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(■avium of Asia, and, after he had visited the tomb of Pompey the Great, entered Alexandria. Tho revolt of Britain recalled him from the East. After he had re■ linvd it under his power, he built a wall across the northern parts of the island to defend it against the frequent invasions of the Caledonians. (See Picts' tVaU.) Hitherto successful against his enemies, Severus now found the peace of his family disturbed. Caracalla attempted to murder his father, as he was concluding a treaty of peace with the Britons; and Sererus, worn out with infirmities which the gout and the uneasiness of his mind increased, soon after died at York, A. D. ill, in the 66th year of his age. Severus has been so much admired for his military talents that some have called him the most warlike of the Roman emperors. As a monarch, he was cruel; and it has been observed that he never did an act of humanity or forgave a fault. In his diet, he was temperate, and he always showed himself an enemy to pomp and splendor. He loved the appellation of a man of letters, and he even composed a history of his own reign. 3evkrcs?s Wall. (See Picts1 Wall.) Sevione, Marie de Rabutin, marquise ile, a French woman of quality, greatly distinguished for her epistolary talents, was bom in 1627. Her father, the baron of Chantal, who was the head of the house of Bussy Rabutin, left her, during infancy, his sole heiress. The graces of her person and conversation procured her many admirers; and in 1644 she married the marquis de Sevigne, who was killed in a duel in 1651, leaving her the mother of a son and daughter. She formed no wcond union, but devoted herself to the education of her children, and to the cultivation of her mind, by reading and literary society. She was extremely attached to her daughter, who, in 1669, married the wunt de Grignan, and accompanied hitn to his government of Provence. The absence of her daughter from the metropolis gave rise to the greater part of the Leton which have gained madame de Sevigne *> much reputation. The subject of many of these epistles are so entirely domestic •» to produce little interest; but others 'hound with court anecdotes, remarks on wn and books, and the topics of the day, which are conveyed with great ease and feGcjty. They are modelsof the epistolary fyle, perfectly natural from their expression, lively sentiment and description, and s playfulness which gives grace and inters' to miles. In her letters to her daugh»ou xi. 29
ter, the reader is sometimes wearied with an excess of flattery of her beauty and talents, the preservation of the former of which seems to have formed the principal object of her maternal anxiety. In fact, although endowed with abilities and penetration, she did not rise much above the level of her age in taste and principles. She was highly attached to rank and splendor, loved admiration, and felt tit* usual predilection of high life for manners and accomplishments in preference to solid worth. She had a strong feeling of religion, but was often inconsistent in her sense of it, and in reference to the proceedings against the French Protestants, expresses herself with bigotry and want of feeling. The most complete edition of her Letters is that which appeared at Paris in 1818 (11 vols., 8vo). An English translation was published in London about 1758. She died in 1696, at the age of seventy.
Seville, Sevilla (anciently Hispalis); a city of Spain, in Andalusia, on the Guadalquivir, capital of a province of tho same name, forty-five miles north of Cadiz, 250 south-west of Madrid; Ion. 5° 39'W.; lat. 37° 24' north; population, 94,000. It is an archiepiscopal see, and stands in a fine plain, surrounded by an old wall,built of cement, with twelve gates, and 166 turrets. The interior of the city is built in the Moorish style, the streets being often so narrow that a person can touch the houses on both sides at once; and it is badly paved. The squares are neither numerous nor spacious. There are several beautiful public walks, one, in particular, on the banks of the Guadalquivir. Tho city contains a cathedral, twenty-nine churches, eighty-four convents, and twenty-four hospitals. Thecathedral is the largest Gothic edifice in Spam, and one of the largest churches in Europe. It was built in the fifteenth century, contains eighty-two altars, and has a tower 250 feet high, considered the finest in Spain. Other conspicuous edifices are the alcazar, or palace, a Moorish building, containing u library of 20,000 volumes, a garden, &.c; the longa or exchange, the artillery school and the mint. The houses generally cover a large space, but towards the street they have often a mean appearance, the Moors being accustomed to confine their embellishments to the interior. Seville contains an academy for the physical sciences, one for the fine arts, a medical society, and a university, founded in 1502, almost as backward as at the time of its foundation. The silk manufactures of Seville were formerly extensive. In the time of Ferdinand and Isabella, it is said there were 6000 looms. These manufactures declined in the middle and end of the seventeenth century, but revived again in the eighteenth, and between 2000 and 3000 looms are now employed. Other manufactures are coarse woollens, leather, tobacco and snuff. Vessels drawing more than ten feet of water must unload eight miles below the city, and the largest vessels stop at St. Lucar, at the momli of the river. Seville is one of the most ancient cities of Spain; by the Romans called Hispalvi; by the Goths Hispalia; by the Arabians Ixbilla; hence, by the Castilians Sevilla. It was the residence of the Gothic kings before they moved to Toledo. Ferdinand III, king of Castile, after a year's siege, forced Seville to open its gates to him. At this time it is said to have contained 600,000 inhabitants; and upon the capitulation 300,000 Moors abandoned the city. After the discovery of America, it became the centre of the commerce of the new world, and was very flourishing; but the difficulty in navigating the river, and the superior advantages of the port of Cadiz, induced the government to order the galleons to be stationed at the latter place.
