Relations with the Barbary Powers. me to be prudent; that it was well known to me ble to the Dey's orders, but that the business was that a little thing would irritate the Dey, and the in the hands of a lion, (the Dey,) and that the consequence would be serious ; that I well knew foxes were looking on-alluding to the Moorish the terms the Dey had lately 'obliged the Span- merchants. Shorily after this, I heard that the iards to acquiesce to; and that both the British agent of Tripoli went to the Dey, aod also the and French would soon share the same fate. I Swedish dragoman; that the Dey got very angry, thanked him for his advice, and observed that it and ordered both the Tripoline corsairs and their made no difference to the United States in what prize, the American brig, to depart the port of Spain acquiesced to, or what the Dey would do Algiers directly. As they were getting under against the British or French; that I was con- way, I went to the Minister of the Marine, and vinced the Government of the United States told him that this conduct of Algiers was as a would, with regret, learn, from facts, that Algiers friend to Tripoli, and not to the United States; was not the friend of the United States, but an that it was in his power to have done me justice, evident friend of Tripoli. He observed that he and that he neglected it. He said he was to obey did not believe that we, or any Christian nation, the Dey's orders; that we should have kept a beiwould keep the peace with Algiers, if we found ter look out, and not let the corsairs of Tripoli it more our interest to be at war. I told him that get out. I observed to this, that I was trying to we knew our interest, and, at the same time. remedy the evil, &c.; had I had his sincere assistwould not sacrifice the honor of our nation under ance, the business would have been finished yes. any consideration whatever; that the present time terday; that, at present, I had only to detail the admitted of a favorable opportunity for him, the whole affair to my Government; the result he Dey, &c., to do me the just favor I required. would be informed of ; and that, as Tripoli cor

“ The Prime Minister, and Brurach, the Dey's sairs thus entered with American prizes into the Jew broker, and in fact his principal director, ports of this Regency. that certainly American went to the Dey at 2 p. m., on the day of the 27th frigates would frequent this coast, and difficulties June, and stated all my arguments to the Dey. would ensue. The same, I sent my dragoman to the Dey, to re. " The Tripoline corsairs, and brig Franklin. quest the favor to befriend me on the present oc- and Captain Morris and crew, left Algiers on the casion ; that nine of my countrymen were in 28th of June, at half past 2, p. m., with a light chained captivity in his port, on board a Tripo- westerly wind, destined to the eastward, I supline, with a prize, an American brig; and that pose for Bona or Tunis, where, I hope, they will the corsair of Tripoli had the American flag re- meet one of our frigates. It seems now to be reversed at the prow of said corsair ; that, at the duced to a certainty that there are but those two same time, the Dey was the guarantee of the Tripoline corsairs at sea.” treaty of the United States with Tripoli; that, if the Dey was not occupied, I should be happy to Extract of a letter from James Simpson, Consul of the see him on this occasion.

United States for the Kingdom of Morocco, to the “ The Dey answered that I need not come; Secretary of State, dated that he had the whole of the business in his mind, and that I would shortly hear the result.

TANGIER, January 8, 1802. “On this, the Dey sends a messenger down to " At this time, Muley Solyman has not a single the Marine, to the Vickelhadge, or General of the vessel of war afloat. At Sallee, two frigates of Marine, for him to call the Tripoline captain ; about twenty guns, are building, and may probathat the Dey will purchase the nine Americans, bly be launched next Spring; but he is in want brig, and cargo; that the Dey will give for these of many stores for them ere they can be sent to the sum of five thousand dollars; and that he sea. Ai Tetuan, they have lately patched up an would write to the Bashaw of Tripoli that this old half galley to carry two bow guns and fifty he did, and would remit him the money. After men; but, if I am to judge from her appearance the Dey sent this message to the Marine, the Dey last May, she is scarce fii to go to sea. This is went to his garden. The Minister of the Marine all the navy. declared this message to the Tripoline captain, - When Muley Solyman requested I would prowho said he could only part with the American cure for his use the mentioned one hundred gun prisoners by force, having the Bashaw of Tripo- carriages, he particularly mentioned they would li's orders, above all things, if he should take any be paid for on delivery at this port, as advised in Americans, to take care and land them at some No. 33. I was in hopes Mr. Bulkley might have of the outports; that it was by having possession been able to contract for them, payable in that of them that his master, the Bashaw, would find way; but he acquainted me they must be paid for thereby means to bring the Americans to a peace in Lisbon ; and that he judged they might cost on Tripoli terms.

