Encouragement to Manufactures. the most productive branches of those duties, un- alone, even should future circumstances compel less provisions are adopted, which, by laying the us to keep up our armament in the Meditertax on the quantity actually distilled, will require ranean. additional officers, to the augmentation of the On the subject of the postage on newspapers, present heavy charges of collection, and a multi- the committee are of opinion that it would be unplication of oaths, thereby lessening the security advisable to take off that tax, inasmuch as it is inof that sanction, and endangering the public significant in amount, and is the means of inmorals. The abolition of one class of these suring the safe delivery of newspapers to their duties, by materially diminishing their product, respective subscribers. without effecting, in the same degree, the ex- From these various considerations, the commitpense of collection, would be a strong additional tee respectfully submit the following bill, to reargument for the abrogation of all; and when it peal the laws laying duties on stills and domestic is recollected that some of those which it might distilled spirits ; on refined sugar; licenses to rebe the most desirable to retain, are, even now, sub- tailers; sales at auction ; pleasurable carriages ; jects of taxation in the several States, the com- and stamped vellum, parchment, and paper. mittee perceive no substantial objection to releasing entirely to the States, objects of revenue, which, to them, may be equally desirable and productive; since, to them, ihe collection can be at

ENCOURAGEMENT TO MANUFACTURES. tended with little additional charge, and since to the Federal Government exclusively belongs the most fruitful source of revenue which the Union [Communicated to the House, March 30, 1802.] affords. A wise policy, it is believed, will, there- To the honorable the Representatives of the United fore, induce the United States to abstain, wherever States, in Congress assembled, the memorial of a practicable, from exercising the right of taxation, large number of citizens, from the counties of Moron those subjects over which the individual States ris, Sussex, and Bergen, in the State of New Jersey, possess a concurrent right. Other reasons concur who are concerned in the manufacturing of bar, in producing an opinion favorable to the repeal of cast iron, rolled iron, nail rods, and nails, humbly those duties. They consist

showeth : 1st. In the vexation and oppression of many of That, at a meeting held by them at Morristown, them, some of which are peculiarly obnoxious to in the county of Morris, on the 17th day of March our citizens.

1802, John Cobb, Esq., was chosen chairman, and 2d. In the nature of excise, which is hostile to Silas Dickerson, secretary. Your memorialists the genius of a free people.

then thonght it expedient to make known to you 3d. In their tendency to multiply offices, and the situation in which they find themselves placed, increase the patronage of the Executive. This in regard to prosecuting these branches of manueffect alone would forbid the retention of the in- factures, since the late establishment of peace in ternal taxes, and a reduction, to an equal amount, Europe, many of whom, with a view to render of the impost on articles of the first necessity; those manufactories a permanent source of wealth since, by that measure, not one of the host of offi- and independence to this country, and a profitable cers employed in their collection would be re- employment to themselves, have recently purduced,

chased large tracts of woodland, as necessary apNone of the foregoing considerations, however, pendages thereto, at high prices, under an expectcould have induced your committee to recommend ation that our Government, following, in this a repeal of these taxes, was it apprehended that, instance, the policy of European nations, would by the measure, the punctual compliance with extend a fostering 'hand, not only to this, but to the public engagements could be endangered. all other manufactories of our country; that, since But, believing additional taxes to be unnecessary that event, so favorable to humanity, such large for defraying the annual charges of Government, quantities of foreigo bar iron have been imported, at the present rate of expenditure, they conceive as to cause a serious decline in the prices of our that a reduction of that expenditure will justify a own. proportionate reduction of the public burdens. A Under these discouragements, we presume to contrary doctrine would inply an urgent necessi- look with confidence to our Government, as the ty for an increase of the existing taxes, should no only source from whence we can hope for relief. retrenchment be made in the permanent public As our country abounds with many, yet unimexpenditure. By the annexed letter of the Sec- proved sites for those manufactories, large forests retary of War, it will appear that a sum exceed- of timber, and inexhaustible mines of, perhaps, the ing $400,000 'will be saved on the army alone. best iron ore in the world, which, in our opinion, By the estimate of the Secretary of the Navy, if protected by such additional duties on foreign the expenditure for the current year is estimated iron, as would tend, in a measure, to discourage at $200,000 dollars less than that of the year future importations, would enable us to progress 1801. Of this sum, not more than $600,000 are in those branches with renewed vigor, and thereby applicable to objects of permanent expense. It enable the United States, not only io supply themfollows, therefore, that a sum exceeding the whole selves, at present, but shortly, to furnish large amount of the internal duties will be saved in the quantities for exportation, and prevent the necespermanent expenditure of those two departments sity of sending, annually, large sums of money to



