mostly mountainous and barren, while towards the south it extends into fertile plains. It has teen separated into the two great divisions of the Highlands and the Lowlands, and also into the Northern, the Middle, and the Southern. The first or Northern division is cut off" from the Middle by the chain of lakes which stretch from the Moray frith to Loch Linnhe. The second or Middle division is separated from the Southern by the friths of Forth and Clyde, and the Great canal. The Northern division consists generally of an assemblage of vast and dreary mountains, with some fertile valleys intervening, chiefly towards the south and east coasts. A portion of them is clothed with green herbage, more especially where sheep farming prevails; but in general they are covered with heath, vegetating above peat, rock, or gravel; and they frequently terminate in mountain caps of solid rock, or in vast heaps or cairns of bare and weather-beaten stones. The Middle division is also very mountainous, the Grampian ranges intersecting this district, and extending from the Eastern to the Western sea, and being from forty to sixty miles in breadth. The western parts of Argyleshire, which are also included in tliis district, are rugged, mountainous, and deeply indented by inlets of the sea. In these two divisions, which comprehend more than two thirds of Scotland, the arable ground bears but a small proportion to the mountainous regions. On-the eastern coast, the proportion of the cultivated to the uncultivated land is much greater. In the Southern division we find every variety—verdant plains, well watered, and covered with cattle; gently-rising hills and bending voles, fertile in corn, waving with wood, and interspersed with meadows; lofty mountains, craggy rocks, deep narrow dells and tumbling torrents; nor are there wanting, as a contrast, barren moors and wild, uncultivated heaths. In this district arc the different ranges of the Cheviot hills; the Sidlaw hills, terminating at Perth; the Ochil hills, fbrmii" the middle division; and a third, called the hills of Kilsyth and Campsey. Between the Sidlaw ridge and the Grampian mountains lies die extensive, pleasant and fruitful valley of Stratliinore. Few countries in Europe display- a greater extent of sea-coart. From Berwick, the coast bends north-west to the frith of Forth. The eastern part of Fife divides this frith from that of Tay. Northward, on the coast of Caithness, there is a vast bay of a

triangular form, the base or eastern line of which is seventy miles. The north coast is bold, rocky and dangerous. Along the western shores are many openings or inlets, where the sea runs tar inland, forming safe and commodious harhon. Scotland has numerous rivers, the chief of which are the Spey, the Dee, the North and the South Esk, the Tay, the Forth, the Clyde, the Tweed, the Southern Dee. the Annan, and the Liddol. The lakes or lochs are numerous and extensive. Scotland has no mines of the precious metals,but the lead mines contain silver. Ironstone, iron ore, and septario ironstone, are abundant. Copper has been discovered in mam places. The other metallic substance hitherto discovered are cobalt, bismuth, manganese, wolfram, plumbago, and mercury; the latter in very small quantitirs. Coal is abundant in the Southern and Middle districts. Limestone, freestone or sandstone, and slate, are found in everr district Marbles are also found. The Scotch pebbles are of many beautiful hues, blue and white, red and white, and frequently of all these colors, blended together in veins, and in every gradation tf shade. Jasper is also found in great rariety; and rock crystal, commonly denominated cairngorm, from the mountain of that name in Banffshire. Chalcedony H likewise found. The nature of the sod ■• various. There are many valleys or straths, even in the Highlands, which are exceedingly productive; and the southern and middle districts contain excellent land, and are as productive as any in the island. Scotland produces wheat, rye, barley, oats, peas, beans, hay, potatoes turnips, &c. ; flax and hemp, but in no great quantities; and, in general, all the sorts of crops which are raised in th( southern part of the island. Honirultur is making rapid increase in every part Apples and other fruits ore produced in abundance. Of late, many extensile tracts of waste land have been planted with wood. Tho alga marina, or seaweed, constitutes a valuable article ol commerce, from the burning of it intu kelp. The climate of Scotland ^extremely variable. From its insular situation, however, the cold in winter and the heat in summer are not so great as in similar latitudes on the continent. TV greatest height of the thermometer that has ever yet been observed is 92° of Fahrenheit, and the lowest at Edinburgh is -^ below zero. Its ordinary range is from 84° to 8°, though it seldom maintains the* extremes for any length of time. The annual average temperature may be estimated at from 45° to 47°. Like most other mountainous countries, it is subject to rain, especially on the western coasts. The general average