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DECEMEBR, 1802.
Amendment to Rules.

H. OF R. wished to draw their attention. One in the fol- the House must be read. If that decision was lowing words: “ When the reading of a paper is correct, the House had tied itself down by its own called for, and the same is objected to by any rules and subjected itself to the necessity of hearmember, it shall be determined by a vote of the ing every paper offered, however long, or however ' House." This rule had yesterday been decided improper. (and in his opinion correctly) to apply to papers Mr. E said it appeared to him necessary that already in the possession of the House, and not to this evil should be remedied. But he should not those which had never before been heard. But, sir, thick it necessary to confine the power of exclu. said Mr. R., I find another rule directing that all sion to matter derogatory to the dignity of the petitions, memorials, and other papers addressed to House. There were other good causes for excluthe House, shall be presented by the Speaker, or sion; the length of a paper; the manner of it beby a member in his place, and a brief statement ing offensive, or the maiter. It appeared to him of the contents thereof shall be verbally made by a first principle that every paper offered was in the introducers, &c. And wherefore ?' That the the possession of the House, and might be read, House may not be betrayed into the reading of or not. He had, therefore, wished the resolution that which it might be indecorous in them to of the gentleman from Virginia had been predihear. Conceiving, then, that they should be guid-cated upon a broader principle, viz: that if the ed in the interpretation of their rules by the same reading of any paper should be objected to, the principle which governed courts of justice in the sense of the House should be taken. Suppose, construction of a law—"the adopting of such an said Mr. E., I present a petition containing one interpretation as would give meaning and efficacy hundred and fifty pages. According to the rule, (if practicable) to every part of the instrument”- the reading of it cannot be dispensed with but by he had yesterday been compelled, however reluct- general consent; not even for other business of antly, to differ from an authority eminently enti- the greatest importance. Mr. E. then moved tled to his respect.

Since, whilst he concurred in the following amendment of Mr. RANDOLPH's the construction given to the rule which he had resolution: first read, he could not perceive that the right of “ But if any petition, memorial, or other paper so the House to be put into possession of improper presented, shall, in the reading, be objected to by any matter, was, thereby, at all affected. Otherwise, member, the further ding of the same shall be dethe provision contained in the second rule was termined by a vote of the House.” rendered altogether nugatory.

A member inquired, whether, as the resolution But since it had been adjudged that any com- and amendment went to rescind a standing rule munication, however voluminous; any petition, of the House, it was in order to decide upon them however frivolous; any memorial, however for the day on which they were offered. eign to their jurisdiction; any paper, however it The SPEAKER declared it was in order, as they might insult the dignity, however it might dero- did not go to rescind, but only to amend the standgate from the honor of the House, must, of ne-ing rules. cessity, be read; he conceived it his duty to en- The resolution and amendment were then taken deavor to relieve the House from the embarrass- up for consideration, when, on motion of Mr. ment of being compelled to listen to a libel upon VARNUM, they were referred to a select commititself, to refuse which was, as he conceived, a tee, consisting of Messrs. RANDOLPH, Eustis, and right inherent in every deliberative assembly. He L. R. MORRIS. bad drawn his proposed amendment in such terms as to leave untouched the sacred right of petition. A right which no one prized more dearly, and no

Thursday, December 30. one was more dispossd to cherish and defend, than Mr. Mirchill moved a resolution for the aphimself. This important privilege he believed pointment of a committee for inquiring into the would not be affecied by the resolution which he expediency of amending and revising the several was about to offer. Since, where redress of griev- acis respecting patents and copyrights, to report ances was really sought, the petitioners had al- thereon by bill or otherwise. ways the choice of inoffensive terms in which to Before offering the resolution, Mr. Mirchill express themselves, and nothing was more easily observed that his object was to simplify the existdiscernable than a petition whose object was the ing statutes respecting patents, by comprising them benefit of those preferring it, and one which was in one act. made a cover to insult those to whom it was pre- Resolution agreed to without a division. ferred. He concluded with moving the following amendment to the rules of the House, to be inserted after that he had last read :

FRIDAY, December 31.