Sevres; a village, with 2700 inhabitants, about half way between Paris and Versailles (two leagues from each}, lying near St Cloud, on the Seine. It is celebrated for its glass and porcelain manufactories. The porcelain of Sevres is unrivalled for brilliancy of color and delicacy of execution. The finest specimens are made for the court, and are annually exhibited at Christmas in the halls of the Louvre, with the products of the Gobelin looms. (See Porcelain, and Pottery.)
Seward, Anna, daughter of Thomas Seward, rector of Eyam, Derbyshire, and canon residentiary of Lichfield, was bom at Eyam, in 1747, and in childhood exhibited a taste for poetical composition, which was rather checked than encouraged by her father. Miss Seward's first separate publication was an Elegy on the Death of Captain Cook, with an Ode to the Sun (1780, 4to.); and this was followed by a Monody on Major Andre, with Letters to her from Major Andre, written in 1769 (1781, 4to.), and Louisa, a Poetical Novel, in four Epistles (1784, 4to.). In 1799, she published a collection of sonnets; and in 1804 appeared her Life of Doctor Darwin. She died at the episcopal palace at Lichfield, in 1809. Her cor
respondence was published, with a biographical memoir, in 6 vols, 8vo.
Sex is the term used to designate the two divisions of all organic bodies into male and female. It is a law of nature, that all organic bodies shall be produced by their like, and each class is endowed with particular organs appropriated to this service, which constitute the distinction of sexes. In the vegetable world, uV sexes are, for the most part, united in our bud; although, in many classes, they arc distributed in different flowers upon the same plant, or upon different plum Among animals, especially the more perfectly formed, the division of the sexes i> complete. In general, the male sex, iii comparison with the female, is stronger: the female more delicate and tender. The fundamental characters of the two sexw appear more or less distinctly in nx*i kinds of living beings, till in man the) ore found in a degree of developemeut corresponding to his rank in creation. The muscular system of man is firmer and more powerful; his chest wider, hi-' lungs more capacious and stronger; uV outlines of his form are more distinct, and his whole frame larger and stronger. The female form is more slender; the bones are smaller and softer; the flesh less solid; the chest narrower; the lungs smaller; the heart and arterial system weaker: on the other hand, the vtiou* and lymphatic systems predominate (thus inclining the person to delicacy and inactivity); the space between the skin swJ the interior parts is more loaded with fat; and thus the contour is more rounded, forming the waving line; the whole proportion, in fine, of the body smaller, and more delicate. Hence the form of man conveys the idea of strength; the form of woman, that of beauty. Man is more active, grasping distant objects; more inclined to effort, to occupy his ferulue* upon abstract subjects, and extensirv plans. The quick and violent passions belong to the man; the quiet, the domestic, and the retiring, to the woman. The woman is confined to a smaller cirri'. with which, however, she is more thoroughly acquainted; and is more patient and enduring in the performance of the ordinary duties of life. Man must acquire ; woman strives to keep: man strrrw to effect his object by force; woman In kindness or by cunning. The one is busied with the bustle of out-door fur. the other is devoted to domestic quirtMan labors in the sweat of his brow, and, exhausted by his efforts, requires deep repose; woman is always biuty in a quiet activity.