about three hundred and twenty millreas each. “At mid-day, on the 28th of June, being in- Highly desirous of gratifying His Majesty, and formed that several Moorish merchants were offer- having no other means of providing for payment ing to purchase the brig Franklin and cargo from of these carriages, I proposed drawing for the the captain of the Tripoline ; on this information sum that might be required on account of my I went to the Prime Minister, and told him what salary. This, I trust, on your side, will be admiiI heard; he was very angry; said that the busi- ted as a proof that nothing in my power to do, on ness should have been carried yesterday, agreea. this occasion, has been wanting, notwithstanding

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Relations with the Barbary Powers.

mere excuses.

what the Emperor and his Ministers may sup- By these, you will see a strong attempt to effect pose. Should Government think well of making this was at that time made, but that I had the ihe Emperor of Morocco a present, at this time, happiness to overcome it, and obtain a recognias a fresh proof of the friendship of the United tion of that treaty, under well-founded motives, States, (in the event of his continuing the peace in appearance, for believing that Muley Solyman uninterrupted, as I trust will be the case,) these granted it from aa full conviction of its being incarriages, in my opinion, would be more accepta- cumbent on him to do so. Bashaw Hackana way ble to him than anything else. In that case, it having stated the American and Batavian Govwill be necessary to give Mr. Bulkley directions ernments as standing in the same predicament in respecting the payment of them. Should this relation to this country, I did not allow him to measure be determined on, I would, with due sub- quit that ground until I had given him an ample mission, beg leave to recommend a letter being detail of the very early attention the United States sent by the President to the Emperor on the oc- paid Muley Solyman, urging that, in the choice casion ; especially as, since the recognition of the of the articles which chiefly composed their first treaty, in 1795, and his letter of the 18th August, present, they had given the strongest proof possithat year, no direct communication whatever has ble of the part they took in His Majesty's conbeen made to His Majesty on the part of the cerns at that interesting moment, and of their deUnited States.

sire that he should overcome the opposition then " The Tripoline Ambassador or Messenger, come actually making against his succession. It does not from thence so long ago, was permitted, on Sat- appear necessary to trouble you with all the other urday last, to proceed for Fez, to meet the Em- arguments at this interview, only to say that, havperor. This man's business, in this country, is ing desired another, the Bashaw appointed the not precisely known, but will soon be, after he 16th, in the evening. We accordingly met; and may have an interview with Muley Solyman. I laid before him an Arabic translation of the

"On Monday, the 14th ultimo, the Bashaw sent treaty of 1786, with a copy of the Emperor's letfor me; and, after making his secretary and other ter of the 18th of August, 1795, to the President, attendants retire, he told me Muley Solyman was confirming it; also lists of the first and second much displeased at my not having obtained for presents I delivered, in the name of the United him the gun carriages he had commissioned ; add-States, to Muley Solyman, at Rhabat, in 1795, and ing, that the reasons I had alleged, in my last of that I had also the honor of delivering at Meleiter to the Emperor on the subject, were by no quinez, 1798, on the occasion of showing His Mameans satisfactory, as they appeared to him to be jesty my commission as Consul. He perused all

Conscious that I had said nothing these papers with attention, and assured me as, but what Mr. Bulkley had written me, on the in holding these conferences in private, he had part of the carpenter at Lisbon, who had offered given me a proof of his friendship, so I might deto contract to make these carriages, I felt perfect-pend upon experiencing a continuance thereof, ly easy on the occasion, and endeavored to con- and that he would report to His Majesty on the vince the Bashaw that the motive alleged for His occasion. At this second interview, not a syllaMajesty's displeasure was groundless, of which ble was said' on my retiring from the country; he, at least, seemed to be satisfied. He then said neither have I, to this hour, heard any more on he was also instructed by His Majesty to demand that subject.” whether I was authorized to make him presents of moment, from time to time. I answered that,

