Relations with Great Britain.


hundred and fifty tons of oil, at 458. per ton, will treaty which it professes to carry into execution,

£625 00 calls for immediate revision. An American ship of two hundred and

fifty tons, also arriving in Great Britain, from the United States, with two

Mr. King to the Secretary of State. hundred and filty tons oil, at 458. per

LONDON, Feb. 13, 1802. ton, will receive

£625 00 From which must be de

Sir: I am authorized to inform you that the ducted the countervail

British Government will, without hesitation, acing duty of 368 3d. per

cede to a proposal for the abolition of all discrimiton, paid by the Ameri

nation of duties affecting the navigation and comcan, but not by the Brit

mercial intereouse belween our and their terriish ship 453 15 0

tories; and, in consequence of what has passed

upon this subject, a motion has already been made Leaving the freight earned

in the House of Commons by Mr. Vansittart, of by the American ship

171 5 0 the Treasury, to bring in a bill authorizing His

Majesty, at any time after the passing of the act, And making a difference of more than

by an Order in Council, or by proclamation, to two hundred and sixty per cent. upon

cause the countervailing duties upon American the freight of the American ship, in

vessels, and upon articles imported in American favor of the British ship, or

453 15 0

vessels, or either of them, or any part of the same

or of either of them, wholly to cease or to be susDUTY UPON AMERICAN TOBACCO.

pended, for such period or periods as may be The tobacco exported from the United States is deemed expedient. We may count with certainty estimated at about one hundred thousand hogs- upon the passage of the bill to a law, and that the heads annually, each hogshead containing on an extent of repeal will be made to depend upon our average, twelve hundred pounds. A ship of two own choice. I have suggested the equity and imhundred and fifty tons burden will carry about portance of an immediate suspension of the counthree hundred and seventy-five hogsheads, conse

tervailing duty upon tobacco; and the bill is so quently, upwards of sixty-six thousand tons of drawn up as leaves the Government at liberty at shipping are requisite to export the annual crops any time to take it off in particular cases, by an of American tobacco. Before the late war, this Order in Council, or to suspend it generally by average freight, from the United States to Great proclamation. I have, however, received no as Britain, was 353. sterling per hogshead; the coun. surance that this will be done, and we conse. tervailing duty now imposed upon tobacco im- quently must not be disappointed if it should be ported in American ships, and from which the refused. I will resume the subject should a farorsame is free, when imported in British ships, is able occasion offer to do so; in the meantime, in18. 6d. per hundred, or 188. per hogshead.

dividuals may, upon the circumstances of their for the same tonnage, and for the same service, or in the proclamation, avhich the law may authar The earnings of an American and British ship cases, ask for a remission of this duty.

Perhaps a future day will be named in our law, will, upon these data, stand thus: A British ship of two hundred and fifty tons, arriving cease: due notice of such a measure would be

ize, upon which our discriminating duties shall from the United States with three hundred and seventy-five hogsheads of tobacco, at 35s. per hogs- the duties here.

come the grounds for a correspondent abolition of head freight, will earn

£656 5 0 An American ship of two hundred and

I annex the copy of a letter' sent by Lord fifty tons, arriving in Great Britain,

Hawkesbury to the British Commissioners, under from the United States, with three

the 7th article of the Treaty of 1794 ; a copy of hundred and seventy-five hogsheads of

the convention, which I lately signed with his tobacco, at 35$. per hogshead freight,

Lordship, has, in like manner, been communiwill receive £656 5 0

cated by me to our Commissioners. In conse From which must be de

quence of these communications, the board will ducted the countervailimmediately reassemble and proceed to business

. ing duty of 188. per

With perfect respect and esteem, I have the hogshead, paid by the

honor to be, sir, your obedient and faithful serraat, American, but not by

RUFUS KING. the British ship

337 10 0 Leaving the freight earned

Downing STREET, Feb. 11, 1802. by the American ship

318 15 0

Gentlemen: I herewith transmit to you the And making a difference of more than a

copy of a convention concluded by me and Mr. hundred per cent. upon the freight of