Mr. Bacon, from the Committee of Elections, “That if any petition, memorial, or other paper, so to whom were referred the certificates or other presented, shall

, in the opinion of any member, contain credentials of several new members, and of the matter insulting to the dignity or derogatory from the honor of the

House, the reading of such paper shall, if delegate from the Mississippi Territory, returned objected to, be determined by a vote of the House.”

to serve in this House, made a report, in part,

thereupon, which was read, and ordered to lié Mr. Eustis observed that, by the decision yes on the table. terday, it appeared that every paper presented to A petition of sundry inhabitants of the City of

H. OF R.
Treaty with Spain..

DECEMBER, 1802. Washington, and of Georgetown, in the District of

Washington, December 30, 1802. Columbia. was presented to the House, and read, Sir: Although an informal communication to the praying that Congress will pass an act for incor- public, of the substance of the enclosed letter, may be porating an insurance company in the City of proper for quieting the public mind, yet I refer to the Washington, to be styled “The Columbia Gen- consideration of the House of Representatives, whether eral Insurance Company," to be established on

a publication of it, in form, might not give dissatisfacsuch plan as shall suit the present circumstances tion to the writer, and tend to discourage the freedom and future prospects of the seat of Government of the two Governments. Accept assurances of my

and confidence of communications between the agents of the United Siates.

high consideration and respect. Ordered, That the said petition be referred to

TH. JEFFERSON. Mr. Dennis, Mr. Van Ness, and Mr. TaliaFERRO, that they do examine the matter thereof, and re

The SPEAKER of the House of Reps. port the same, with their opinion thereupon, to The said Message and letter, and the papers the House.

transmitted therewith, were read: Whereupon, a Mr. Gray called up his resolution, laid some motion was made and seconded that the same, totime since on the table, as follows:

gether with the Message of the President of the Resolved, That a committee be appointed to inquire United States, of the twenty-second instant, relainto the expediency of passing a law rendering all per- tive to “ a violation on the part of Spain, of the sons forever incapable of holding any office under the wenty-second article of the Ì'reaty of Friendship, Government of the United States, who shall, at any Limits, and Navigation, between the United States time hereafter, be concerned in any duel, either in send- and the King of Spain," and the accompanying ing, carrying, or accepting any written or verbal chal documents, be referred to a select committee, to lenge; and that they report by bill or otherwise. consider and report thereon to the House: Mr. Davis opposed the resolution. He said if

And the question being taken thereupon, it the House could be made sensible that the resolu- passed in the negative-yeas 40, nays 42, as follows: tion embraced a subject on which it could not YEAS—Thomas Boude, Manasseh Cutler, Samuel constitutionally act, they would reject it. To him W. Dana, John Davenport, Thomas T. Davis, John it was plain that if the House pursued the object Dennis, William Dickson, William Eustis, Abiel Fosof the resolution it led them on forbidden ground. ter, Calvin Goddard, Roger Griswold, William Barry In the first place it took from the citizens a right Grove, John A. Hanna, Seth Hastings, Joseph Hempwhich, by their Constitution, they had secured 10 hill, Archibald Henderson, William Hoge, Samuel themselves, to wit: the right of free elections. Do Hunt, George Jackson, Thomas Lowndes, Ebenezer what the resolution contemplates, and no man kins, Thomas Plater, Nathan Read, John Rutledge,

Mattoon, Lewis R. Morris, Thomas Morris, Elias Per. can hold a seat here who ever fought a duel, or John Cotton Smith, Josiah Smith, John Stanley, John gave or carried a challenge, although he may be Stratton, Benjamin Tallmadge, Samuel Tenney, Samthe choice of the people. No such thing is said uel Thatcher, Thomas Tillinghast, Abram Trigg, George in the Constitution. The people in that instru- B. Upham, Killian K. Van Rensselaer, Lemuel Wilment have already defined the disqualification to

and Henry Woods. office-that charter of their rights declares that no Nars—Willis Alston, John Archer, John Bacon, person who has been impeached and found guilty Theodorus Bailey, Richard Brent, Robert Brown, # shall hold an office ;" and I contend that Con-William Butler, Thos. Claiborne, Matthew Clay, John gress cannot impeach a person for any offence Clopton, John Condit, Richard Cutts, Lucas Elmendorf, done by him as an individual; two things are re- Ebenezer Elmer, Edwin Gray, Joseph Heister, William quisite to ground an impeachment. First, the Helms, James Holland, David Holmes, Michael Leib, person must be an officer of the United States. David Meriwether, Samuel L. Mitchill, Thomas Moore, Secondly, he must have been guilty of some mal-James Mott, Anthony New, Thomas Newton, jr., John feasance in the discharge of the duties imposed on Randolph, jr., John Smilie, Israel Smith, John Smith, him by that office. If an individual who does not of New York, John Smith of Virginia, Henry Southard, hold an office under the United States commits Richard Stanford, Joseph Stanton, John Stewart, John murder, I deny the right of Congress to impeach Taliaferro, jr., David Thomas, John Trigg, John P. Van him-he is made amenable to the State laws ; Ness, Joseph B. Varnum, Isaac Van Horne, and Thomas