Extracts from the same to the same, dated in the treaty made between Sidi Mahomet and the United States of America, and confirmed by

“ TANGIER, Feb. 20, 1802. Muley Solyman, no stipulation whatever was “I am happy in saying that, up to the present made for my Government making presents at any hour, I have not heard a syllable further relative stated periods; of consequence, that I was with- to Bashaw Hackanaway's communications, of the out any instructions on that subject. The Bashaw 14th December, from which I draw a very favorthen told me Muley Solyman looked upon the able conclusion.” Americans as no better friends to him than the "The Tripoline who went to the Emperor, as Dutch; and that I must consider myself in the Ambassador, solicited some cargoes of wheat, and same situation as their Consul was at that day. is gone to Rhabat with permission to load; but Fully satisfied that the Government of the Uni- he certainly will not find vessels to charter whilst ted States had given the most ample and une- Tripoli continues blockaded. The Emperor havquivocal proofs of friendship to Muley Solyman, ing also been solicited to give his assistance towards 1 readily saw that this intimation must proceed getting the Tripoline brig, which lies at Gibraleither from error, or that it was a prelude to His tar, sent home, consented to give a crew and proMajesty's making another attempi to get quit of visions for that purpose. A few days ago, the the treaty of 1786, and obtain presents at stipula- Governor solicited from the Swedish Consul and ted periods. On this occasion, I beg to refer you myself, in His Majesty's name, passports for her ; to the several letters I had the honor of address- which, having convinced him it was not in our ing the Department of State, from Rhabat, be- power to grant, under the actual situation of Triptween the 15th of July and the 18th of August, oli

, it was agreed we should write Admiral Cider1795, and to No. 55' of my Gibraltar corres- strom and Commodore Dale on the subject, which pondence, dated 24th September, same year. has been done."

Relations with the Barbary Powers.

From the same to the same, dated

* Your letter reached the high presence of our March 19, 1802.

master, (whom God preserve !) and I read it to “I confirm that Muley Solyman has agreed to him; also what you say on the subject of a passallow eat to be sent from his country io Trip- port for the Tripoline Ambassador.

• This wheat to be sent belongs to my master. oli; but I should think it to be next to an impossibility for them to find vessels to charter for that If you allow it to pass, when the Ambassador goes, voyage, whilst that port is so notoriously known as the property of His Majesty, it will be very to be blockaded. Whatever may be done in this well. If not, you will do what is regular, and as particular, at any of the Emperor's ports, I shall is established by the treaties of peace between us take care to advise the commanders of the frig. and you. ates on this station of."

“The Governor, Hodge Abdarhaman Hasash,

will conser with you on ihis matter. Let what is Extracts from the same to the same, dated in the treaties of peace be done.

“ May 13, 1802.

" Written to you on the 7th day of Muharram, "Yesterday I had certain intelligence of the 1217, (corresponding to the 10th May, 1802.) ·

“MAHOMET B. A. SELAWAY." Governor of Rhabat having received His Majesty's orders on the 6th instant for sending a schooner to Darelbeyda, immediately to load wheat for Extract from James Simpson to the Secretary of State. Tripoli."

dated "On the second instant, the two frigates were launched at Rhabat. Iam assured they are pierced

" JUNE 14, 1802. for twenty-six guns each, on the main deck. If “No. 40, concluded 10th instant, and forwarded so, they must be much crowded; for no ship, of to G:braltar, I presume is still there, and that this a suitable length and draught of water and that will go from thence with it. force can enter any of the ports of this Empire. “ I have now the honor to acquaint you that, Nothing that I yet know of has been done towards yesterday, the Governor sent for me, iv say he obtaining the small cruisers it was said His Ma- had just received a letter from the Emperor, with jesty intended to station at this port.”

