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to the Porte only the kharadsh, which amounts to one ducat for every father of t family, and one piaster for every other member. No Servian is permitted to retide permanently in Turkey, and no Turk in Son ia. Belgrade and all the Turkish fortresses in Scrviaare occupied by Turkish troops. In case of a war between the Porte and any foreign power, the Servians are to furnish 12,000 men. The orders of the vizier, who remains with the Turkish garrison in Belgrade, are committed for execution to prince Miloscb. This ruler, in 1825, put down, with an iron hand, a rebellion excited 'by his own severity, and was rewarded for it with the high office of hospodar. Inthe war of Russia with the Porte in 1828, the Servians were ready to rise in support of Russia.—See Ranke's Serbische Revolution (Hamburg, 1329).

Servian Language and Literature. The Servian language, generally called the lUyrian, is a Sclavonic dialect, and, among all the southern Sclavonic idioms, the most powerful. It is spoken by five millions of people, from the Culpa to the Timeck. The Sclavonic dialect, spoken in Bulgaria and Bosnia, differs little from the Servian. Recently the Servian lias been more cultivated. In 1814, Wuk Stcphanowitsch published, in Vienna, a Servian grammar (translated into German, with a preface by J. Grimm, and remarks by Vater, Berlin, 1824). In 1819, he published his Dictionary of the Servian Language, with German and Latin Definitions, containing above 30,000 words in common use. In the Servian poetry, the excellence of which Gothe and Grimm have acknowledged, a Sclavonic character of rode energy is united with an Oriental warmth. "In 1823, Wuk Stephanowitsch published three volumes of Servian poetry* at Leipsic, which have been translated into German. Some cf the songs are uncommonly fine. In 1826, he published Danitza (i. e. Morning Star), an annual for ladies, in Servian. The most recent publications in Servian literature are Simeon Milutinowitsch's Serbianka, a series of Servian heroic songs, which celebrate the insurrection of Servia, of which he was an eye-witness (4 vols., l'Ano., Leipsic, 1827), and two Servian translations of Horace's Art portica (Vienna, 1827), in hexameters, and in the heroic measure of the Servians. Both are by Johannes Hadsitsch (under the name of Milosch Swetitsch). The Servian prose has produced little besides theological and religious works. In fact, the lite

rary dialect is not yet settled: the Servian scholars are not agreed whether the artificial book language, formed after the ecclesiastical Servian, and which has been in use for almost four centuries, or the common dialect of the country, shall become the language of literature. In the former Raitsch has written his History of various Sclavonic Tribes (Vienna, 1792, 4 vols.).—See Bowring's Servian Popular Poetry (London, 1827).

Service Tree (sorbus); a pretty large European tree, closely allied to the apple and pear, but easily distinguishable by its pinnated leaves. The flowers are numerous, disposed in corymbs at the extremities of the branches, and are succeeded by very small, rounded or pearshaped fruit This fruit is excessively austere and astringent before perfect maturity, is little esteemed, and difficult of digestion, but, notwithstanding, is sometimes eaten when in a state of'-ncipiem decay. The tree attains the height of forty or fifty feet, but the growth is exceedingly slow, the trunk hardly acquiring the diameter of a foot in a etiiiiiPV. The wood is very hard, compact, solid, fine-grained, and susceptible of a brilliant polish. It is in great request a.riong turners and cabinet makers, and i? very dear, especially the larger piece. The service tree arrows .vi'.d in mop* parts of Europe, and >», besides occasionally cultivated. —The mountain ash 13 a second spscics of sorbus, often cultivated as an ornamental plant. It does not exceed the height of twenty o.- twenty-f.ve feet, and is found wild in many pirte of Europe. We have in the northern parrs of tha U. States, a species of sorbus (S. Ji.nt.iccna), closely resembling the mountain ash, and also frequently cultivated in European gardens. It is fouiicl wild as far south as lat. 43?, and is frequent in Canr.do. Another species (S. microcarpa) inhabits the range of the Alleghany mountahis.

Servile, a Spanish word of the same meaning with the English servile, was the name given to the opponents of the liberal changes, contemplated by the cortes, from their first session in 1808. In 1823, when the French put down the liberals, the apostolical party (so called) obtained the ascendency.

Servile Arts. (See Arts.)