Mint of the United States. countries from whence it never returns, for the

Philadelphia, Feb. 27, 1802. purchase of such articles as, with proper encour- Sir: In answer to your letter which I had the agement, we could more than supply ourselves.

honor of receiving by this day's post, I must inWe have taken the liberty to accompany this form you that, having met with great difficulties with an estimate of the number of furnaces, forges, the two last years, in obtaining a full supply of rolling and slitting mills, in this State, which, on copper, from various causes attending the means examining, we presume, you will find nearly cor- of payment, I wrote to Mr. Boueton, early in the rect; in which we have likewise stated the prob- Fall, to send me out, by the first Spring ships, able quantity of iron annually manufactured into from twenty to twenty-five tons of planchettes, and nails.

to repeat it' every Spring and Fall, promising to Your memorialists, therefore, request your hon- make my remittances, during the Winter, for the orable body will take the foregoing into consider- next shipment. There will be due him on such ation, and afford such encouragement in the prem- shipmeni, about twelve or, fifteen thousand dolises, by increasing the duties on imported iron, as lars, which I am striving to provide for, by finishas in your better wisdem, you may think mosting the cents as fast as possible. proper.

This contract is obligatory on us, and must be Signed in behalf of the meeting.

paid for; but I shall be able to prevent any furJOHN COBB, Chairman.

ther shipment, at any time before the first of May, Attest: Silas DICKERSON, Secretary.

by which, I hope, we shall know the mind of the Legislature on the subject of the Mint.

We have nearly twenty tons of planchettes on In the State of New Jersey, there are at least hand, and which will keep us employed during one hundred and fifty forges now actually carried the Winter, but the expected shipment, will reon, which, on a moderate calculation, will pro- main for the Summer's work, if the coinage of duce twenty tons of bar iron, each, annually, copper is continued. amounting to three thousand tons. There are I shall therefore expect your warrant, as realso seven blast furnaces now carried on, which quested, and shall push the finishing the planyield, on an average, five hundred tons each, an-chettes on hand, as fast as possible, to make good nually, amounting to thirty-five hundred tons. the residue of the payment. There are, likewise, six other blast furnaces, in As to importing the cents complete from Eugood situations, which are not at present carried rope, it can certainly be done for a trifling sum on; besides, many situations unimproved, equal to above the price of the planchettes, say about any in the State. There are also a great number twenty pounds sterling per ton, did the policy of of forges, and situations for forges, in the like con Government admit of it. Of this, I would not dition. About one hundred and twenty of the venture to determine, the Legislature alone being above-mentioned forges are in the counties of competent to that purpose. I once stated it to Morris, Sussex, and Bergen, besides three blast a committee of both Houses, but they determined furnaces; all of which are actually going. The that it would be a dangerous measure, and would State of New Jersey, on a moderate calculation, not hearken to it. is capable of furnishing, annually, five thousand An importation of cents, complete, would not tons of bar iron, and seven thousand tons of cast diminish the security of having good copper, but iron. There are four rolling and slitting mills, it would hazard the running of a flood of cents, which roll and slit, on an average, each, two hun- | lighter than allowed by law, into the United States, dred tons, one half of which is manufactured into and the difficulty of preventing the evil would be nails. The above estimate is made with as much ac- very great. It would be a greater security to curacy as in our power, from the best information Government to have the coinage of copper exewe have been able to obtain.

cuted here by contract, which might be done withJOHN COBB, Chairman. out expense to the Union, provided Government Attest: Silas DICKERSON, Secretary.

would take the cents.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, sir.

your obedient humble servant, THE MINT.


Hon. SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY. Communicated to the House, April 2, 1802, with a bill

to repeal so much of the acts, the one, entitled “An act establishing a Mint, and regulating the coins of

Mint, Philadelphia, the United States; and the other, an act, entitled

March 4, 1802. "An act supplementary to the act establishing a Mint, Sir: The probability of the abolition of the and regulating the coins of the United States," as Mini Establishment, induces me, thus early, to relates to the establishment of the Mint.

state to you that, if the Legislature should not be Treasury DEPARTMENT, March 9, 1802. disposed altogether to abandon the copper coinSir: I have the honor to enclose copies of two age, or might be willing, after repealing the laws letters on the subject of the Mint, and to be, with establishing the Mint, to allow of a copper colagreat respect, sir, your most obedient servant. age, provided it may be done without an expense