orders to acquaint me that, since passports could

not be granted for the two cargoes of wheat he From the same to the same, dated

wished 10 send to Tripoli, His Majesty had di“ JUNE 5, 1802.

rected the vessels should go to Tunis; which I “I have the honor to transmit here with the was happy to hear, as by that means we get rid copy of No. 39, also translation of the Minister's of what threatened to be a very unpleasant piece answer to the letter written him on the 25th of of business. April, by the Swedish Consul and myself, on the

* In the evening, at the request of the Governsubject of His Majesty's desire of sending wheat or, I wrote His Majesty to explain again the powto Tripoli

, by which you will see he submits the erful motives why I could not sanction vessels gopropriety of ihat measure to the letter of the trea- ing to Tripoli, but that I was ready to grant ihe ties of Sweden and the United States with this usual certificates for those His Majesty might country: Unfortunately, neither make any pro

direct to be laden with cargoes, property, for vision for such a case, nor are blockaded ports

Tunis." mentioned in them. Hitherto none of the shipments have taken place. Sunday last the Governor sent for Mr. Wyk

Extract from the same to the same, dated and me, to show us a letter from His Majesty de

“ JUNE 17, 1802. siring to know if we were yet authorized to grant

“ It is with great concern I am under the nepassports

for that wheat and the Tripoline ship cessity of acquainting you that, either the inforlying at Gibraltar, which, of course, was answer- mation given the Swedish Consul and myself on ed in the negative. " It did not appear he had been instructed to having consented to allow his wheat vessels to go

Sunday last, respecting His Imperial Majesty treat with us upon the subject, in the precise terms of the Minister's letter. We, however, did not the Governor of Tangier, or the Emperor must

to 'Tunis, was extremely fallacious on the part of fail to repeat to him, that all sort of intercourse speedily have repented of having taken that resoby sea with blockaded poris was pointedly oppo- lution. site to the law of nations and common usage at this day. This conference was held in the pres; to say he had received fresh instructions from

* This morning the Governor sent for me again, ence of the Commodore of the Tripoline ship and His Majesty, with orders to demand from me one of the Ambassador's Secretaries , who brought passports for those vessels to go direct to Tripoli

, the letter from His Majesty.”

and, in case of refusal, that I was lo quii the

country; adding that the letter was written in Translation of a letter from Sidi Mahomet Ben Absa- such strong terms as must prevent his consenting lem Selaway.

to any mitigation. After a very long conference, “Praise is due to God alone. There is no power he at last, however, allowed me time to write to or strength but in God. To the Consuls, Peter Commodore Morris, at Gibraltar, which I am now Wyk and Simpson-health.

about to do fully."



Relations with the Barbary Powers.



Extracts from the same to the same,

dated Majesty Muley Solyman had been pleased to diJune 26, 1802.

rect that I might remain in Tangier six months. “ Within this, I beg leave to enclose copy No. Had that order reached you previous to my being 42, and am extremely

sorry to add the intelligence compelled to retire from His Majesty's dominions, of my having been compelled, by the Governor I should certainly have availed of it. The frigate of Tangier, to retire from thence, on Thursday we expected from America has not yet reached this evening, in consequence of positive orders from place. The moment she arrives, I will do myHis Imperial Majesty to that effect, received on the self the honor of writing His Imperial Majesty ; evening of the 22d, accompanied with advice of his and, in the meantime, I beg you will be fully ashaving declared war against the United States."

sured my best endeavors will continue to be ex“ I had another interview with the Governor of erted for a renewal of peace and good friendship Tangier, when I succeeded in obtaining his prom-between His Imperial Majesty and America. ise to suspend again the execution of His Majesty's orders, received on the 16th, for my expul- Extract of a letter from Mr. Shausbor, Danish Consul sion, until he could represent to His Majesty the General, to James Simpson, Esq., the American impossibility he was then satisfied had always ex- Consul, dated isted to my granting the required passports, since

"TangiER, July 9, 1802. the Commodore could not sanction them."