quantity of rain that falls appears to be from 30 to 31 inches. The wild animals of Scotland are the fox, the badger, the otter, the wild-cat, the i;edgehog (these are now becoming tcarce), the stag, the wild roe, the hare, the rabbit, the weasel, the mole, and other small quadrupeds. The domestic animals are the same as those of England; but the native breed of black cattle and fheep is considerably, different, being smaller in size, but reputed to afford more delicious meat. Of the feathered tribe, pheasants are to be found in the woods, though scarce; also that beautiful bird rolled the capercailzie, or cock of the xrood, now become exceedingly rare; the ptarmigan, the black game, and grouse, are abundant in the heathy mountains; and in the low grounds are partridges, snipes, plovers, &c. Scotland has also most of the English singing birds, except the nightingale. The aquatic fowls are numerous in the islands. Scotland has made great advances in all the finer manufactures. Flax and hemp are manufactured into a variety of fabrics, such as sheetings, osnaburghs, bagging and canvass. The cotton manufactures have been carried, by .means of machinery, to a great degree of extent and perfection. Muslins, brocades, lappets of all sorts, imitation shawls, gauzes, spidered, seeded, and numerous c-peeies of draw-loom, cambrics, shirtings, sheetings, stripes, checks, pullicates, ginghams, shawls, &c, are manufactured. Cotton is also made into thread, of which large quantities are exported. Glasgow, Paisley, and the surrounding districts, are the chief seats of the cotton manufacture, which gives employment to 150,000 persons, and of which the annual value is i:<;.000,000 sterling. Calico-printing is also carried to a great extent. The great iron-works established in Scotland deserve particular attention, and that at Carr&n, near Falkirk, is the largest manufactory in Europe. Ship-building also forms an important branch of national industry; and there are manufactories of glass for all the different sorts of bottle, window, u»d flint glass; also of soap, candles, and -'.arch, salt, &c. There are tanneries, breweries, and distilleries, and almost all articles of ordinary use ore manufactured in Scotland. The whole manufacturing product is estimated to exceed in value £14^)00,000 sterling (including the raw

material), employing nearly 300,000 persons. The different fisheries have been prosecuted with great industry and success. The whale fishery, to Davis's straits and Greenland, employs a great number of ships. The white fishery is also prosecuted with great industry along the Moray frith, Shetland, and the Western islands, and yields profitable returns. The herring fishery is carried on along the whole coast of the kingdom with great success, as is also the salmon fishery in all the different rivers. From the ports on the eastern coast of Scotland, a great trade is carried on to Holland, Norway, Sweden, and the different states on the Baltic. This trade has greatly increased of late years. The imports principally consist of flax, hemp, yarn, linen, iron, com, wood, tallow, and other commodities produced in these countries; and, in return, colonial produce, cotton goods, and other manufactured articles, are exported. The chief shipping ports are Leith, Dundee, Arbroath, Montrose, Aberdeen, Peterhead, Banff and Inverness. The trade with Spain, Portugal, and the Mediterranean, is carried on from Leith and other ports; and the connexion with Canada extends to all the most considerable towns on the east coast of Scotland. The commerce of the west coast centres almost entirely in the Clyde, which is the grand emporium of the American, West Indian, and South American trade. Several vessels have sailed from Greenock, to carry on the trade to India, since, by the relaxation of the company's monopoly in 1814, it was partially thrown open to the merchants of this country. The principal canals—the Caledonian canal, the Forth and Clyde canal, &c.—are described in the article Canal, under the division Canals of Great Britain. (See also Rail Roads.) The inhabitants of Scotland may be divided into two great classes, viz. Highlanders and Lowlanders. The language, dress and customs of these two classes are very different. The language of the Highlanders is that species of the Celtic called, in Scotland, Gaelic, or Erse. The ancient dress of the Highlanders is fast giving way to a more modem costume, although it is still retained in many places, and often worn on particular occasions. (See Highlands.) It is formed of woollen stuff, checkered with different colors, well known by the name of tartan. The inhabitants of the low country more resemble the English in their dress and manners, though in the country parts some peculiarities remain. The language of the low country is English, with a mixture of the Scotch, which, however, in the ordinary dialect of the better classes more es[>ecially, is fast giving way to the English. The Presbyterian system of religion was established in Scotland by act of jiarliament, in 1696, and was afterwards