Wynns. while we were busy in impeaching the laws of the States. Let it not be understood that I advocate

Another motion was then made and seconded this practice. My observations disclaim the right that the Message and letter this day received from we have to act on it.

the President of the United States, with the paThe resolution was negatived.

pers accompanying the same, be printed for ihe

use of the members. And on the question thereTREATY WITH SPAIN.

upon,

it passed in the negative-yeas 33, nays 49, A confidential Message, as also a letter addressed as follows: to the SPEAKER, were received from the Presi

YEAS—Thomas Boude, Manasseh Cutler, Samuel DENT OF THE UNITED States, as follows:

W. Dana, John Davenport, John Dennis, Abiel Foster, Gentlemen of the House of Representatives :

Calvin Goddard, Roger Griswold, William Barry Grove, In addition to the information accompanying my mes- Seth Hastings, Joseph Hemphill, Archibald Henderson, sage of the twenty-second instant, I now transmit the Samuel Hunt, Thomas Lowndes, Ebenezer Mattoon, copy of the letter on the same subject, recently received. Lewis R. Morris, Thomas Morris, Elias Perkins, Dec. 30, 1802.

TH. JEFFERSON. Thomas Plater, Nathan Read, John Rutledge, John

ams,

JANUARY, 1803.

Treaty with Spain.

H. OF R.

Cotton Smith, John Stanley, John Stratton, Benjamin A petition of the Washington Building ComTallmadge, Samuel Tenney, Samuel Thatcher, Thomas pany, signed by Daniel Brent. the chairman, was Tillinghast, George B. Upham, Killian K. Van Rens- presented to the House and read, praying that Conselaer, Peleg Wadsworth, Lemuel Williams, and gress will pass a law to incorporate the said comHenry Woods.

pany under certain rules and regulations, intendNars-Willis Alston, John Archer, John Bacon, ed by the petitioners for the improvement and orTheodorous Bailey, Richard Brent, Robert Brown, nament of the metropolis of the Union; and, also, William Butler, Thomas Claiborne, Matthew Clay, that they may be enabled to extend the applicaJohn Clopton, John Condit, Richard Cutts, Thomas T. tion of ihe funds of the said company to the inDavis, William Dickson, Lucas Elmendorf, Ebenezer

surance of buildings from fire. Elmer, William Eustis, Edwin Gray, John A. Hanna, Joseph Heister, William Helms, William Hoge, James Mr. Van Ness, Mr. Grove, and Mr. CLAIBORNE;

Ordered, That the said petition be referred to Holland, David Holmes, George Jackson, Michael Leib, that they do examine the matter thereof, and reDavid Meriwether, Samuel L. Mitchill, Thomas Moore, James Mctt, Anthony New, Thomas Newton, jr., John port the same, with their opinion thereon, to the

House. Randolph, jr., John Smilie, Israel Smith, John Smith, of New York, John Smith, of Virginia, Josiah Smith,

Mr. RANDOLPH, from the Committee of Ways Henry Southard, Richard Stanford, Joseph Stanton, and Means, presented a bill making a partial apJohn Stewart, David Thomas, Abram Trigg, John propriation for the naval service during the year Trigg, John P. Van Ness, Joseph B. Varnum, Isaac one thousand eight hundred and three; which was Van Horne, and Thomas Wynns.

read twice, and committed to a Committee of the Another motion was then made and seconded whole House to-morrow. that the said Message and letter from the Presi

The House resolved itself into a Committee of dent of the United States, this day received, and the Whole on the report of the Committee of the papers referred to therein, together with the Claims of the twenty-ninth ultimo, on the petiPresident's Message of the twenty-second instant, tion of Charles Hyde, presented the second of Febrelative to a violation on the part of Spain, of the ruary, one thousand eight hundred and one; and, twenty-second article of the treaty of friendship, after some time spent therein, the Committee rose, limits, and navigation, between the United States and reported their agreement to the resolution conand the King of Spain," be committed to a Com- tained thererein with amendments; which were mittee of the whole House on the state of the severally read and agreed to. Union:

The said resolution as amended, being then And the question being taken thereupon, it was

twice read, was, on the question put thereupon, resolved in the affirmative-yeas 65, nays 16, as

agreed to by the House as follows: follows:

Resolved, That the proper accounting officers YEAS—Willis Alston, John Archer, Theodorus Bai- for his services as judge advocate to the army, from

liquidate and settle the account of Charles Hyde, ley, Thomas Boude, Robert Brown, William Butler, the second day of December, Anno Domini one Matthew Clay, John Clopton, Manasseh Cutler, Rich- thousand seven hundred and ninety-two, to the ard Cutts, Samuel W. Dana, John Davenport, John fifteenth day of July, Anno Domini one thousand Dennis, William Dickson, Lucas Elmendorf, Ebenezer Elmer, William Eustis, Abiel Foster, Calvin Goddard, seven hundred and ninety-four, both inclusive; Roger Griswold, William Barry Grove, John A. Hanna, and that he be allowed such pay and emoluments Seth Hastings, Joseph Heister, Joseph Hemphill, Archi- for said services, as were at that time allowed by bald Henderson, William Hoge, James Holland, David law, to the officers acting in that capacity. Holmes, Samuel Hunt, Michael Leib, Thomas Lowndes, Ordered, That a bill or bills be brought in purEbenezer Mattoon, David Meriwether, Samuel L. suant to the said resolution ; and that the ComMitchill, Thomas Moore, Lewis R. Morris, Thomas mittee of Claims do prepare and bring in the same. Newton, jr., Elias Perkins, Thomas Plater, John Ran- Mr. Randolph, from the Committee of Ways and dolph, jr, Nathan Read, John Rutledge, John Cotton Means, presented a bill making appopriations for Smith, Josiah Smith, Henry Southard, Richard Stan. the Military Establishment of the United States, ford, John Stanley, John Stratton, John Taliaferro, jr., in the year one thousand eight hundred and three, Benjamin Tallmadge, Samuel Tenney, Samuel Thatch- which was read twice and committed to a Comer, David Thomas, Thomas Tillinghast, Abram Trigg, mittee of the whole House to-morrow. John Trigg, George B. Upham, Killian K. Van Rensselaer, Peleg Wadsworth, Lemuel Williams, Henry the House, and read, praying relief, in the case of a

A petition of Samuel Blodget was presented to Woods, and Thomas Wynns. Nars-John Bacon, Richard Brent, John Condit

, Court of Pennsylvania, for property in the City

judgment recovered against him in the Supreme Thomas T. Davis, Edwin Gray, William Helms, of Washington, at the suit of the possessors of a Smilie, John Smith, of New York, John Smith, of Vir- prize ticket in a lottery authorized to be drawn for ginia, Joseph Stanton, John Stewart, Joseph B. Var- the improvement of the said city, in the year one num, and Isaac Van Horne.

thousand seven hundred and pinety-three, and of which the petitioner was appointed an acting man

ager and superintendent. MONDAY, January 3, 1803.

Ordered, That the said petition be referred to Another member, lo wit; Philip Van Cort- the committee appointed on the thirty-first ultimo, LANDT, from New York, appeared, and took his on the petition of sundry inhabitants of the City seat in the House.

of Washington and of Georgetown, relative to

H. of R.

Insolvent Debtors.

JANUARY, 1803.

the incorporation of an insurance company in the Varnum; that they do examine the matter theresaid City of Washington ; that they do examine of, and report the same, with tbeir opinion therethe matter thereof, and report the same, with their upon, to the House. opinion thereupon, 10 the House.

Resolved. That the committee to whom was The SPEAKER laid before the House a letter this day referred a petition of sundry inhabitants from the Secretary of State, transmitting sundry of the towns of Norfolk and Portsmouth, in the documents respecting the claim of Peter Charles State of Virginia, be instructed to consider the L'Enfant, for planning and laying out the City of expediency of repealing an act, entitled "An act Washington, in pursuance of a resolution of ihis to establish an uniform system of Bankruptcy House of the twenty fourth ultimo; which were throughout the United States," and report their read and ordered to be referred to the Committee opinion thereon to the House. of the whole House to whom is committed a re- Mr. Leib observed that, during the last session, port of the Committee of Claims on the petition a proposition had been made, and had passed this of the said Peter Charles L'Enfant.

