Punic war, who was the intimate friend of the elder Scipio, and by Polybius, tho Greek historian, he went a second time into a hostile country. Directly after his arrival, he rescued a large body of Roman soldiers, who were surrounded, and whose destruction appeared certain. Having beaten and driven back the hostile armies, he began to make serious preparations to reduce the city, which was extremely strong, and labored to cut off all the supplies of troops and provisions, both by land and sea. But his design was frustrated by the desperate efforts of the besieged. With incredible activity,the Carthaginians excavated a new harbor, and thus opened a connexion with the troops collected without the city. And, strange as it may seem, a new fleet of fifty ships was built, which violently attacked the fleet of the Romans; and, after a protracted and stubborn contest, the Romans gained no decisive victory. An attempt which they made to storm an important rampart near the city, totally failed, as the enemy, swimming through the intervening water, set fire to the Roman machinery, and repelled the Romans themselves with fire-brands. Some time after, indeed, the consul made himself master of this rampart, and kept possession of it; but he was unable to
take the city that year, and the approach of winter put a stop to military opcrauoiis. The next season, he attacked the hostile army, which was strongly intrenched with a superior force, conquered and destroyed them. He then advanced agains the city, and, after twenty days, the gcuiu< of the general, and the perseverance of the devoted troops effected the reducrj'ti of Carthage (q. v.) B. C. 146. L«eDu»,uie valiant friend of Scipio, first ascended !!;■• walls of the city with his soldiers. Whh unparalleled fury the Carthaginians resisted the Romans, even after they had entenM the city; and much blood was spilt befur the conquerors could fully reduce it. B; the express command of the Roman senate, tills rival of Rome, once so powerful,»TM demolished and burnt. This spectarli affected Scipio to tears. He was honoml with a magnificent triumph at Rome, after the war was terminated, and was surnaiued the younger Africamu. After he lial lived for some time as a private antra he was sent with other ambassador-' Egypt, to king Ptolemy Euergetes, whenhe was much admired for his geimim Roman moderation, and his noble thins for knowledge. When he returned(RC 142) he was elected censor. In this office he frequently urged the degenerate Romans to return to the simplicity and frugality of their fathers; he even punished severely some respectable citizens frr their extravagance. B. C. 134, he eiitrmi on his second consulship, in order to put an end to the war which had long het!: carried on with Numantia (q. v.), a brauly defended city in Spain. On his antral in the enemy's country, his first labor wito reduce the disorderly and enervate.! troops to their former state of discipline. But before he could effect this, the rear was gone, and Numantia still untakrc His term of command was therefore prolonged. Reinforced by troops and elephants, which were brought to him from Numidia by the young Jugurtha, afterwards the dangerous enemy of the Romans, he commenced the siege with pre* energy. For his conquest of this powerful city, a triumph was decreed to Serf*-. and ho received the surname of ,\Wtinus. He suffered, like the elder Atr. canus, in the last years of his life, fiw the ingratitude of his countrymen, an-1 made himself many enemies among the people by opposing the agrarian U». (See the article Jlgrarian Zotrs.l He retired, therefore, with Ltelius, ha constant friend, to on estate near Naples, *r>J lived in tranquillity. But baring returwd