secured in the treaty of Union. This system is founded on a parity of ecclesiastical authority among all its presbyters, excluding all preeminence of or<icr, nil its ministers lieing held equal in rank and power. It is also exceedingly simple in its forms, admitting of no outward splendor or ceremony, nor of any of those aids to devotion which are sup)>osed to be derived from painting or music. There are in Scotland 910 parishes, and 93d established clergymen, who discharge the duties of the pastoral office in their several parishes. They are assisted by elders, who are selected from their congregation for the propriety of their conduct; these, with the minister, compose a kirk session, which is the lowest ecclesiastical judicature in Scotland. The ministers of several contiguous parishes constitute what is called a presbytery, which has cognizance of the conduct of the clergy, and of all ecclesiastical matters within its bounds. Synods form the next gradation in the scale of ecclesiastical judicature. They are composed of several presbyteries, and of a ruling elder from every kirk session within their bounds. They are courts of appeal, and review the procedure of the presbyteries. The general assembly, which is a representative body, consists of delegates from presbyteries, universities, and royal boroughs, in the following proportions, namely, for the presbyteries, 200 ministers and 89 elders; for royal burglis, 67 elders; and from the universities, 5 ministers or elders; in all, 361. Besides the Presbyterians (the established religion), there are numerous dissenters, namely, the Episcopalians, Burghers and Anliburghcrs, Quakers, Bcreans, Baptists, Glassites, &c. There are Catholic churches in the principal towns; and in the northern parts ot Scotland this religion has not been entirely superseded by the reformation. Members of the established church, 1,638,484; seceders (also Presbyterians), 285,000; Roman Catholics, 70,000; Episcopalians, 40,000, &c. In no country is there, perhaps, more ample provision for education than in Scotland. An act, passed in the reign of William and Mary, ordains that there shall be a school and a school-master in every parish. These

establishments, in which are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and also Lalia and Greek, have been attended with th» happiest effects, having spread the spirit of improvement among all classes. (Set School.) Scotland has also four univerwties, namely, at Edinburgh, St. Andrew^ Glasgow, and Aberdeen. The ancient constitution of Scotland was superseded at the time of the union with England. In the parliament of England, the Scots nobility are represented by sixteen peer* In the house of commons, the freehold* ri of the counties, amounting to about 24"£>, are represented by thirty commissioner! or knights of the shire. The royal burghs, which are sixty-five in number, exclusive of the city of Edinburgh (wiiks sends one member), are divided into fourteen districts, which return as man) members, elected by a delegate from earn burgh. (See Parixamtntary Reform, end of last volume.) Scotland, however, still retains her own ancient laws and institutions. Civil and criminal Justice is nilministered by the college of justice, instituted by James V, in 1532, after the model of the French parliament. It it the highest court in Scotland, and rosscd of a president and fourteen ordinary lord*. In 1807, the court of session was formed into two divisions, the first, consisting of seven members, under the lord-president: the second division, undor the !or*i-jusn»-» clerk, consisting of six members. In 1815, a jury court was established, under a lord chief commissioner and two other commissioners, for the trial of civil rasm The court of justiciary is the higher criminal court in Scotland. The court of exchequer has the same powers, prh ileges, jurisdictions and authority over tlx revenue of Scotland, as that of England over the revenue of England. In Uk high court of admiralty, there is only Oikjudge, who is the king's lieutenant and justice-general upon the seas, and in all ports and harbors. He has a jurisdiction in all maritime causes; and, by prescnition, he has acquired a jurisdiction tr. mercantile causes not maritime. TV commissary court consists of lour judgvv nominated by the crown, and lias a.