King, on the 8th of January last, explanatory of the American ship in favor of the Brit

the 6th and 7th articles of the Treaty of Amity; ish ship, or

337 10 0 Commerce, and Navigation, with the United

States; and I have to signify to you His Majes It seems hardly necessary to add that law ty's pleasure that you propose to the Commis

. thus inconsistent with the scope and spirit of the sioners, on the part of the United States, of the

Relations with Great Britain.

board of which you are members, to reassemble, Mr. King to Nicholas Vansittart, Esq. and proceed with you in the execution of the du

GREAT CUMBERLAND PLACE, ties imposed upon you by the provisions of the 7th

April 29, 1802. article of the said treaty, and by the third article Sır: As several points upon which we have of this convention. I am, &c.,

touched in our conversations respecting the bill HA’WKESBURY.

before Parliament, imposing certain duties on exTo MAURICE SWABEY, LL.D., and

ports and imports, and the tonnage of vessels, John ANSTEY, Esq. were the subjects of discussion when the convoy

duties were imposed, I take the liberty to send you Mr. King to the Secretary of State.

the copy of the report* which I made to my Gov

ernment of the conference which on that occasion London, May 5, 1802.

I had with Mr. Pitt, thinking this as satisfactory Sir: The bill imposing duties upon exports a mode as any I could adopt, of communicating and imports, and the tonnage of vessels, has passed to you the objections then made against certain the House of Commons, and will doubtless go of the provisions of the convoy duly, and which through the House of Lords, and receive the royal so far as respects the principle of the export duassent without alteration. If it be yet printed, 1ties now proposed to be laid, are equally applicable will enclose a copy thereof with this letter.

to the present as to the former bill In respect to the duties on imports, the bill in

Without repeating what has been already said, effect revives the correspondent provisions of the I will beg of you to give all the weight which it convoy act, with the addition, in most cases, of a deserves, to the obvious and just inference to be fifth to the duties imposed by that act. The ton- deduced from the spirit and tenor of our Treaty nage duties, as well as the duties upon goods ex- of Amity, &c.; and, according to which, as we ported to any part of Europe, are the same as un- think, we are not liable to pay a higher duty for der the convoy act; the duties upon goods ex- permission to export your manufactures than is ported to America, and other places out of Europe, paid by your other customers. Agreeably to the are reduced to half the rates imposed by the con proposed tariff, the consumers of British manuvoy act; and, with regard to articles excepted factures living in Europe will pay only half

per from the payment of duties inwards and outwards, cent. for permission to export the same, while we, as well as to the regulations for warehousing cer- who live further off, and who, consequently, pay tain goods, and allowing drawbacks in case of re- higher freight and insurance, are required to pay exportation, the like provisions are contained in double that rate, or one per cent., for the like the present bill as were inserted in the convoy act. In consequence of the large quantity of cotton

It is true that the difference will not be as conlately imported from the United States, and the siderable as under the convoy law; but it is not superior quality of a portion of the Georgia, it against the greater or less degree, but against diswas proposed to put a higher duty upon our cot- crimination altogether, that we contend. When ton than upon that of Turkey, which is of an in- this objection was formerly pressed, it was replied, ferior quality. But, on conferring with the offi- as you will perceive by the enclosed report, that the cers charged with the settlemer of these duties: duty taken in reference to convoys, which would the discrimination has been given up; and with cosi more in long than short voyages, was, for out distinguishing between Sea Island, and other this reason, not inequitable. Whatever force cotton of the United States, as had at first been there might have been in this reply, it must be proposed, the duty is reduced to the lowest rate, admitted to have no influence whatever, in reor io that imposed upon the cotton of Turkey; spect to the discrimination now proposed; the and as all other cotton will pay higher duties than effect of which, in regard to American and Euthat of the United States and Turkey, ours will ropean purchasers of British manufactures, is, that stand upon a comparatively good footing in this each having purchased goods upon the same terms, market.' As the proposed tonnage duty upon our and of the same amount, the former is called upon vessels is as low as upon the vessels of any other before he leaves the warehouse to pay, for the Govcountry, and applies to British equally with foreign ernment permission to carry away his purchase, vessels