Serving is the winding any thing round a rope to prevent it from being nibbed: the materials used for this purpose, which are called service, are generally Bpun-yarn, small lines, sennit, or ropes, sometimes leather, old canvass, &c

Servites, or Servants Of The Holt Virgict; a religious onler, founded at Florence in 1233, which became numerous, particularly in Germany and Italy, and received the privileges of the mendicant orders, but never had much influence in the church. (See Orders, Religious.) The monks were also called Brethren of the Ave Maria, l>ecause they always began their conversation with the words of the angelic greeting, and Brethren of the Passion of Christ. They follow the rule of St. Augustine, and wear a black dress. Their general has the fifth place among those of the mendicant orders at Rome. They have, in recent times, lost much of their consideration. Paul Sarpi, mid Ferrarius belonged to this order.

Servitude (servUus), in the civil law, is the right to the use of a thing, without property in the same, for all or for soino [•articular purposes. This right,by the Roman law, was not confined to any particular kind of property, but could either be limited to a particular person (aervitus personalia), or so connected with real property [prcedium dominana), that the owner of the same, whoever he might lie, could exercise his right upon the estate subjected to the servitude (prttdium aervitns). The servitude consisted either in a right to do some act, as to gather fruit from the estate, &c. (aervUus affirmativa), or to prevent the owner of the property from doing certain acts, as building walls beyond a certain height, blocking up a window, &c. (servitus negativa). The owner of a property to which a servitude was attached, could not, by the Roman law, be obliged to perform any act himself [servitus m faciendo consistere mquii); but this rule is not adhered to, in modern times, in those countries where the civil law pre. vails. Personal servitudes consist pither in the full use of the property, and its products htsus Jructus), or in a limited use (imw)of the same (as, for instance, merely free occupancy—habitatio). The usufruct was originally allowed only in regard to those things which were not consumed in the use, but was afterwards extended to such things as were consumed by use, but could be replaced by articles similar in number and quality (quasi usus frtictua). Servitudes connected with real estate (servUutea prodiorum), which were divided into servitudes on tenements (prttdiorum wbanorum), and servitudes on land (priediorum rustieorum), were, by the old Roman law, required to be attached to a permanent cause (causam perpetuam), and

to be designed for the preservation of some actual advantage. They could urn, therefore, by the Roman law, lie limited by conditions, or for a term of time, Imj: were inseparable irom the property, and indivisible. Servitudes being burdens upon an estate, the usufructuary must respect the rights of the owner of the same, u») use his own rights civiliter, that is, with a< little injury to the former as possible.

Servius Tillies, the sixth king of Rome, was the son of a slave, given In Tarquin to Tanaquil, his wile. Ynuiir, Servius was educated in the palace of the monarch, and raised himself to so much consequence, that Tarquin gave him hi* daughter in marriage. Servius became the favorite of the people and the darling of the soldiers, and was raised to the throne, on the death of his father-in-law. He defeated the Veientes and the Tuscans, established the census, lieantified the city, and enlarged its boundaries by taking within its walls the hills Quirinalis, \"tminalis, and Esquilimis. He also divided the Roman people into tribes, and built several temples. Senilis married his two daughters to the grandsons of his fauVrin-law; the elder to Tarquin, and the younger to Aruns. The wife of Aruns murdered her own husband, to unite herself to Tarquin, who had likewise assassinated his wife. Servius was iminlemi by his own son-in-law, and his daughter Tullia ordered her chariot to In- driven over the mangled body of her father (533 B. C). Such is the history of Servius, ».■< commonly related. But see Niebuhr's Roman History (3d ed., 1828), in the chapters On the Legend of Tarqiiinius I'riseu* and Servius Tullius, and Critical Examination of the History of Tarquin and Servius.

Serves Servorvm (servant of servants); the title which the popes give themselves.

