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Elements of Mechanism; Unwin's Machine Design; Rigg's Practical Treatise on the Steam Engine, etc.
CIVIL ENGINEERING. The subjects for the second and third years are pursued by the students in Civil Engineering as well as by those in Mechanical Engineering.
Besides the general studies of each year, the students in Engineering take up the following studies in the department of Civil Engineering ;
During the second year, Surveying in all its branches except Geodesy, viz., Chain Surveying, Compass Surveying, Adjustment of Instruments, Transit Surveying, Levelling, Hydrographical Surveying, and Contour Surveying, one entire day from 8 a.m., until 6 p.m., in each week being devoted to field work, except when the weather is very unfavourable, when the students spend the time in topographical drawing, the plotting of surveys and the making of maps.
The field work in Hydrographical Surveying occupies six or eight consecutive days.
The text-books used in these courses are Gillespie's Land Surveying, Gillespie's Higher Surveying, and Bell's Method of Angular Cross-Sectioning.
There is also taught in this year the laying out and construction of common roads, the text-books being Gillespie's Roads and Railroads, Gilmore's Roads, Streets and Pavements, Mahan's Civil Engineering and Trautwine's Pocket-book, special attention being paid to those kinds of roads which would be applicable to Japan.
In this year are given also a course in Properties of Materials used in Construction and a preliminary course in Resistance of Materials, the text-books used being Gilmore on Limes, Hydraulic Cements and Mortars, Anderson's Strength of Materials, Bauerman's Metallurgy of Iron, and Wood's Resistance of Materials. Special attention is paid to the growth and preservation of timber, the production of the various kinds of iron and steel, and the testing and use of hydraulic cement. All these courses are supplemented by lectures and all necessary explanations.
The courses pursued during the third year are Sewerage, Railroading, Resistance of Materials, Geodesy, and Foundations.
Under the head of Sewerage is given a short course in Sanitary Engineering, showing how this important branch of Engineering needs improvement in the large cities of Japan. The text-books, used are Fanning's Water Supply, and Adam's Sewers and Drains.for Populous Districts.
Considerable time is devoted to the course in Railroading: the theory of it is first taught, the students practising from time to time in the field the methods of laying out straight lines and curves, levelling, cross-sectioning, slope staking, laying out drains and borrow pits, driving grade plugs, etc., after which they make a preliminary, survey of a line between two given points several miles apart, then locate it, make preliminary estimates of cost and lay
ut the ork for construction SO completely that the ground would be ready for contractors to begin work upon the whole of it at once. Having thus completed the field work, the students make a finished plan and profile of the line, plot all the cross sections, make drawings for culverts, etc., and prepare specifications for letting the work. The text-books used are Henck's Field Book, Waddell's Notes on Railroading, Gillespie's Roads and Railroads, Pease's Protection to Railroad Embankments from Washouts, Vose's Manual for Railroad Engineers, Waddell's Notes on Railroad Drainage, Barry's Railroad Appliances, and McClellan's Grades and Curves.
The course in Resistance of Materials consists of the theory of elasticity, the stresses, bending moments, deflections, etc., in beams and columns, the theory of resistance to torsion, the effect of repeated applications of stresses on iron and steel, and the flow of solids; the text-books used being Wood's Resistance of Materials, and Weyrauch's Structures of Iron and Steel.
Geodesy is taught by lectures, and includes the measurement of base-lines, the selection of stations and the erection of signals, measurement of angles, the reduction of a geodetical survey by the method of least squares, the determination of latitude, longitude and azimuth, the determination of the heights of stations, geodetical levelling and the construction of maps.
Foundations too, are given principally by lectures, and include pile driving, cribs, bents, cylinders filled with concrete, masonry piers built on both rock and timber foundations, screw piles, coffer dams, caissons, pneumatic cylinders and underpinning.
The fourth year courses consist of Bridges and Roofs, Hydraulics, Arches, Retaining Walls, etc., and Hydraulic Motors.
A large portion of the course in Bridges is given by lectures, but there are many text-books and books of reference used : among others, Burr's Bridge and Roof Trusses, Waddell's System of Designing Highway Bridges, Mahan's Civil Engineering, C. Shaler Smith's Wind Pressure upon Bridges, Carnegie's Pocket Companion, Waddell's Bridge Pins—Their Sizes and Bearings, Bouscaren's Strength of Wrought Iron Columns, and Vose's Manual for Railroad Engineers. A great deal of attention is given to this course, and, the students are required to make out complete diagrams of stresses and sections, bills of material and estimates of cost for two or three iron highway bridges, two or three combination highway bridges, and one or two iron, combination and wooden railroad bridges. The subject of braced piers is also thoroughly treated. Much care 'is taken in teaching the students how to design details and to figure their sizes, the number and spacing of the rivets, etc.
Finally each student is given a list of data for a bridge to be taken as a thesis, and he is required to determine the most economic depth of truss and number of panels, then make all the working drawings necessary to construct the bridge, and the specifications for letting the contract. A thesis is also given on the foundations for the bridge, the data for the stream crossing being assumed.
The course in Hydraulics includes a study of the Mathematical Theory of Fluids, a discussion of the various, formulæ for the velocity of water in rivers and conduitsthe construction of canals, works for irrigation and storage reservoirs, the improvement of navigable rivers, the protection of the banks of rivers and the construction of docks, piers and harbours. The text-books and books of reference used are Weisbach's Mechanics of Fluids Vols. I and II, Fanning's Water Supply, Baermann's Annual Rainfall in its Relation to the Water Supply of a City, Rankine's Civil Engineering, Jacob's Designing and Construction of Storage Reservoirs, Neville's Hydraulic Formulæ, Rankine's Applied Mechanics, Francis' Lowell Hydraulic Experiments, Kutter's Hydraulic Tables, and Reports of the Chief of Engineers of the U.S. Army.
There is time devoted to the use of the tachometer, and the gauging of streams. There is no thesis in this course, but the students are required to work out a number of practical hydraulic examples.
The course in Arches, Retaining Walls, etc., includes theory of earth pressure and the ellipse of stress. The text-books are Burr's Theory of the Masonry Arch, Rankine's Applied Mechanics, Baker's Actual Lateral Pressure of Earthwork, and Jacob's Practical Designing of Retaining Walls. Each student is required to make à design and estimate of cost for a retaining wall and another for a stone arch.
The course in Hydraulic Motors includes the Mathematical investigations, of the efficiencies of over shot, under shot, and breast wheels, turbines and windmills, such as are used for pumping water, and the practical construction of the same. The text-books are Weisbach's Mechanics of Engineering Vol. II, Rankine's Applied Mechanics and Bresse's Water Wheels. Each student is required to design and make the working drawings and estimate of cost of a wheel for a particular fall of water.
In all the courses in Civil Engineering the lectures system is made subordinate to the use of text books, lectures being given upon only those subjects, with which the students are pretty well acquainted, or upon those for which no text books can be obtained.