, so far as respects discrimination, there is double the sum demanded of the latter for the nothing to complain of.

like permission. And if the Americans be supWith regard to the proposed export duty, after posed to purchase British manufactures of the several conferences with Mr. Vansittart, of the value of six millions annually, and it be likewise Treasury, to whom I was referred by Lord Hawkes- admitted that the Europeans purchase to the same bury to discuss the subject, and in which I urged, amount, the former will annually pay, according but without success, the abolition of all discrimina- to the proposed discrimination, £30,000 sterling tion between the purchasers of British manufac- more than the latter, or, in other words, for peri tures, I thought it my day to write him a letter mission to export the same quantity of goods, the upon the subject, a copy of which is annexed. If British Government will require the European his answer should be received in time, a copy of it shall also be subjoined.

Vide my No. 74, (1st series,) dated 1st June, 1798, With perfect respect and esteem, I have the to Col. Pickering, with the omission of a very few words honor to be, sir, your obedient and faithful servant, respecting the dissatisfaction likely to be produced in

RUFUS KING. America by the opposition of the convoy duty, &c.


Relations with Great Britain.

purchaser to pay only £30,000, at the same time the Crown, when it would be in a situation that that it obliges the American purchaser to pay would enable him to receive the King's pleasure sixty thousand.

respecting it. He intimated that he had underThis discrimination, is, at the same time, too stood there were other claims besides that of the plain to leave any doubt of the sentiments which State of Maryland; but, so far as he expressed an it must unavoidably excite; and I cannot but opinion, it seemed to be, that there would be no flatter myself that, upon a reconsideration of the difficulty of importance in the way of a satisfacsubject, it will be thought both just and prudent tory settlement, after the stock had been transferthat every sort of discrimination and preference red to the Crown. I repeated to his Lordship arshould be abolished. With great consideration guments which had been urged upon his predeand respect, I have the honor to be, &c.

cessor, and tried, though without success, to obtain RUFUS KING. from him an explicit engagement that the stock

should be transferred to me after its transfer to the

Mr. King to Lord Hawkesbury.

Respecting the West India trade, his Lordship Randall's, SURRY, July 30, 1802. said, after a short conversation explanatory of our My Lord: Having received the leave of my expectations, that he could give me no explicit Government to pass two or three months on the information whether or how far they should be continent, I am desirous of conferring with your able to accede to our claims; the fact being, as he Lordship before my departure, (which will take observed, that not only on account of the constant place in the course of a fortnight.) upon one or succession of more pressing concerns which His iwo subjects which have for some time been un- Majesty's Ministers had been called upon to deder your Lordship’s consideration. I allude to cide, but from the unsettled as well as uncertain the settlement of a plan for carrying on the trade condition of the West India Colonies, they had por between the United States and the British colo- been able to go into the consideration of the reg. nies in the West Indies, and to the long expected ulations which it might be deemed expedient to transfer of the Maryland bank stock. Upon each adopt; that they were yet also to learn the real of these subjects I am in hopes your Lordship will situation of St. Domingo, as well as of some other enable me to make some explicit coinmunication important colonies; and that, as any change in to my Government before I avail myself of the their former system would, in some sort, depeod leave I have received of a temporary absence; upon the probable condition not only of their own and, for this purpose, I ask the favor of you to re- but of other colonies, they must wait a little longer ceive me on Wednesday, or any other day of next before they could form a safe opinion upon this week which may be more convenient.

important subject. With perfect consideration, &c.