ALBERT GALLATIN. to the public, I would solicit your interests and Hon. Mr. Giles, Chairman, c.

influence to promote a proposition of that kind,

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Mint of the United States.

which I do not presume on, only so far as you A lot on Sugar alley, at the rear of the above, may deem it to consist with the public good; in twenty feet front on the alley, and about one hunconnexion with which, I flatter myself you will dred feet deep. not be wanting, independent of any other claim I A frame building, improved for a large furnace, may have, or pretension to public patronage: in the commons at the north end of Sixth street,

However, I need not omit informing you that, of little value, the ground being merely loaned on the first establishment of the Mint, I relin- to us. quished a profession, at least equally productive As to personal estate, this consists wholly of the and beneficial as that of the engraver's place in copper planchettes on hand, amounting to about the Mint, which I have filled, and I believe with twenty-two tons. out reproach, ever since; by the loss of which, I. Three horses, good for little but for the use of shall be left without resource, being so long out the Mint. The machinery of the Mint, of no of the practice of my former profession, that I feel value but for the use of the Mint. an incapacity to prosecute it with any more effect. Five striking presses with machinery. I therefore submit the following proposition to Three cutting presses. your consideration, to the consideration of Con- One milling machine. gress, or to the Department where it may prop- Five pair of rollers, great and small. erly belong.

One drawing machine. That I may be vested with the exclusive privi- Three pair of smith's bellows. lege, according to law, of coining cents of the A set of blacksınith's tools. United States, as well from abroad as within the A large number of hubs and dies, on hand, of realm, under such restrictions and provisions, different denominations. either with respect to time or quantity, as Con- Carpenter's tools. gress, in their wisdom, may deem proper ; that the Seven stoves, cents shall be of the present weight and quality, One turning lathe. and that they shall be coined free of all expense

Six scale beams, scales, and weights. to Government, excepting that of receiving them Two sets assay scales, and sundry adjusting when coined, and paying the nominal amount. scales. Should the above propositions meet with your

Furniture in the clerks' rooms. approbation or otherwise, I should still be happy Various implements used in the several departto know your determination to forward them or ments. not; if the former, I would beg to know the most About two thousand bushels of charcoals. proper mode of introducing it to Congress, Engraver's tools, pots, bottles, &c.; an old whether by petition, and how conceived, or other horse, cart, and gears, wise.

About two thousand fire brick; a considerable I am, sir, with the highest respect, your most quantity of old iron. obedient servant,

It is impossible to ascertain the value of these ROBERT SCOTT. articles, as most of them are of but little conseAlbert Gallatin, Esq.,

quence, except for the use of the Mint, or to perSecretary of the Treasury.

sons who may intend to put them to the like uses; and, if sold at public sale, probably will not bring

half their real value. The machinery of the TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Mint may last a year longer, with small repair,

March 26, 1802. but, after that, will cost about three hundred dolSir: I have the honor to enclose a letter receiv- lars, to put it in good repair. The horses may, ed from the Director of the Mint, and to be, with also, last another year, but must then, at farthest, perfect respect, sir, your most obedient servant, be replaced by others.

ALBERT GALLATIN. If it should be thought best to continue the Hon. Mr. Giles, Chairman, foc.

Mint, the establishment should be rendered permanent, and the machinery should be moved by

steam instead of horses, which would, in some MINT OF THE UNITED States, measure, reduce the annual expenses of labor, as Philadelphia, March 22, 1802.

almost the whole of it could be carried on with Sir: I am honored with your letter of the 10th the same original force. Our lots are much too instant, and hasten to give you the best answer small, by which we are greatly cramped as to that I can, with regard to the real and personal room. They are now very valuable, being in the estate of the Mint Establishment, &c. This con- heart of the city ; their price would purchase a sists of

very advantageous lot in a less public place, and Two lots on Seventh street, between Market buildings might be now planned, so as to reduce and Arch streets, 20 feet each on Seventh street, the expenses of a Mint. But I am perfectly satand extending back about 100 feet, with a dwell isfied, that no modification of the Mint could be ing-house on the north lot, and a shell of a house contrived to lessen them below seventeen or eighon the south lot, wh last lot widens on the rear

teen thousand dollars per annum; though if a to about sixty feet, on which the stable stands. larger quantity of bullion could, by any means, be These lots pay a ground rent of $27 50 cents per provided, a greater quantity of coin could be anannum.

