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The study of Architecture is pursued in the two departments of Civil Engineering, and of Mining and Metallurgy by means of lectures during the fourth year. It is pursued, not as a separate and independent course, but as a supplementary study which is necessary for the thorough qualification of the students who graduate in these two departments; and, therefore, in the short time devoted to it, anything like a complete and satisfactory study of the subject is impossible. It is hoped, however, that the students will take advantage of these lectures and acquire such a knowledge of the subject as will enable them to distinguish between good and bad architecture, and to apply the artistic principles they learn to their own designs.
The study is divided into Practical and Theoretical Architecture. Under the first head, lectures are given on Building Construction and Materials, and to obtain a clear understanding of the subject the students are taken through the process, step, by step, of the erection of an ordinary building, from the laying of the foundation, up to the roofing. The interior finish is then considered, when various methods of ornamenting walls, etc., are also explained. The lectures that follow under this same head deal with the materials which are usually employed for building purposes, particular attention being paid to the manner of selecting the best specimens, the methods of preserving them, etc.
Under the second head, the artistic phase of the subject is considered, and as the best mode of understanding this, a brief history of Architecture, as it originated and developed in various European and other countries, is given. Thus, Indian, Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, and other orders of Architecture, are gone through, special attention being paid to those distinguishing, features which characterise each, and cause them to form distinct schools or styles of Architecture.
As an introduction to the course of these last lectures, remarks are made with regard to the principles and elements of good Architecture, which are calculated to
à guide to the students both in themselves designing and in forming a critical estimate of the works of others.
The course of drawing extends over three years, and is principally mechanical, the students having studied freehand drawing in the preparatory course.
The first year is devoted to the study of Descriptive Geometry, and its application to problems.
The second year is principally taken up with Machine Drawing made either from other drawings or from models.
In the third year, the first term is devoted to coloured drawings of machines; the second term, to bridges and other structures in civil engineering; and the third term to coloured topographical drawings.
It is the aim in the department of drawing to give the students intruction in the kind of drawing which they will need in completing the studies of the varioụs, departments of the University; hence it is impossible to mark out more minutely the work done by each student.
MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY.
1st year Science :--A short introduction to physical and chemical mineralogy allows the student to understand the close connection between the crystallographical, physical, and chemical properties of the minerals. In the descriptive part classification is first discussed, then the more important minerals, especially those occurring in Japan are described according to the system adopted.
During the last term these outlines of mineralogy are followed by a brief sketch of geology. Physiographic, lithological, dynamical, and historical geology are taught in outlines only, and if possible illustrated by examples from Japan.
2nd year :-In mineralogy crystallography and optics are treated more explicitly, and always with special respect to the rock-constituents. In the descriptive part, many of the rare minerals are included for their systematical or theoretical interest, e.g., the members of isomorphous and pleomorphous series are enumerated in full. In the practical part of this lecture the student has to determine the mineral by the physical characters, viz., lustre, streak, colour, hardness, specific weight and crystallization.
In the blowpipe analysis the same purpose is reached by chemical means. Therefore after a short discussion of the blowpipe and the blowpipe materials the reactions which the different elements and compounds exhibit in the flame, on charcoal, with fluxes, with cobalt solution etc., etc., are practised in the determination of salts, oxides, silicates, sulphides, arsenides, and alloys.
The lecture on historical geology plays an important roll in this year's programme. The introduction refers to the structural arrangement of the rock-masses. Then the different groups, systems, series, etc., and the respective eruptive rocks are discussed in the order of their age. Special care is given to the leading fossils and to the distribution of the different systems within Japan or on the borders of the Pacific, for in most cases the geological features of the great Pacific area are of higher importance to the Japanese geologist than detailed descriptions of European sections. Geological excursions illustrate the lecture and at the end of this year a fortnight excursion is made under the care of an assistant.
3rd year. The lecture on lithology renders the student familiar with the constitution of the more important rocks. In paleontology the greater time is devoted to the animal kingdom. The different subkingdoms are treated in their natural order, beginning with lowest. The laws of development as yet established, the range in time and the geological importance of the respective orders, families and genera are always mentioned. Finally a brief sketch of palaeobotany is given. In the determination of fossils the subkingdom of mollusca is the special subject. After the student becomes quite familiar with it also other fossils as corals, echinodermata, are laid before him. In general geology the physiographic part (including the form, size, density, magnetic phenomena and the surface-features of the earth together with the system in the oceanic and atmospheric currents and in the distribution of organic life) is followed by a brief sketch of the architectonic geology. Then the forces are discussed which have produced the geological changes, viz., the destructive and formative work of the four agencies : heat, atmosphere, water and organic life. This part includes therefore a treatise on the volcanic and seismic phenomena, on decomposition and erosion, on coralreefs and coal formation, etc., etc.
Geological surveying and mapping are taught theoretically and practically and at the end of this year the student surveys for himself a district assigned to him by the professor.
4th year. The time of the student is especially devoted to the graduating thesis. The materials collected during the summer vacation are examined under the care of the professor and described according to the regulations previously issued. The field and indoor-work are combined into a report which is to be accompanied by a topographical and geological sketch map of the district surveyed. The lectures in this year are on microscopy of rocks and on ore-deposits. In the former the discussion of the rock-constituents and the systematical description of the rocks themselves are, accompanied by practical exercises in determination. In the latter the classification of the metalliferous deposits is followed by the theories on their origin. The descriptive part discusses the manner of occurrence of the different ores in the more important mining districts. Special care is given to their distribution within the different systems and eruptive rock-masses. If possible Japanese mines are referred to. An appendix treats
An appendix treats of the useful minerals as coal, rock-salt, mineral oil, etc., etc. Finally a theoretical retrospect shows how far theory and facts agree together.
Text-books and books of reference: Mineralogy. Nicol's Manual; Dana's Text-book; Nau