I remarked to Lord Hawkesbury, that, on acRUFUS KING.

count of our just claim to an equal participation Right Hon. Lord HAWKESBURY.

in a trade as necessary to them as to us, as well as

from the tenor of the article agreed to by England Lord Hawkesbury to Mr. King.

but refused by America, in the Treaty of 1794, we DOWNING STREET, Aug. 2, 1802.

had not expected that a recurrence would be had, Lord Hawkesbury presents his compliments to at the end of the war, to the exclusive system Mr. King, and will be happy to have the honor of ble delay in the decision of this point would opeo

which had prevailed before; that any considera: receiving him here on Wednesday next, at one o'clock, should that hour be convenient to him.

rate in the same way as a decision in favor of the old system, which, as his Lordship must know, we

considered as unequal and injurious; that my apMr. King to the Secretary of State.

prehension, therefore, was, in case of such delay, LONDON, Aug. 10, 1802. that we should think ourselves obliged to meet the Sir: As I am about to avail myself of the disadvantages to which our navigation is liable President's permission to pass a few weeks upon under the former system, by regulations which the continent, I have thought it expedient to en- would impose the like disadvantages upon the Brideavor previously to ascertain the sentiments of tish navigation ; these countervailing regulations this Government concerning the trade and navi- would prove mutually, though I could not but ad gation between the United States and the British mit they would be equally, inconvenient, and colonies in the West Indies, as well as to press for might, moreover, have the effect to disturb the a final decision respecting the Maryland bank harmonious and beneficial intercourse it was the stock. For these purposes, I asked a conference common interest of the two countries 10 proof Lord Hawkesbury in a note, the copy whereofmote. is annexed. His Lordship received me at the His Lordship made no distinct answer to these time I had proposed, but I regret that I am not remarks; contenting himself to repeat, in substance able to send you a more satisfactory report of what what he had before observed concerning the presa passed on this occasion.

sure of affairs of the greater interest, and the us. In respect to the bank stock, Lord Hawkesbury certain situation of the West India Colonies. said he had lately received a communication from As I found that I had not obtained any precise the Chancellor concerning it, and that measures assurance upon this subject

, which probably bas should be taken to effect a transfer of the

stock to not yet been discussed in the Cabinet, I obserred

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Relations with Great Britain.

that not withstanding the question might not ap- manners of Paris, which I am desirous to see, a pear to be of equal importance with others which few weeks' residence there will satisfy my cucontinue to engage the attention of the English riosity. I do not, therefore, think of prolonging Ministry, it nevertheless had excited, and might my absence beyond the middle of November, again excite, a lively interest in the United when the new Parliament will meet, and my States; that ihe subject had employed much of return hither may be a fortnight sooner. my attention, and I had sometimes flattered my- With perfect respect and esteem, I have the self with the hope that I should, during my resi- honor to be, sir, your obedient and faithful servant, dence here, be enabled to assist in the equitable

RUFUS KING. and satisfactory settlement of it; that I expected to terminate my mission, and return to America Extract of a letter from Mr. King to the Secretary of early in the next spring; and that it would afford

State. me some satisfaction to be authorized to inform

LONDON, Nov. 26, 1802. you that both this business, and the other regard- Sir: Mr. Gore has acknowledged the receipt ing the Maryland Bank stock, should be decided of such letters from the Department of State as before my departure,

have been received during my absence; and Lord Hawksbury replied that he could not his correspondence will have given you exact officiaily assure me that this should be done; information of all that has hitherto been done but that, according to his personal view of the towards the accomplishment of the several objects subject, he foresaw no reason likely to delay the of the President's instructions. I shall immedidecision of them heyond the time I had men- ately resume the business that has been so well tioned. This vague reply, and which binds to commenced; and, as well from the nature of the nothing, ended our conference upon these topics. subject, as from the temper and disposition that