-: original jurisdiction in questions of marriage and divorce, and reviews the decrees of local commissary courts. Besides the above national judges, evert county has a chief magistrate, railed i sheriff, whose jurisdiction extends to certain criminal cases, and to all civil mattrr* which are not, by special law or custom, appropriated to other courts. In rases ot' inferior importance also, the magistrates of cities and royal burghs have a jurisdiction which is subject to the review of the sheriff. (For further details, see the article Scotland,in Brewster'sNew Edinburgh Encyclopaedia.) The earliest inhabitants of Scotland belonged, probably, to the great Celtic race. The Romans, who had reduced the southern part of the island of Britain fifty years before the Christian era, extended their conquests, about 130 years later, into the more northern part of the island, inhabited by the Caledonians. (See Gaul.) Agricola forced the natives back beyond the estuaries of the Forth and the Clyde, and the remains of Roman roads and stations still serve to trace the steps of the conquerors. Adrian (120) constructed a wall across the island, from the Tyne to the Solway, and, in the reign of Antoninus, a more northern wall was erected from the Forth to the Clyde. At a later period, the principal inhabitants of Caledonia (as the northern part of Scotland was called) were the Scots and Picts, the former of whom come from Ireland, and finally gave their name to the country; the latter were apparently of Gothic origin, but we have no knowledge of their earlier history. (See Scuta.) Kenneth Macalpinc joined in his person the crowns of the Picts and Scots, or Dalriads, as they are commonly called, and was, therefore, the first king of Scotland (843). Christianity appears to have been introduced into Scotland by Irish monks, in the sixth century. Malcolm III (1057— 1093), son of Duncan (see Macbeth), was educated at the Saxon court, and had married a Saxon princess. The Norman conquest, also, carried many Saxon fugitives into Scotland, and a great change in the manners of the Scotch was produced by this connexion with a more civilized people. On the death of Alexander III (1284), the male line of the old race of kings became extinct, and Edward I of England began to lay schemes for extending bra sway over this part of the island. Sir William Wallace (q. v.) perished on the scaffold; but Bruce (q. v.) achieved the independence of his country, bv the battle of Bannockbum (1314). The Bruce male line became extinct in 1371, and the Stuart (q. v.) family ascended the Scottish throne. James I (q. v.), an accomplished prince, who endeavored to curb the power of the licentious nobles, and to promote the civilization of his dominions, was murdered by the nobles (1437). James II, his infant son, succeeded him, and pursued the plan of restraining the

barons with vigor and success. James III ascended the throne at the age of seven years: his reign was not less inglorious than his end. His immoderate attachment to minions, and his tyrannical conduct towards all classes, excited a rebellion, in which he was defeated and slain. James IV (1488), a brave and able prince, whose marriage with Margaret, daughter of Henry VII, resulted in the ultimate union of the English and Scotch crowns, introduced improvements in the laws and government, and in the condition of the lower classes. He fell in the battle of Flodden (1513). James V, an infant (during whose minority the kingdom was torn by factions), by his marriage with Mary of Guise, united the Scotch court more closely with that of France; and, in addition to the troubles occasioned by the French and English interest, a new torch of discord was lighted at the flames which consumed the first reformers. Patrick Hamilton, the first who publicly embraced the doctrines of the reformation, was burnt in 1538; but the new doctrines gained adherents in spite of persecution (see Beaton), both among the people and the nobles, and the work was accomplished by the boldness and activity of Knox. (See Knox, and Presbyterians.) James died in 1542, and was succeeded by his daughter Mary (see Mary Stuart), who was betrothed to the dauphin of France, and educated in that country. Her hostility to the reformation laid the foundation of discontents, which, increased by her imprudent conduct, terminated in rebellion. Having fled for protection to England, she was beheaded at Fotheringay, in 1587. James VI (I of England; see James I) ascended the English throne on the death of Elizabeth, in 1603, and thus united the crowns of the two kingdoms, which were themselves united, one hundred years later (1707), into one monarchy, (bee Great Britain.) Scotland retained a separate parliament until the act of union. The first kings of the Stuart family, on the English throne, endeavored to subvert the Presbyterian church in Scotland, and establish Episcopalian ism on its ruins. These attempts gave rise to the solemn league and covenant (see Covenant), and contributed not a little to the fall of Charles I. (q. v.). Cromwell (q. v.) reduced Scotland to submission; but in the reign of Charles II (q. v.), new attempts to establish the Episcopalian form of church government gave rise to new troubles (1666 and 1676). Even after the revolution and union, the partisans of the Stuart dynasty twice rose in rebellioa (1715 and 1745), against the bouse of Hanover (see .Stuart, James Edward, and Edward, Charles); but since tbe middle of tbe last century, Scotland lias been devoted to tbe arts of peace, and all kinds of industry have made a wonderful progress in that part of Great Britain.— See Buchanan's History of Scotland, from the Latin, with a continuation (4 voli, Glasgow, lc27); Tytler*s History of Scotland {fourth voL, 1831, unfinished); and Scott's History of Scotland (2 vols.).