nually made with the same expense, although I Remission of DutiesPublic Debt,

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am, individually of opinion, that its present issue, States. The Committee, therefore, respectfully
of about five hundred thousand dollars, annually, recommend the adoption of the following resolu
in addition to the current coin of the Union, is tion:
sufficient for the present welfare of the United Resolved, That it is inexpedient to authorize

the remission of the duties which have accrued,
It is the absolute necessity of strict and regular or may accrue, on distillation, in any case whai-
checks, throughout the whole establishment, that ever.
makes the expense of the Mint so great, and this
cannot be dispensed with, under any modification
that can be proposed. I verily believe, that, under

no given circumstance, can the necessary coin of
the United States be produced with safety to the
Government, at a much less expense than it is at

(Communicated to the House, April 9, 1802.] present; and, I believe, that, in consideration of Mr. Randolph made the following report: the subject, it would not be safe to estimate the

The Committee of Ways and Means having expense, at any rate, much under twenty thousand taken into consideration the subject of the public dollars.

debt, and the provisions requisite for effecting its In the above estimate of expenses,

should be ultimate redemption, thereupon respectfully report remembered that the copper cents may produce a

that the propriety of pursuing efficient measures profit of five thousand dollars per annum, that for the final extinguishment of the public debt

, is ought to be credited against the expenditures of a position too obviously true, in the opinion of the Mirt in future, which reduces the amount your Committee, to require any illustration from considerably.

ihem: The unexampled prosperity of our courI have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, try, the flourishing state of our finances, and the your obedient humble servant,

restoration of peace among the European Powers


all contribute to render the present period pecuHon. SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

liarly auspicious to this important undertaking.

Should, however, the destructive effects of the Two gentlemen, in Philadelphia, of respectable imate the time necessary to invigorate the ex;

preceding war, form any criterion by which to escharacter, have requested me to submit the fol- hausted belligerent parties; should a season of lowing propositions on the subject of the Mint. They will engage to coin on the following ed to pass away without a vigorous exertion to

great and increasing financial prosperity be sufferterms, and will give ample security for the per- exonerate the Union from its present encumbranformance of the contract: Copper for the difference in weight, small sil- shall ever be found to discharge the principal of a

ces, every hope may be conceded that a pation ver for three per cent., dollars for two and a half, debt which she has once funded; and the United and gold for one and a half-on the value.

States must rest content to encounter, with emProvided, the United States will give them barrassed resources, any emergency which may such part of the present machinery, belonging to bereafter, arise. A just confidence is, however, the Mint, as they may want, with the use of the entertained, that every description of persons, as building.

well those who advocate extensive warlike establishments, as those who are desirous of lessening

the public contribution, will unite in support of a REMISSION OF DUTIES.

measure, which, by liberating the revenues of the

Union from the present heavy encumbrances, can [Communicated to the House, April 2, 1802.]

alone enable its Government to launch into es

pensive naval preparations, or to reduce the duties Mr. RANDOLPH, from the Committee of Ways on imports. and Means, who were instructed to "inquire into That no effectual provision for the final redempthe expediency or inexpediency of authorizing tion of the whole of the present debt of the Unithe Secretary of the Treasury to remit the duties, ted States does, at this time, exist, a recurrence to in all cases, which have accrued, or may accrue, the letter of the Secretary of the Treasury, hereon spirits distilled, and on stills, within the Uni-unto annexed, will readily demonstrate

. To the ted States, upon satisfactory proof being made to measures which have already been adopted in the said Secretary, that such stills, or distilling relation to this subject, their complexity forms aa materials, have been accidentally destroyed by objection inferior only to their insufficiency. To fire, rendered useless by an inundation of water, establish a plan as simple as the nature of the ex: or other unavoidable casualıy,” made the follow-isting system, on which it is necessarily engrafted ing report :

will permit, and altogether adequate in its opera That, in a variety of individual cases, the prin- tion, has been the design of the Committee. To ciple has been settled, that the Government ought appropriate, permanently, so much of the annual not to become the insurer of any person : That revenue as may be requisite

, appeared the only the adoption of a conirary doctrine, should it be measure calculated to effect 'this last and princiextended to commercial cases, might prove infin- pal purpose. This sum does not exceed the probitely dangerous to the revenue of the United | able excess of the annual receipts beyond the cut

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Public Debt of the United States.