"Your esteemed favor of the 5th instant is duly

come to hand, with the enclosed letter for the Extract from the same to the same, dated at Governor of this place. I delivered it in his own “ GIBRALTAR, July 3, 1802.

hand, and, according to your request, explained to received a letter from the Governor of Tangier, and that he would not neglect, by the first oppor“I have now to acquaint you that, yesterday, 1 him the contents of it. "In answer, he desires me

to tell you that he found you were in the right, dated 30th June, advising that His Imperial Majesty, in answer to the leiter he wrote on the 22d, tunity, to inform His Majesty that he had written had directed that I might be permitted to remain

to you a very good letter, and that he has got still

a better answer." there six months; adding, that I was, in consequence, at liberty to return to my house in Tangier, or not, as I should see fit."

Extracts from James Simpson to the Secretary of State,

dated at Extracts of a letter from the same to the same, dated at

“ Tangier, July 27, 1802.

“I had the honor to receive, by Captain Camp"GIBRALTAR, July 16, 1802. I have the honor of transmitting with this du- the 30th April

, to which I must pray you will ex

bell, of the Adams, the letter you wrote me on plicate of No. 44, also a copy of the letter I wrote the Governor of Tangier, in answer to that I men- considered by Commodore Morris and myself

cuse my replying at length this morning. It was tioned to have received from him. On the same sheet is an extract of a letter from the Danish proper that I should pass over to this place, for Consul at Tangier, to me, containing the substance making the communications you encharged me

ihe purpose of more speedily and effectually of what the Governor encharged him to communi: with for His Imperial Majesty, on part of the which y berg Yeave to submit yo your perusal

. · *m Presidente" meantime I have to acquaint you that cate, by way of to him; all .

“In constant hope of seeing the Adams, upon the irigate at Larach lies quite ready for sea, and mature consideration, I thought, as I had been that her commander left this place on Sunday, expelled the country, and the alarm given of dan- fully authorized to capture American vessels.” ger to the American flag, it was best to wait her arrival, and receipt of the instructions I fully depend on receiving by that ship, before I closed with From the same to the same, dated at the Governor's proposal of returning to Tangier, or

“ TANGIER, August 3, 1802. entirely reject it. By this I was guided in the an- “ The 27th last month I had the honor of adswer I gave 10 his leiter, and it is satisfactory to see dressing No. 46 to you, with advice of my return the determination meets his entire approbation." to this country; original was sent Commodore

"My friend at Rhabat writes me, under 25th Morris, and duplicate via Lisbon. Last night I July, that the equipment of the two frigates there returned from Tetuan, after having had an intergoes on but slowly. At Tetuan I find they make view with Hodge Abdarhaman Hasash, who conall despatch with the two galleys, and that this firmed to me that the ship mentioned to be ready day week, guns, anchors, and cables were sent at Larach was destined to detain American vesfrom Tangier by a Moor's boat for them.” sels as well as others, and showed me His Majes

ty's original letter, written by himself, authorCopy of a letter from James Simpson, Esq., Consul of izing Hasash to give directions to the captain for

the United States, &c., for the Kingdom of Morocco, that effect; the ship to be placed entirely under to the Governor of Tangier, dated at

bis direction." GIBRALTAR, July 5, 1802. “Hasash did not long hesitate ere he proposed Sir: I have received your Excellency's letter to withdraw the authority he had given for the of the 29th last moon, advising me His İmperial | Larach ship taking Americans, provided I would

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Relations with the Barbary Powers.

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grant the captain the usual certificates given by endeavor to provide for you, (as I had the honor Consuls to the Emperor's cruisers, that he might of advising your Majesty at that time,) it became put to sea; but that I positively refused, or to my duty to represent that disappointment to be sanction any vessel whatever belonging to the Government I serve. The President, desirous oí Emperor going to sea in any degree armed, until giving your Majesty a proof of his friendship, insuch time as His Majesty'should see proper to mediately directed that one hundred gun cargive the most positive declaration of his being at riages, such as your Majesty desired me to propeace as heretofore with the United States. After cure, should be made, and sent by a vessel to Tas many arguments on both sides, Hasash promised gier, for your Majesty's use, so soon as they could me he would recommend to His Majesty to desist be finished. Although the great distance of Amefrom his hostile intentions against the United rica from this country necessarily occasions conStates."