Lord Hawkesbury then inquired of me if I had are understood to prevail in respect to America, received any late intelligence concerning the ex- I am inclined to hope that we shall experience no pedition to Louisiana. On my answering in the material difficulty in effecting a final and satisnegative, he said, according to their advices, the factory adjustment of our boundaries. French expedition was in preparation, and that it would certainly proceed. I, in turn, asked his Lordship, how far he gave credit to the rumor

Mr. King to Mr. Vansittart. which has of late been circulated, that France

Randal's, Surry, Jan. 8, 1803. was preparing a formidable expedition against

Sir: After the conversation we lately had upon Algiers.' He answered, that the project existed; the subject, I will not trouble you at much length that the army would be marched into Spain, and respecting the proposed augmentation of duty embarked in the Spanish ports; and that Spain, upon foreign spermaceti oil. Under the old systhough it was understood she had recently con- tem of duties, our whale fishery has not increased, cluded peace with Algiers, would, nevertheless, while yours has extended itself so as to be able to be expected to aid the French with provisions, supply more than your own consumption, which ships, and perhaps money. I did not ask whether our united fisheries, a few years back, were unable England was likely also to be embroiled with to do. In these circumstances, it is proposed to raise Algiers, in consequence of the late capture of one the duty on foreign spermaceti oil from £22 38 1d. or two English vessels by the cruisers of this Re- to £31 10s. the ton: the obvious effect of this meagency, having understood that it is here admitted sure will be to depress our whale fishery, by the that the passes of these_vessels were irregular, entire exclusion of our spermaceti oil from your and that the demand of England would be con- market, where it sometimes finds in small quantifined to the liberation of the crews, leaving the ties a precarious sale: the proceeds of these sales vessels as forfeited to the captors.

are laid out in the purchase of British manufacBefore leaving Lord Hawkesbury, I took oc- tures. "Live and let live,” is a maxim of trade, casion to observe, that although my absence and, in the present case, may mean a little more would be only for a short time, to guard against than it usually does; for I cannot persuade myself, any inconvenience which might possibly occasion, with the connexion that naturally subsists beI would take the liberty, before my departure, of tween us, and seeing, as we must, the efforts that introducing to him Mr. Gore, one of the commis- France is making to acquire a control over the sioners under the seventh article of our treaty, maritime strength of the North of Europe, as she who would act as our Chargé des Affaires during already has done over that of the South, that the my absence. His Lordship replied that he should decrease of American seamen can be indifferent be happy to receive Mr. Gore; and I shall accord- to Great Britaio ; and, if it be not, I should hope, ingly present him in that character to Lord for the sake of a common interest, that`you would Hawkesbury before I leave town. My plan is to not, for light motives, be willing to sanction any embark at Harwich about the 15th'instant, for measure that would produce this effect. Holland, from thence to go to Brussels, and then, I will not recall to your recollection, by way either directly to Paris , or, turning to my left

, and of complaint, the various modes of encouraging travelling a few days on the borders of the Rhine, your whale fishery, which, with whatever views to proceed to Paris through some of the more east- adopted, have had the effect to withdraw from ern provinces of France. As it is the invaluable our service numbers of our most intelligent and specimens of the fine arts, more than the men and useful adventurers.

7th Con. 2d Ses.-32

Relations with Great Britain.

As we have no laws prohibiting the transfer of and, as neither can claim or expect to do so ertheir skill and persons to a foreign State, they clusively of the other, such regulation becoine were free to accept your invitation, and we could fit matter for mutual explanation and agreement only regret their preference.