Sexagesimal*,or Sexagesimal FracTions; fractions whose denominators proceed in a sexagecuple ratio; that is, a prime, or the first minute, = y'ff; a secand= jjVu ;athird = lryoij. Anciently there were no other than sexagesimals used in astronomy; and they are still retained in many cases, though decimal arithmetic has now grown into use in astronomical calculations. In these fractions, which some call astronomical fractions, the denominator, being always Bixty, or a multiple thereof, is usually omitted, and the numerator only written down, thus, 4° & 32" 50"' 16"" is to be read, four degrees, fifty-nine minutes, thirty-two seconds, fifty thirds, sixteen fourths, &c. It ■ readily seen how great the advantage of the decimal division (according to which the circle has 400 degrees, each degree 100 minutes, each minute 100 seconds, &c.) is over the sexagesimal division; but as this change was one of the effects which the revolution produced in France, the sexagesimal division gained ground again under the elder line of the Bourbons. Biot often expresses the results of his calculations according to both divisions; and to show how different the expressions are, we will only state that the sun's parallax is, according to the sexagesimal division, = 8", 8 , and according to the centesimal (less properly
called decimal), 27", 1
Sextant; an instrument for taking altitudes and other angular distances. It is constructed on a principle similar to the quadrant (q. v.); but the arc, containing a sixth part of a circle, may be taken to 120°. Sextants are generally fitted with apparatuses for ascertaining the angular distances, &c, in lunar observations.
Sextus (sumamed Empiricus, from his belonging to the empiric school of medicine) was a celebrated sceptic, who flourished towards the close of the second century. He was probably a Greek by With, studied at Alexandria and Athens, became a pupil of the sceptic philosopher Herodotus of Tarsus, and combined extensive learning with great acuteness. ^pticism appears in his writings in the most perfect state which it had reached in ancient times; and its object and method are more clearly developed than they had been by his predecessors. (See *"ptiri*m.) He is often sophistical in the application of his sceptical principles. We have two works by him, written in the Greek language, and which are tho
source of our knowledge of the Greek sceptical philosophy. One of them, entitled Institutes of Pyrrhonism (in three books), explains the method of Pyrrho (q. v.); the other, entitled Against the Mathematicians, is an attempt to apply that method to all the prevailing philosophical systems, and other branches of knowledge. Fabricius edited both works (ScxH Empirici Opera, Or. et Latnheipsic, 1718).
Sexual System. (See Botany.)
Seyd, or Zeid ; the name of a slave of Mohammed.who was one of the first to acknowledge the divine mission of his master, was adopted by him, and received Zeinab, a cousin of Mohammed, as his wife; the prophet, however, having fallen in love with her himself, Seyd was ready to resign her. Voltaire, in his Mahomet, makes Seyd an innocent but blindly submissive youth, who, at the prophet's order, kills a person, who turns out to be his own father. Seyd is therefore sometimes used to denote a man blindly devoted to the will of another. Thus St. Just is called by Mr. Nodier the Seyd of Robespierre ; and the duke of Rovigo sayB, in his Memoirs, that he has often been taken for the Seyd of Napoleon.
Setffarth, Gustavus, professor in the university of Leipeic, made himself known by editing Spohn's explanation of the Egyptian hieroglyphics. (See Spohn.) He returned, in 1828, from a tour made through Italy, France and England, to try Spohn's system of deciphering. He has published Contributions to the Knowledge of the Literature, Art, Mythology and History of Ancient Egypt (first number, with four lithographic piutcs, 4to., Leipsic); Rudimenta hieroglyphica ; Brevis Defensio hieroglyphices inventee a F. A. Spohn et G. Sejiffarth (4to.); Replique aux Objections de M. J. F. Champollion le vnine eontre le Systlmc hieroglyphvpie de M. Spohn et G. Seyffarth. (See Hieroglyphics.)