House, to amend the Constitution respecting the Mr. John Cotton Smith, from the Committee election of President and Vice President, but of Claims, presented a bill for the relief of Charles which had been rejected in the Senate. Mr. L. Hyde, which was read twice and committed to a said that the citizens he represented were extremeCommittee of the whole House immediately. ly anxious on this subject. He therefore consid

The House, accordingly, resolved itself into the ered it his duty to submit a similar proposition, in said committee; and, after some time spent there- order to determine whether it would not share a in, the bill was reported without amendment, and better fale. He then proposed an amendment, ordered to be engrossed and read the third time 10- substantially, that in all suiure elections of Presimorrow.

dent and Vice President, the persons voted for A memorial of Daniel Lewis, of the county of shall be particularly designated by declaring West Chester, in the State of New York, was which are voted for as President, and which as presented to the House and read, stating that the Vice President. memorialist is, and for a long time has been, pos- Referred to the Committee of the Whole on the sessed of a medicine, which, in no case in which state of the Union. it has been administered, has failed of curing the

INSOLVENT DEBTORS. bite of a mad dog, and totally removing the melancholy effects thereof; and praying ihat Con

On motion of Mr. Nicholson, the House regress will, in their wisdom, direct such inquiry solved itself into a Committee of the Whole, on into the repeated and successful trials made of the the bill " for the relief of insolvent debtors in the said medicine, as may fully convince them of the District of Columbia.” efficacy thereof; and, also, that on a discovery of

The blank in the fourth line of the first secthe same, for the benefit of the people of the Uni- tion fixes the period of residence in the District ted States, the memorialist may be allowed such required to entitle a debtor to the benefit of the pecuniary compensation therefor, as may be deem- act. This, on motion of Mr. Nicholson, was filled equitable and proper.

ed with "one year.” Ordered, That the said memorial be referred to Several other amendments were made in the Mr. AN CORTLANDT, Mr. Elmer, Mr. Tenney, different sections, on the motion of Mr. NicholMr. Dickson, and Mr. ARCHER; that they do ex

son. The most material of which provided for amine the matter thereof, and report the same, the liberation of a confined debtor, during the vawith their opinion thereupon, to the House.

cation of the court, by two or more justices. On motion, it was

The Committee proceeded to the third section, Resolved, That the Secretary of the Navy be which is as follows: directed to report to this House the situation of “ Sec. 3. And be it enacted, That, upon the petithe timber deposited in the navy yards of the Uni- tioning debtor's executing a deed to the said trustee, ted States, for the purpose of building ships-of- conveying all his property, real, personal, and mixed, war; and whether, in order to preserve the same, and all his claims, rights, and credits

, agreeably to the it should be covered with sheds.

oath or affirmation of the said debtor, and on the deA petition of Josiah Fox, and others, inhabitants livery of all his said property which he shall have in of the towns of Norfolk and Portsmouth, in the his possession, and his books, papers, and evidence of State of Virginia, was presented to the House and debts of every kind to the said trustee; and, upon the read, stating that the petitioners consider the act said trustee's certifying the same to the court, in writ of Congress, (commonly called the Bankrupt law,) ing, it shall be lawful for the court to order that the passed on the fourth day of April, one thousand said petitioning debtor shall be discharged from all eight hundred, as requiring Legislative correction;

debts, covenants, promises, and agreements, due from the same being, as they conceive, partial and inju- said deed, and by virtụe of such order the said debtor

or owing or contracted by him prior to the date of the rious in its operation; and praying that Congress shall be discharged as aforesaid : Provided, That no will take the premises into consideration, and pro- person who has been guilty of a breach of the laws, vide such remedies for the evils complained of, as and who has been fined or imprisoned for such breach to their wisdom may seem most proper.

shall be discharged from the payment of such fine, or Ordered, That the said petition be referred to from his imprisonment: And provided, likewise, That Mr. Newton, Mr. TallMadGE, Mr. Nicholson, any property which the debtor may afterwards acquire Mr. Hunt, Mr. Mirchill, Mr. Lowndes, and Mr.'l by gift, descent, or in his own right, by bequest, devise, JANUARY, 1803.

Insolvent Debtors.