Sf.samdm Orif.ntale; a plant, knowi, from a very ancient period, and very interesting on account of the economical purposes to which it is applied. It was originally brought from India, and b said to grow wild in Ceylon, and alone the coast of Malalur. It is called serustm in Egypt and other parts of the EaA, where it is cultivated extensively on account of the seeds, and an oil which they yield, not unlike or inferior to the oil of almonds. This plant was introduced into Carolina, from Africa, by the negroes, niul succeeds there perfectly. It iscalh-dk^ior bonny. The oil will keep many year*, does not acquire any rancid smell or taste, but, on the other hand, in two years becomes quite mild, and is a good substitute for olive oil. The negroes use the seeds as an aliment. The sesamum was introduced into Jamaica by the Jews, and is Dow cultivated in most parts of the island. It is called vanglo or oil plant; and the needs are frequently used in broths by many of the Europeans, but the Jews make them chiefly into cakes. In Japan, China, and Cochin-China, where they have no butter, they use the oil for frying fish, and in dressing other dishes, as a varnish, and, medicinally, as a resolvent and emollient. Pliny speaks of this oil as equally good to eat and bum. Nine pounds of the seed yield upwards of two pounds of oil. The plant grows to the height of two feet or more; the stem is upright, herbaceous, hairy, and almost cylindrical; the leaves are oval oblong, the inferior ones opposite, with long leafstalks, entire, or with some very distant t>»eth; the superior, much narrower, entire, acuminate, almost alternate, and nearly sessile: the flowers arc solitary, axillary, and the corolla is white, and re«embles, in form, that of the foxglove.— & indicum is another species, cultivated in Egypt, and used for the same purposes as the preceding.

Sesostris; a king of Egypt, who by •ome has been deemed the Shisbak of Scripture, but whom Champollion has shown to be a different person. He is called Sethos, and Sethosis, and his royal name is Ramses, or Rameses. He reigned in the fifteenth century B. C. Sesostris was a great conqueror, who overran Asia, and is said to have erected magnificent temples in all the cities of his empire, to have built a great wall on the eastern boundary of Egypt, and to have dug a number of canals from the Nile, for the purposes of commerce and irrigation.

Sessile; a botanical term, signifying without footstalks.

Session, Court Of, in Scotland; the hijrhest civil judicatory in the kingdom. The judges (lords of the session) are fifteen in number. It has extensive original jurisdiction, and its powers of review, as a court of appeal, have no limits. In 1806, it was divided into two chambers, called the first and second division; the lord president and seven judges constituting the former, and the lord justice clerk, who is head of the court of justidiory, with six judges, the latter. These civisions have independent but co-ordinate jurisdiction. The high court of justciarv or supreme criminal jurisdiction

for Scotland, consists of six judges, who are lords of the session, the lord justice clerk presiding. In this court the number of the jury is fifteen, and a majority decides. The court of session is divided into the inner house and outer house, with appeal from the latter to the former, and from the former to the house of lords of the United Kingdom.

Sessions. (For the quarter session*, see Courts, vol. iii, p. 589.)

Sestertium. (See Sestertius.)

Sestertius; an ancient Roman silver coin, worth two and a half asses (hence the name sesquiteriius, the third half). (See Jis.) In sterling money, the sestertius was about one penny and a quarter; but it was not at all periods precisely the same. The neuter form, sestertium, denotes a much larger amount. It generally appears in the plural, and signifies not a real coin, but a sum of 1000 sestertii. If the sum amounts to 1,000,000 or more, a numeral in ies is connected with sestertium (e. g. quadratics sestertium is four millions of sestertii, i. e. quadratics centena miliia scstertiorum nummorum). Sometimes the numeral adverb is used alone, and decies ei dedit signifies decies sestertium, i. e. decies centena miliia scstertiorum, or a million. The sestertius was generally expressed by the letters L. L. S. (i. e. libra libra semis); and these letters were contracted into H. S. In common life, it was generally called nummus only. (For the manner in which the Romans expressed numerical values, see Notation.) As a weight, a sestertius amounted to about fifteen and three fourths French grains (about 12.91 grains Troy.)

Sestetto; a musical piece for six independent voices, whether instrumental or vocal. The former is particularly used for wind instruments, and often employed for serenades (q. v.), or notturni. Moschcles, Beethoven and others have composed sestettos for wind and stringed instruments. Vocal sestettos are used in operas; and that of Mozart, in the second act of Don Juan, is celebrated.

Sestina; a lyric form of versification, which comprises six strophes of six lines, and one of three lines. The verse is generally the iambic of five feet. The characteristic of the sestina is, that in each of the six strophes the six final words of the first are repeated in such an order that the final word of the sixth verse of the first strophe becomes the final word of the first verse of the second strophe; tho other five v«rsos of the second stropho end with the final words of the five first verses of the firet strophe in an arbitrary succession. The third strophe is formed in the same way from the second as this was from the first, and so on; so that each of the six final words is once the first and once the last word in each strophe, and the last verse of the sixth strophe ends with the final word of the first verse of the first strophe. The strophe of three lines, with which the ststina ends, repeats the six final words again in the same order as they stand in the first strophe: each verse contains two of them, one in the middle and one at the end. There is no other rhyme in the ststina. Petrarca has made successful essays in this form. In general, the Italians, and next to diem the Spaniards, have most cultivated it. It has been attempted, also, in German. It can be readily imagined how easily this form leads to an idle play upon words; yet it is astonishing with what skill some poets have contrived to attach different ideas and feelings to the same words.