rent expenditure of the Government. In making said duties as shall be equal to the interest on the the necessary appropriation to the sinking fund, deferred stock thus redeemed, shall remain approinstead of leaving to it only such surplus as the priated, and be applicable to the same objects as Government might not choose to employ on any the amount of the interest on the other public other object, an adherence to economy is secured, debts, herein-before mentioned. wbilst the resources of the country to meet any 5th. The net proceeds of the sales of the Westextraordinary emergency, remain unimpaired. ern lands. Nothing less than the regular operation of a per- 6th. The amount of moneys received in the manent system, can induce the rational expecta- Treasury, on account of debts due to the United tion that ihe debt will ever be extinguished. Care, States, by reason of any matter prior to the presat the same time, has been taken, that such por- ent Constitution. tion of the sum appropriated as the Commission- 7th. The surplus of revenue to the end of the ers may be unable annually to apply to the re- year 1790, specially appropriated to the purchase demption of the debt, shall be returned into the of the debt. public Treasury. Various other provisions have 8th All surplusses of the revenues of the United also been adopted, for an explanarion of which, States, which shall remain, at the end of any calthe Committee beg leave to refer to the annexed endar year, beyond the amount of the approprialetter of the head of that Department; and to sub- tions charged upon the said revenues, and which, mit the following bill, making provision for the during the session of Congress next thereafter, redemption of the whole public debt of the Uni- shall not be otherwise specially appropriated or ted States.

reserved by law.

All the moneys accruing by virtue of the pre

ceding provisions, are vested, in trust, in the ComTREASURY DEPARTMENT,

missioners of the Sinking Fund, to be applied, ac

March 31, 1802. cording to the provisions hereafter stated, to the Sır: In compliance with your letter of the 18th reimbursement and redemption of the public debt, instant, requesting that a precise statement of the until the whole of the debt existing on the 3d existing provisions for the redemption of the pub. March, 1795, including loans thereafter made for lic debt should be prepared and transmitted to you, redeeming or reimbursing the said debt, shall be I beg leave to submit the following details, and to discharged; and the faith of the United States is suggest, at the same time, in what respect it seems pledged, that the said moneys or funds shall thus necessary to explain or to reinforce those pro- remain, inviolably vested and appropriated, until visions.

the said redemption or reimbursement shall have 1. The funds appropriated for the redemption been effected: Provided, however, that if, after of the debt, are

the whole of the other species of the said debt shall Ist. So much of the duties on tonnage and have been redeemed, any part of the three per merchandise, (and spirits and stills,) as shall be cent. stock shall remain unredeemed, Congress equal to the interesi annually accruing on the may, nevertheless, divert the said funds to other principal of any part of the public debt, which purposes. Exclusively of the preceding provisions, has been, or, from time to time, may be discharg- ihe Commissioners of the Sinking Fund are fured, by payment, purchase, or any other means. ther authorized to raise money in the following

20. So much of the came duties as, together manner: with the preceding item, shall be equal to the pay

1st By borrowing, with the approbation of the ment of the eight per 'cent. annuity on the six President of the United States, at an interest not per cent. stock, until the final redemption of said exceeding six per cent and to be reimbursed at stock in the year 1818; after which redemption, the will of the United States, any sums requisite this appropriation shall cease; and the appropria- for the payment of any instalments, or parts of tion described by the preceding item, including the public debt, which may become due. therein, the interest on the whole amount of six 21. By borrowing, with the same approbation, per cent. stock thus redeemed, shall, thereafter, be a sum not exceeding five millions of dollars, at a applicable to the redemption or purchase of any rate not exceeding six per cent., irredeemable till other part of the public debt, existing on the 31 after the year 1819; and selling not more than March, 1795; (including any loans since contract-one balf of such six per cent, stock below par ; ed for the reimbursement of the same) which may the proceeds to be applied to the payment either remain unpaid at that time.

of any part of the debt, due to the Bank of the 3d. The dividends on the shares in the Bank of United States, and which was demandable before the United States, owned by the United States, or during the year 1736, or of any instalment of now released by the payment of the subscription the foreign debt. two millions loan from the appropriation of that

31 By selling, instead of effecting the preobject.

ceding loan, so many of the shares of the Bank of 4th. So much of the duties aforesaid, as, toge- the United States as they may think proper, to be ther with the said dividends, shall be equal to the applied as aforesaid. payment of the eight per cent. annuity on the de- İo addition to the preceding funds, the following ferred stock, until the final redemption of the said appropriations have been made, but the moneys stock in 1824 ; after which redemption, this ap- arising from the same have not been specially propriation shall cease, and only so much of the vested in the Commissioners, nor the faith of the

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