siderable delay to answers on any subject submitAccordingly it was agreed both he and Ited from hence, and, of consequence, that this should immediately write His Majesty ; and, en- determination of the President has been long in closed with this, I have the honor of transmitting reaching your Majesty, yet I fully persuade mya copy of my letter, which I beg you will be good self your Majesty will see, in his ready attention enough to lay before the President, together with to send to your Majesty what appeared would be this despatch, for his information on what has acceptable, a strong proof of the sincere intention been done. At this moment I have the highest of the Government of the United States faithfully gratification in saying I enjoy great hopes of a to maintain, not only peace, but the strictes: speedy accommodation ; but, at the same lime, al- friendship and good harmony with your Majesty. though I have the conscious satisfaction of know- “I purpose waiting at Tangier to receive such ing that every exertion possible in my power has answer as your Majesty shall be pleased to order been made by paving the way for it, even during to be written to this letter

, in full reliance your the time I was at Gibraltar, by endeavoring to Majesty will now be pleased to show equally gain my friends near the Emperor over to our in- friendly sentiments towards the United States, terest; yet. I must candidly say, had there not and issue orders for annulling the declaration of been a naval force at hand 10 keep their cruisers war made against them, that peace may be rein port, I very much doubt if all I could have done stored, and their ships of war stationed in these would have been attended with that success I now seas again respect, in all cases, your Majesty's flag. so much hope for."

“In fulfilling my duty, by making these friendly communications on the part of the Government

of the United States, I beg your Majesty will be “ TETUAN, July 31, 1802.

persuaded I have sincere satisfaction, since it has “MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY: With all due ever been, and shall ever be, my constant endeavor respect and deference, I beg leave to write your to promote peace, harmony, and good friendship Imperial Majesty this letter, and to express my between this country and America. sincere wish it may meet your Majesty in the en- ".I pray the Almighty God to preserve your joyment of perfect health, which I pray God long Majesty many years in health and prosperity, and to continue.

beg leave to subscribe myself, with the highest “After having retired from your Majesty's do- respect and veneration, may it please your Ma. minions, in consequence of your orders communi- jesty, your Majesty's most obedient and devoted cated to me for that effect, by your servant Hodge humble servant, JAMES SIMPSON. Abdarhaman Hasash, it is with the highest satisfaction I have returned for the purpose of laying

“ His Imperial Majesty MULEY SOLYMAN BEN before your Majesty the contents of a letter re

MAHOmer Ben Abdallah Ben ISMAEL, Sherift: ceived from the Secretary of State of the United Emperor of Fez, fc." States of America, replete with expressions of the respect and particular regard the President of the Extract of a letter from Mr. Simpson to the Secretary said United States entertains towards your Ma

of State, dated at jesty. · That letter was written on the 30th day of

“ TANGIER, August 12, 1802. April, corresponding with the 28th Dulhajja of “Original of No. 47 was forwarded by way of last year. I have it in particular charge thereby Lisbon, duplicate and triplicate under cover of to assure your Imperial Majesty, in the name of Mr. Gavino at Gibraltar, each accompanied by a the President, how very highly he regards your copy of the letter I wrote the Emperor from Majesty's faithful observance of the peace estab: Tetuan. lished between your royal father (who is in glory) “I have now the honor of enclosing, with this and the United States. The interruption that translation of the answer I received last night to has happened since that letter was writien, I trust that letter, by which I am concerned to find new I may be allowed to hope will speedily be done ground taken, likely to be productive of some away.

trouble with His Imperial Majesty. A great con"I further beg leave to represent to your Ma- solation is, that the pretension of frequent embasjesty, that, having found it impossible to obtain sies is totally founded in error; for no such arfrom Europe the one hundred gun carriages your rangement, as was pretended, was made by me Majesty was pleased last year to desire I would with the late Minister, Sidi Mahomet Ben Otto

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