Sestini, Domenico, the most learned numismatist of Europe, in regard to ancient coins, as far as the knowledge of them can be acquired by inspection, was bom at Florence, in 1750. After having completed his studies at the school of St. Marco, he entered the clerical order; but, in 1774, he left his native city, and visited Rome, Naples, and the Sicilies. In order to prosecute his studies with more eflect, he went from Sicily, through Malta and Smyrna to Constantinople, where he prepared his observations on the plague, which then prevailed. He made short journeys from Constantinople into Asia and Europe, and lived awhile in the house of prince Ypsilanti, hospodar of YValachia. At length, he went to Vienna, and returned along the Danube and over the Black sea to Constantinople. The British ambassador at the Porte, sir Robert Ainslie, was then forming a collection of ancient coins. For sixteen years Sestini was his agent, and in the course of his travels collected the celebrated cabinet which he has described in his Lett, e Dissertazioni numismaliclie sopra alcune Meda

?lie rare Mia Collezione Ainslicna (4 vols., 7f«.)—00,4to.); Descr. Manor, vctt. ex Muscis Ainslie, Bellini, etc., nernon Animadverss. in Opus Eckhei. Doctrina .Yumorum vett. (Leghorn, 179G, 4to.). To gain a thorough knowledge of ancient coins, he travelled through Germany, visited Gotha, Dresden, and Berlin, where he settled, and was appointed, by the king, superintendent of the collection there. In 1610, he went to Paris,where he was elect

ed a corresponding member of the Acaii tide des Inscriptions tt Belles 2>Ure*,and,twn years later, he received the appointment of antiquary and librarian of the prince* Eliza, then grand-duchess of Tuscany. When Ferdinand III ascended the throne, he confirmed him in this office, and added the title of honorary professor of the university of Pisa. In November, 1825, in was living with count Viczay at lletlervan. His principal writings are Diss, uttornoal Virgilio di Aproniano (Flor., 1774, 4to.); Delia Ptste di Conslantinopoti <&■.' 1778(Yverdun [Flor.], 177!', 12mo.); Lettere Odeporiche, ossia I'iaggioper la Patisola di Cizico (2 vols., Leghorn, 1785); J iaggio di Constanlinopoli a Bassora (Yvent [Leghorn], 1780); I'iaggio di Riiorno da Bass >raa Constanlinopoli(Leghorn, 1788; Leittre e Dissertazioni numtsmatichc, which appeared at Leghorn, Rome, Berlin, Milan, Pisa, and Florence, from 1789 to 1820, in 18 vols., 4to., with many eucratings; the Descriptio tYumorvm rettrwr ex variis Museis (Leipsic, 1796°, 4to.); the Catalogus .Yumorum vclerum Muscn Aragoniani (Berl., 1805, fol.); the Dtser. seltttiorum JVumismalvm in .'Ere marina Moduli Museo olim Ab. de Camps, paslea-iw Martschalli cTEtrits, etc. (Berl., 180s, 4to.); Descr. delle Medaglie Grxthe t Romane del fu Benkoicitz (Berl., 1800, 4lo.); Descr. degli Statiri antichi illustr. con It Medaglie (Flor., 1817); Diss, sopra le Medaglie antichc relative alia Confederal. degli Achei (Milan, 1817, 4to.); and the Desc. dclle Medaglie Ispanc appartt-nenti alia LusUania Betica c alia Tarragomtse del Museo Hedervariano(Flor., 1818, 4tcV His Classes generates sett Morula vetus L'rbium, Populorum el Rcgum Ordiv.e Grographico et Chronologico descr. (Flor., 1821, 4to., 2d ed.), ma)' serve, in many respects, as a general index to nil these works. There is but little prospeet that his .Syitema geographicum .Yumismatieum (written by his own hand, in 16 vols^ folio), trufruit of fifty years of study and inveatipition, will be given to the world.

Sf.stos; a fortress of European Turkey, opposite to Abydos (q. v.V {row. which it is 2700 yards distant The ra.*tles of the Dardanelles, sometimes call"! the Sestos and Abt/dos, are built nw the sites of the ancient towns so eallol. famous for the loves of Leander nn«i Hero.