Scotch Language and Literature. Tbe inhabitants of Scotland speak three different languages; the Eturlish, the Scotch, and the Gaelic Tbe English is spoken by all well educated persons in the kingdom, and is used in all deeds and prose works; and, although the pronunciation, and some peculiarities of dialect, generally betray the Scotch origin of the speaker, it is well known that some of the best writers and most eloquent orators in the English language during the last seventy years have been Scotchmen. The Scotch language, which is used by the lower classes m the Lowlands, and by some old persons of the higher ranks, is still employed in the national poetry. The Gaelic (ani is spoken in every part of the Highads; but almost all Highlanders are ac2(tainted with English, which is taught in leir schools. (See Highlands, and Ossian.) The Scotch language has been commonly regarded as a corrupt dialect of the English; but doctor Jomieson has shown that it is a separate language, of Teutonic origin, with a strong mixture of Gaelic and French. He considers the Picts as a Teutonic race; and the fact that the topographical names in the north of Scotland, and in the Orkney islands, are of Gothic origin, strongly confirms the view. Neither has the Scotch been merely a dialect of the vulgar. It was formerly the language of a polished court, and a cultivated nation; and the earlier Scottish writings are much superior in delicacy to those of modern times. The study of polite literature was, some centuries ago, in a more advanced state in Scotland, than in many other countries, which afterwards surpassed it. Barbour, a Scottish historian and poet, prior to Chaucer, wrote in a style as pure, and with a versification as harmonious, as the latter. The poetical compositions of James I, and the work of James VI, containing precepts for writing Scottish poetry, with the numerous other productions still extant, show that much attention was paid by the court and the

educated classes to the native langua^ Tbe close connexion of tbe Scotch with the French courts introduced many of the terms of the latter. The Scotti>!> is remarkable for its copiousness, an. I :well calculated to express the humoroc-. the plaintive, and the tender. Its po» -r of terminations, especially in diminutives is considerable, and it is often compared for its simplicity, to the Doric of lbGreeks. It drops final consonants, Suwsl tutes one for the other, and delights iii s' concourse of vowels. Apart from oV peculiarly national literature of Scotlan:. to be found in the poetry of James 1. <■: Douglas, Barbour, Ramsay, Bums, &<-.. she has contributed largely to the rich stores of English literature and science. In mathematical and physical science, uV Gregorys, Maclaurin, Simpson, Black. Hutton, and Playfair, and in the pracb>~ arts, Watt, Rennie and Telford are distinguished In history, the great nam*-? of Robertson and Hume, with those of Ferguson and .Mackintosh ; in philosophy, ainl criticism, Reid, Adam Smith, Campbell. Karnes, Blair, Stewart and many others >•' the first eminence, show that in this provin cial kingdom there has been no want ot" men of large views, of bold and original speculation, and of deep insight into tbe cbaracterof society, the workingsof the human heart, and the more secret and sutxiUoperations of the intellectual powers. In works of imagination it is only necewan to mention the names of Smollett, Mackenzie, Thomson, Armstrong, and sir W. Scott. The poems of Ossian, and uV Waverley novels, have contributed to Scotland a romantic interest in all foreign countries, where the sorrows of u> bard and the adventures of the Jacobhv or Cameronian heroes are almost aa familiar as on their own soil.—See Irving Lives of the Scottish Poets, and JamiesonV Dictionary of the Scottish Language fS vols^ quarto, 1808), Supplement (2 rob, quarto, 1825), containing much curious matter, illustrative of the national rite>. customs and institutions.

Scots. The Picts and Scots are first named in history in tbe fifth century. Tb>former inhabited the eastern shores of Scotland as far south as the frith of Forth, and as far north as the island extended. The name of Picts seems to have been given them by the Romans, from tbeir habit of staining their bodies when going to battle (ptch, painted). They were probably of Gothic origin, though some think they were descendants of the ancient Caledonians, who were Celts min

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