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July. Sow Cape Broccoli, Endive, Kidney Beans, Lettuces, Spinach, and Turnips.
Hoe Carrots, Leeks, Onions, Parsnips, and Turnips.
Plant out Broccoli, Cauliflowers, Couve Tronchuda, and Winter Greens. Plant out Celery on the flat surface of rich ground, and in trenches; taking care to to take up each plant with all its roots, and to divest it of all its side shoots, to its principal leaves, which would otherwise prevent its making a fine clean handsome head.
Prepare Mushroom Spawn, if not done last month.
Cucumbers will now be in full bearing upon the ridges, and should be kept pegged down, stopping the leading runners, so as to keep the plants close, and the ridges completely filled up.
In earthing up the hills of Melons, one or two of the frames or pits may now be spawned for Mushrooms, as directed under that head : these will produce their crop in the autumn.
Take up Garlic, Potatoe Onions, Rocambole, and Shallots, when the leaves begin to decay, and lay them on mats in an airy place to dry.
August. Sow Cabbages, Cape Broccoli, Couve Tronchuda, Endive, Lettuces, and Flanders Spinach : this last is much superior to the Bourdeaux or Prickly Spinach. If the Flanders Spinach cannot be obtained conveniently, the Prickly must be resorted to. Sow also Strasburgh and Welsh Onions, Turnips, Turnip and Spanish Radishes.
Plant out Celery and Winter Greens. Earth up early Celery and Cardoons. Spawn Melon beds and pits, and make Mushroom beds under sheds or in the Mushroom-house.
Continue to stir the surface of the ground among Onions, especially those which are intended to be of the largest size, as this assists materially their growth, and in perfectly ripening their bulbs.
September. Sow Cauliflower and early Purple Broccoli for frames, Lettuces, Flanders and Prickly Spinach, short-topped and Turnip Radishes.
Plant out Couve Tronchuda in frames, the same as Cauliflowers, to be kept through the winter.
Make Mushroom beds in the Mushroom-house, or under sheds, for winter crops.
Plant out Broccoli and Winter Greens.
Earth up Celery, Cardoons, and tie up Endive to blanch. Prick out Cabbage plants.
Hoe out Winter Spinach to three or four inches distance plant from plant. Pull up Onions as soon as their tops are nearly dead, or they will push out fresh roots after rain, which will greatly injure their bulbs, and prevent their keeping in a sound and firm state to their usual period in the following spring,
October. Transplant Cauliflowers and early Purple Broccoli under frames and hand-glasses. Plant out Cabbages, Garlic, Rocambole, and Shallots. Tie up Endive, and earth up Cardoons and Celery. Lay up Carrots, Potatoes, and Red Beet for winter use. Mushroom beds which have been omitted the last month.
Towards the end of the month, sow Frame Peas and Mazagan Beans upon a warm south border. Lay into the ground Purple and White Broccoli, within a few inches of their lower leaves, and letting their heads face the north.
Transplant Black-seeded Gotte and Bath Cos Lettuces under frames, for coming into use early in the spring. Grand Admiral, Hammersmith, and Tennisball Lettuces should be transplanted upon a warm south border, at five or six inches distance from each other : the Black-seeded Gotte Lettuce may also be planted out along with the former three sorts; and should the winter prove mild, it will come in three weeks sooner than the earliest of these sorts. Clear the beds of aromatic plants from weeds, and let them have the winter's dressing ; particularly beds of Balm, Burnet, Chamomile, Hyssop, Marjoram, Mint, Penny-royal, Sage, Savory, Sorrel, Tansy, Tarragon, and Thyme.
Where forced Asparagus is required for use in winter, hot-beds may now begin to be made, for gathering the first crop in November and December. If a constant succession is required all winter and spring, a new hotbed, planted with fresh plants, must be made every three or four weeks, from the beginning or middle of October to the end of February or March ; which will furnish a supply of Asparagus from November till the arrival of the natural crops in the open ground in April or May
Trench and manure ground for planting.
Take up Parsnips on a dry day, as soon as the leaves are dead, and lay them up for winter use.
Sow Frame Peas and Mazagan Beans, on a warm south border. Plant out Lettuces under frames and hand-glasses the beginning of this month, if they have been omitted before. Tie up Endive when the plants are dry; or the middle of the plants may be covered with slates or tiles. Draw
as nearly to cover them. Towards the end of this month, part of them may be forced, by placing large pots over them, and covering them with warm stable dung: the young heads will thus be fit for use by Christmas. Elford Rhubarb may be forced in the same manner, or by planting the roots in large pots, and placing them in the Mushroom-house near the flue. Clear Artichoke plants from their old stalks, and cover up the heads with half-rotten dung, to keep off the frost. Cut down the haulm or stems of Asparagus; dig the alleys, and cover the beds with mould three or four inches deep. Lay into the ground Purple and White Broccoli, if it has not been already done in the last month. Take up the tuberous roots of the Scarlet Running Kidney Bean, and preserve them in dry sand, in a cellar excluded from the frost; or they may be preserved by placing them close together on a dry warm border, covering them six inches deep, and placing a hot-bed frame over them, and covering the surface again six inches deep with old tan. In taking up the roots, care must be taken not to injure the stem, but to cut it down to within a foot of the crown of the root : this part must also be carefully covered with old tan, to preserve it from the frost. In April these roots must be planted out again, when they will produce another abundant crop.
In the early part of the month lay in Purple and
up Peas and Beans, where the tops are advanced from early sowing ; also Cardoons and Celery, for the last time. . The finest ridges of Celery should now be covered with litter or soft meadow hay, to keep off severe frost, or the tops will rot, and this will in time extend down to the root.
Cover the Mushroom beds thickly with clean dry straw, and do not let the Mushroom-house descend to a lower temperature than 50 degrees of Fahrenheit's scale.
Look over the Cauliflower plants in frames, and pick off all decayed leaves. Every day the weather is mild and dry, let the glasses be taken off, that the plants may have free air; but let the lights be put on every night. When the weather is very wet, keep the lights over them; but at the same time, if mild, let them be raised at the back of the frames, to let in a large portion of air to the plants. In severe frosty weather, keep the plants constantly covered with the glasses, and other covering of mats, straw, fern, and other long litter; and apply long litter also round the outsides of the frames, when the frost is very rigorous. Cauliflower plants under hand-glasses must be treated in the same manner. Lettuces in frames and under hand-glasses require similar treatment.