Set-off, in law, is when the detemlant acknowledges the justice of the plaintiff" demand on the one hand, but on uV other sets up a demand of his own, to counterbalance that of the plaintiff, either in the whole or in part; as if the plaintiff sue for $100 due on a note of hand, the defendant may set off .*90 to himself for merchandise sold to the plaintiff, or for any other demand, the amount of which is ascertained in damages.

Settle, Elkanah, an English poet, was born in 1648. At the age of eighteen, he entered at Oxford, but quitted the university without Hiking a degree, and. going to Loudon, commenced author by profession. He wrote numerous political pamphlets, and, in reply to Drydczi's poem entitled the Modal, occasioned by the whig party striking n medal to commemorate the throwing out of the bill against the earl of Shaftesbury, a piece called the Medal Reversed; and, f=oon after, a poem entitled Azaria and Hushai, designed as an answer to the Absalom and Achitophel. In 1085, he published a prm on the coronation of James II, and, about the same time, obtained a pension from the city, for writing an annual inauguration panegyric on lord mayor's day. Settle was, besides, an indefatigable writer for the stage, and produced fifteen dramatic pieces, none of which are now known on the boards. In the decline of life, he received a salary from the proprietor of a bootli at Bartholomew fair, as a writer of " Drolls," which were generally very successful, and is said to have been, at that time, the best contriver of theatrical machinery in the kingdom. He died at the Charter-house, in 1724.

Settlement; a legal residence or establishment of a person in a particular parish or town, which entitles him to maintenance there, if a pauper. In England, the poor are supported by the par-, ish where they have a settlement. In New England, they are supported by the town. In England, the statutes 12 Richard II and 19 Henry VII seem to be the first rudiments of parish settlements. By statutes 13 and 14 Charles II, a legal settlement is declared to be gained by birth, l>y inhabitancy, by apprenticeship, or by service for forty days. But the gaining of a settlement by so short. a residence produced great evils, which were remedied by statute 1 James II.

Settlement, Act Of; a name given to a statute 12 and 13 William III, cap. 2, by which the crown was limited to the present reigning house in England, and by which some new provisions were added in favor of the subject, securing his UiiL'rty and the rights of conscience.

Sbtuval, or St. Uees • a town of

Portugal, inEstremadura; fifteen miles south-east of Lisbon; Ion. 8° 54' VV ■ lat. 38° 29' N.; population 14,870. It is situated in a bay of the Atlantic, at the mouth of the river Sandao, with a good harbor, capable of receiving ships of any burden, aud exports lemons, olives, oil, wine, and, above all, bay salt, of which no less than 200,000 tons are annually made here. The streets are paved, anil the town is fortified with a mound, a citadel, and several small forts. Sctuwd contains five churches, one hospital, eleven convents, and an academia prebkmatica.

Sedme, John Gottlieb, known for hi-i writings and his adventures, a man of a vigorous mind, but eccentric disposition, was born at Poscrne, in 1703. He was left an orphan, but was placed, by a charitable persoi., at the IS'icolai school in Leipsic. Here he began the study of theology; but, becoming discontented, he set off secretly for Paris. On his way, he was forced to join the Hessian troops then raising to serve in America (1781). After his return, he was obliged to enter the Prussian service, but at length studied at the university of Leipsic, and, in 1793, became secretaiy of the Russian general at Warsaw. He soon after returned to Leipsic, where he published several works, and was employed as a corrector of the press, In 1801, he set out on a pedestrian excursion through Austria, Italy and France, and, on his return, published an account of his tour, under the title of Walk to Syracuse (in German). In 1805, he undertook a similar expedition into Russia, Sweden, &c, which is described in My Summer of 1805 (2d ed., 1815). He died at Teplitz, in 1810. His autobiography, which he left unfinished, was completed by Clodius, and is contained in the edition of his works in twelve volumes (Leipsic, 1820, seq.).

Seven Islands. (See Ionian.Islands.)

Seven Liberal Arts. (See .4rt».)

Sevennes. (See Ccvennes.)

Seven Sleepers. There is an old story that Epimenides of Crete reappeared in the world, after sleeping forty years in a cave (see Epimenides); aud all our readers are acquainted with the veracious legend of Rip Van Winkle, as related in the Sketch-Book of Geoffrey Crayon; but the slumber of the seven sleepers was of longer duration. In the time of the emperor Decius, when the Christians wen; persecuted, seven noble youths of Ephesus concealed themselves in a neighboring

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