Seymour, Edward; duke of Somerset in the reign of Edward VI, to whom ho was maternal uncle, being the son of sir John Seymour, of Wolf-hall, in Wiltshire, and brother of lady Jane Seymour, tho third wife of Henry VIII. He was educated at Oxford, and early devoted himself to the military profession. On the marriage of his sister with die king, in 1536, he was raised to the peerage, by the title of viscount Beauchamp, and the following year created carl of Hertford. He commanded in a maritime expedition against the Scots, in 1544, when he landed a body of troops at Leith, and set fire to the city of Edinburgh.* On the death »f Henry VIII, uo rose to unbounded power, both in the church and state. By the will of Henry he had been nominated one of the council of regency, during the minority of Edward" VI (q. v.); but, not content with his share of power, he procured himself to be appointed governor of the king and protector of the kingdom. In 1548, he obtained the post of lord treasurer, was created duke of Somerset, and made earl marshal. The same year he headed an army, with which he invaded Scotland, and, after having gained the victory of Musselburgh, returned in triumph to England. His success excited the jealousy of the earl of Warwick and others, who procured his confinement in the Tower, in October, 1541*, on the charge of arbitrary conduct and injustice; and he was deprived of his offices, and heavily fined. But he soon after obtained a full pardon from the king, was admitted at court, and ostensibly reconciled to his adversary, lord Warwick (see Dudley, John), whose son es|>oused one of his daughters. The reconciliation was probably insincere, as Warwick, who had succeeded to his influence over the young king, caused Somerset to be again arrested, in October, 1551, on the charge of treasonable designs against the lives of some of the privy counsellors. He was tried, found guilt}', and beheaded on Tower-hill, in 155a. Seymour, Jane. (See Hewn/ VHL) Sforza; a celebrated Italian house, which played an important part in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, gave six sovereigns to Milan, and formed alliances with most of the princely houses of Europe. The founder of the house was a peasant of Cotignola, in Romagna, Giaronio Atleudolo, whose skill and courage as a statesman and a warrior made him one of the most powerful condoltirri of Italy. As he was one day tailoring in the field, he was attracted by the sight of some mercenaries, and, throwing his axe against a tree, determined to become a soldier if it stuck in the tree, and to remain u peasant if it fell. Fair doomed him to in-come a soldier, and he served Joanna II, queen of Naples, who regarded him as the stay of her throne. The name of Sforza he assumed from the vigor with which he had hurled his axe. To his tonally valiant sou Fraucesco, he left, with a body of devoted followers, a power which made him formidable to any of the Italian stales. Francesco liecame the son-in-law of Philip Maria Visconti, duke v*f Milan, and received the command of
the Milanese forces in the war acaiu< Venice. But, after the death of his feih-in-law (1447), symptoms of distrust appeared between him and the lenders <*" the Milanese state. He seemed to possess the power and the will to seize upon the tin Oik-, to which his wife Biancm bad a hereditary claim. He accordingly concluded a treaty with Venice, advanced against Milan, and compelled the cilizese by famine to surrender the city. Tbe» chose him duke in 1448, and r rancesrtv. a fortunate and celebrated prince, bennythe founder of a dynasty, that did Dot Id lierit his fame nor his fortune. He dierl in 14ti(i.—His son, GaUazzo Maria, a bar barian and a voluptuary, was murdered by some conspirators in 1476.—The Sob of Galeazzo, Giovanni Galeazzo, was de I ic ii -i I by his uncle Ludovieo, numsmnl the Moor (i7 Moro). The latter formed i connexion with Charles VIII (q. T.) of Franco, to whom be opened the passage through Italy to Naples (14!M), and thu» prevented Giovanni's father-in-law, .\\phonso, king of Naples, from rendenw assistance to his son. At a subscjiH-r. |teriod, he joined the league again* France, and was on that account deposed by Louis XII (14911). By the help of the Swiss, he expelled the French in the same year; but Louis again took the field against him, and prevailed upon u> Swiss in his service to refuse to fight against their countrymen in the French ranks. Ludoviro was afterwards betray ed by one of his Swiss mercenaries i the "king, who (1500) carried him v* France, where he (bed at l.uche*,ia 1510 —His sun, .Vaximilinn, once more drov the French from his territories by the an) of the Swiss, but, in consequence of Uk battle of Marignano, was obliged to cede bis dominions to Francis I (1515), in con sideration of a pension. Fmncia wa» afterwards driven from Italy by lb" cm peror Charles V, who invested Franceartk brother of Maximilian, with the duefct of Milan, in 152S». On the death of Frae. cesco, in 15.15, Charles V conferred &r duchy on his sou Philip II, king of Sp~i (See Mibin.)
S'GaAVFSA.tDK. (See Grmttaxd'.