H. OF R.

or in any course of distribution, shall be liable to the effects of this rigor on two descriptions of citizens payment of the said debts, anything herein to the con- in this place; those who kept boarding-houses and trary notwithstanding."

store-keepers.] Mr. RANDOLPH observed that, by the provisions. He concluded by observing that, in his opinion, of this section, the bankrupt system was put in the bankrupt law went too far, while the laws of force not only as to the merchants, but as to every Virginia and Kentucky did not go far enough. description of citizens. It extended to all persons while property acquired by the personal labor of who might migrate to this sanctuary. It operated a debtor ought not to be answerable for his previin the nature of a repealing law to the laws of all ous debts, he was of opinion that property, otherthe States. It would also have the operation of wise acquired, should be answerable. an ex post facto law. If these objections should Mr. Davis withdrew his motion for the rising pot be answered, he would be compelled to give of the Committee, and moved 10 strike out the his vote against ihe bill.

words "all debts, covenants, promises, and agreeMr. Davis thought the third section liable to ments, due for or owing, or contracted by him the objections of the gentleman from Virginia. It prior to the date of the said deed,” and to insert in extended the benefit of the bankrupt system to the lieu thereof “imprisonment.” people of this Territory in a manner different from Mr. D. begged leave to offer a few remarks on that which was extended to the citizens of the what bad fallen from the gentleman from MaryStates. As, however, the subject did not appear land. That gentleman had remarked that, to to have been much reflected on, he moved that make property afterward acquired by the personal the Committee should rise, and ask leave to sit exertion of the debtor answerable, would destroy again.

a great stimulus to industry, while he considered Mr. Nicholson said he should make at that it perfectly right that property acquired by descent time but little comment on the remarks of gen- or gift should be made answerable. Now, is anytlemen opposed to the provisions of the third sec- thing more easy than to evade this provision ? If tion. The principle involved in the third section an individual is known to be bankrupt, he prewas certainly a very important one. It would be sumed none of his friends would give him anywell, he thought, for the Committee to express thing, because it would be applied to the payment their sense of it before they rose; to decide whe- of his debts. They will be sure to vest it in some ther it should be retained or not. If not retained, friends for his use, and thus preclude the ability of the bill would require considerable modification the creditor to touch it. The argument of the He would, therefore, make a few observations on gentleman, therefore, was not correct. Mr. D. the principle of the section, in the hope that the said, if this section should be struck out, the same gentleman from Kentucky would vary his motion, provisions would apply to this District as applied and move, in lieu thereof, to strike out the third to the States. section, in order to try the sense of the House. Mr. Randolph was against the section. He was

Gentlemen were mistaken, when they consider- not, however, surprised at the support it received ed this section as extending io the citizens of this from his friend (Mr. Nicholson) from his known Territory the benefits of the bankrupt system. If humanity, and from the partiality which it was they had been so extended, he could not see any natural he should entertain for the municipal regsolid objection to it. But the provisions were very ulations of his own State. But he would, on furdifferent. By the bankrupt law, when the certifi-ther reflection, find that, by extending thus far the cate is granted, the bankrupt is discharged from measure of his humanity to the debtor, he will esall his debts. By this section he is not discharged, sentially injure the creditor. Mr. R. knew how because it is provided that any property afterward easy it was to work on the passions of a delibera. acquired by gift, descent, devise, or in any course tive body by portraying the miseries of the unforof distribution," shall be liable for his debts. Un- tunate. For himself, he abhorred the incarcerader the insolvent laws of Virginia and Kentucky, tion of the body for debt. But he was for taking an insolvent debior's property is answerable after a middle course between the extreme rigor of our bis liberation. In other States, a different princi- | ancestors, and the unjust clemency to the debtor ple prevails.

proposed by this section. He would ask, by what Mr. N. said, the principle of the bill was an description of persons the greatest injury had been equitable principle. For if

, after an insolvent inflicted on society in this country; whether by debtor shall be liberated from confinement, and debtors, under the iron grasp of their creditors, or shall assign over all his existing property, property by debtors whom the mistaken clemency of the afterwards acquired by his own personal indus- law had permitted to ruin their creditors ? He betry shall be answerable for his debts, you destroy lieved that a more extensive scene of injury had all stimulus to exertion and labor. The evil, too, been inflicted on the country by the villany, (he is not merely personal to him, but is felt by soci- could call it by no other name.) of men who had ety at large, because his industry not only contrib- sported with the property of others, than had been utes to his own personal benefit, but to that also of inflicted by the most merciless rigor of creditors. society. You lose, therefore, a valuable member By denying 10 the creditor the power of incarof society. This is not the only loss. You like cerating the body of his debtor, you proceed as far wise inflict an essential injury on his family, that as justice will warrant. Farther you cannot go; are under his special protection.

because the obligation to comply with contracts is [Mr. Nicholson here instanced the unhappy eternal, and not subject to your regulations. He

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