In conformity with this principle. an article reBut it would be a matter of greater concern specting this trade was prepared, and inserted in should these measures be followed up by a regu- the Treaty of 1791; although afterward excluded lation which would still further depress our whale at the instance of the United States, by reason of fishery, which cannot be beneficial to your reve- its inequality. nue, and which is not wanted as a protection to a Should the United States (in imitation of the branch of industry, that has already not only es- example set them by Great Britain) pass a law tablished itself, but continues to thrive under an applying the same rule to British vessels which encouragement that has brought it to maturity. the law of Great Britain applies to those of the

With sentiments of respect and esteem, I re- United States, the effect would be, that neither main, sir, your obedient servant, R. K. the British nor the American vessels could carry

on the trade. But as flour, corn, timber, staves

, Extract of a letter from Mr. King to the Secretary of and other articles of first necessity to the Colonies

, State.

must be received from the United States, the AmeLONDON, January 28, 1903.

rican vessels would carry them to some port or No further progress has yet been made in the island in the West Indies, belonging to a third discussion of the boundaries. From one or two Power, whither the British vessels would go to conversations that I have had with Col. Barclay, receive the same, carrying thither to purchase who has returned to town, I perceive that his them such articles of colonial produce as are alopinion, whatever influence it may have, will be lowed to be exported to the United States

. In favorable to such a settlement of the 'Eastern this way an entrepôt would be formed in the boundary as would be satisfactory to us. The

West Indies for the mutual sale and purchase of chief difficulty in this settlement, that I foresee these commodities; and, as the question princiat present, respects the island of Campo Bello, pally regards the navigation of the two countries, which, to avoid questions of interfering jurisdic

it is evident that the effect of these exclusive retion, arising from its being to the westward of a

gulations would be more beneficial to the United suitable boundary line, should belong to Massa- States than to Great Britain, inasmuch as the chusetts: if it should be ceded, I shall bave no voyage from the United States to the place of dehesitation to agree to a confirmation of the titles posit in the West Indies would be longer

, and of the settlers derived from Nova Scotia. But consequently would afford more employment than the Minister may hesitate about a cession.

between such place of deposit and the British In my last conversation with Lord Hawkes

West Indies. bury, respecting the intercourse between the Uni

Notwithstanding the equity of such a law, on ted States and the British Colonies in the West the part.of the United States, and the probable Indies, he desired me to write him a letter upon have no hesitation in preferring an amicable and

advantage it might secure to their navigation, we that subject, in order that he might submit it to the consideration of the Cabinet; and I according- equal participation of the trade to the certainty ly sent him a letter, a copy of which is subjoined.

even of acquiring an unequal share of it by a mea

sure of retaliation, which, being resorted to in one Extract of a letter from Mr. King to Lord Hawkesbury. tended to others, and in the end might have the

branch of trade, may, by one or both sides, be exGREAT CUMBERLAND Place, effect to disturb the harmony as well as the ex.

January 18, 1803. tensive and mutually beneficial intercourse beMy Lord: Referring to the observations trans. tween the two countries. mitted to your Lordship in my letter of the 3d of Whether it may be deemed more convenient to February past, explanatory of the principle upon alter the existing law, on the part of Great Briwhich we claim an equal participation of the tain, so as to allow the trade in question to be trade between the United States and the British carried on equally by American and British res West Indies, I take the liberty to recall the sub- sels, or to enter into a compact for this purpose, ject to your Lordship’s recollection, as one that as was intended by the Treaty of 1794, is not a has been long under consideration, and upon which point of material difficulty, though, in the nature I have received orders to require the decision of of the subject, a preference seems due to an ad His Majesty's Government.

justment by mutual stipulation : in either mode

. if, contrary to the maxims by which the trade as a security against the extension of this trade of the Colonies was formerly regulated, new cir- beyond the limits which it may be desired to give cumstances have rendered it expedient to open an it, it might be provided that the return cargoes intercourse between them and a foreign State, it of American vessels should be carried directly to is this measure, and not the admission of such the United States, and that they should moreover foreign State to a share in the trade, which breaks be purchased, as well as limited, by the proceeds in upon a system that could no longer be main- of cargoes imported in American vessels. tained with advantage.

With distinguished consideration, I have the Such intercourse being opened, each party is honor to be your Lordship's obedient and most alike competent to make laws for its regulation; humble servant.

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