Shad; a large s|*«cie* of (irmiit ;■»» pea), which inhabits llie sea near tV moutlis of large rivers, and in the *f rstf ascends thorn for the purpose of deport ing its spawn in the sliallow wnlrr aU* their sou re es. Tin- young fry remain l» a season in the waters which rate thru birth, but on the approach of cold weather descend the rivers, and lake retugv n ib< ocean. The old ones likewise return, and ui this time are emaciated and unfit for find. The form of the shad is the same as that of the other herrings, very much compressed, with the abdomen gradually becoming thinner, and forming a serrated edge; and, like them, the bones are much more numerous and more slender than in other fish. The shad which frequents our waters has not been accurately compared with the European, but is probably a different species. It usually weighs four or five pounds, but sometimes twelve: the scales are easily detached, when a row of dark spots is exposed on each side. It is found in all the rivers of our Atlantic coast, is highly esteemed for food, and is consumed in great quantities, in the fresh state, in our principal cities. During the season they are an important source of wealth to the inhabitants of the borders of the Hudson, Delaware and Chesapeake. Great quantities are salted, but are less esteemed than when eaten fresh.
Shaddock ; a large species of orange, attaining the diameter of seven or eight inches, with a white, thick, spongy and bitter rind, and a red or white pulp, of a sweet taste, mingled with acidity. It is a native of China and Japan, and was brought to the West Indies by a captain Shaddock, from whom it has derived its name. It is often called pampelmoes. (See Orange.)
Shadweli, Thomas, an English dramatic poet, was bom at Stanton-hall, Norfolk, a seat of his father's, about 1640, educated at Cambridge, and afterwards placed at the Middle Temple, where he *udied the law for some time, and then visited the continent On his return from bis travels, he applied himself to the drama, and wrote seventeen plays. His model was Ben Jonson, whom he imitated in drawing numerous characters, chiefly in caricature, of eccentricities in the manners of the day. Although coarse, and of temporary reputation, the comedies of .Shadweli are not destitute of genuine humor. At the revolution he was created poet laureate, on the recommendation of the earl of Dorset; and as he obtained it by the dispossession of Dryden, the latter exhibited the bitterest enmity towards his successor, against whom he composed his severe satire of Mac Flecknoe. He died Dec. 6, 1692, in consequence, it is supposed, of taking too large a dose of opium, to which he was attached. Besides his dramatic writings, he was author of several pieces of poetry of no great
merit. The best edition of bis works was printed in 1720 (4 vols., 12ino.). Shaftesbury, Lord. (See Cooper.) Shagreen, or Chagreen (in the Levant, Saghir); a kind of grained leather, of a close and solid substance, used for forming covers for cases, &c, which easily receives different colors. It is prepared by the Tartars, Russians and Tripolitans, from the skin of the Buchanan wild ass, and is also made, in some parts of Russia, and in Persia, of horse-skin. The hinder back piece of the hides of these animals is cut off just above the tail and around the loins, in the form of a crescent The piece thus separated is soaked several days in water, till the hair drops off. It is then stretched, and the hair and epidermis are removed with a scraper. After a second soaking, the flesh side is scraped in a similar manner; the skins are then stretched on wooden frames, and the hair side is covered with the seeds of the chenopodium album, or goose-foot The seeds are then trodden into the leather, which, being dried, and freed from the seeds, is left full of indentations, which produce the grain of the shagreen. The dried skins are then scraped with a piece of sharp iron, till the inequalities are removed, and soaked again for twenty-four hours; the parts where the impressions of the seed were produced, are thus swollen and raised above the scraped surface. The skins are next immersed in ley, and are ready to receive their color. The most common color is sea-green (given by means of copper filings and a solution of sal ammoniac); but blue, red, black, and other colors, are also given it. Shagreen is also made of the skinB of the sea-otter, seal, &c.
Shah, or Schah, in Persian, signifies king; whence Shahnameh (hook of kings). (See Ferdusi, and Persian Literature.) Shah, Nadir. (See Nadir Shah.) Shake, in music. (See Trill.) Shakers, or Shaking Quakers; a sect which arose at Manchester, in England, about 1747, and has since been transferred to America, where it now consists of a number of thriving families. The founders were a number of obscure Quakers; and the Shakers still agree with the Friends in their rejection of the civil and ecclesiastical authority, and military service, in their objections to taking oaths, their neglect of the common courtesies of society, their rejection of the sacraments, and their belief in the immediate revelations of the Holy Ghost (gifts). At first, the motions from which they derive