Darwin's Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals; Lewes' History of Philosophy; Lewes' Problems of Life and Mind ; Lewes' Physical Basis of Mind i Tyler's Primitive Culture, and Early History of Mankind; Lubbock's Origin of Civilization ; Lecky's Rationalism in Europe; Spencer's Universal Progress; Spencer's Principles of Psychology; Fiske's Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy; Spencer's Recent Discussions; Mill's Dissertations, and Discussions ; Ribot's Heredity; Ribot's Diseases of Memory; Sully's Illusions ; Galton's Hereditary Genius, etc.

(6) Moral and Aesthetic Philosophy :

The course in Ethics will consider the validity of modern attempts to construct a scientific theory of Morals, and à rational deduction of sound Ethical precepts.

The course in Aesthetics will elucidate those principles of criticism which rule in the formation of correct taste in the several departments of Fine Art. Lectures, with Sidgwick's Methods of Ethics for text-book. Reference will be made to other writers, such as Calderwood, Bentham, and Spencer in his Data of Ethics.

POLITICAL SCIENCE. A preparatory statistical lecture is held for the second year students, where a short description of the important states, their constitutions, finances, economical development, is given.

The course in Political Science covers two years. The lecture for the third year class introduces the students to the principles of Public Law, illustrated by continual reference to the institutions which actually exist in the leading countries.

The disposition of the lectures is the following: Introduction. The organizations of human social life :

individual, family, nation, community, society (especially religious society), State.


a. Sovereignty, Law, and People :-Sovereignty, pre

tented sovereignty of the people, and contrat social; territory ; the people, duties and rights of subjects; inhabitants; acquisition and loss of the quality of

subject. b. Sphere and limits of the state :- Opposed theories

on the sphere of state ; individualism and socialism, state cares for administration of law and for general welfare (outward and inward); Sphere of state changing in history, and different peoples; limits of state relating to individual life or so called civil

rights. c. Form of state and government Constitutions of

states, different in different times ; common errors regarding the best form of government;- Aristotelian division of states; other theories; historical development; patriarcal and despotic conquest state; ancient city state, theocracy, feudal states; modern states, development; absolute monarchy, constitutional representative government, demo

cracy, composite states. d. Limits of Political Science :-Relation to other



Iutroduction :-Criticism of the theory of the division of

the powers; state power only one.

a. The Monarch :-General position; personal pre

rogatives; acquisition of the crown; capacity to succeed ; effect of the succession ; usurpation; representation of the monarch, regency; abdica

tion., b. The public service :-Nature; duties of public

officers; rights; entrance into the public service

and end. c. Representation of the people :-Nature and com

mon errors; formation ; forms of transaction.


a. Legislation :-Law, customary and unwritten;

statute and ordinance; publication. b. Jurisdiction :-Nature; " voluntary jurisdiction";

organization ; government and justice, especially the “ Ministère Public;" pardon ; administrative jurisdiction in different countries; conflicts of

attribution. c. Administration :-Administration not executive

power ; central government, council of state ; ministeries ; administration of foreign affairs; of home affairs; organization in general; self-government; England, France, Germany; administration of local communities.


a. Finances :—Public property; revenue, especially

taxes; expenditure; debt; the budget; organization
of the administration in different countries; the

b. Administration of army and navy.



Books of reference principally used :
Woolsey, Political Science.
Bluntschli, Lehre vom modernen Staat.
Von Mohl, Enzyklopädie der Staatswissenschaften.
Lieber, Civil Liberty and Self-government.
Gerber, Grundzüge des Staatsrechts.
Hom. Cox, Institutions of England.
Brodrick, Local Government in England.
De Franqueville, Local Government in France.
Morier, Local Government in Germany and England.
E. Meier,

Verwaltungsrecht (in Holtzendorff's


The lectures for the fourth year class give more in detail the organization of home-administration, and the laws which are to be carried out by this organization, in the following order : Introduction :-Nature of administrative science. 1.-Organization :-In general; law and administration;

states and local communities; self-government; police (repressive, preventive); description of the organization in detail of the most important countries; administra

tive jurisdiction. II.-Administrative laws : a. Law of persons : 1. Physical life :-Population; statistics ; civil state;

emigration and immigration; settlements; poorrelief; public health ; dearth.

2. Mental life:-Education ; morality; religion ; arts. b. Economical law :

1. Agriculture; forests ; hunting ; fishing; mining.
2. Industry and commerce.
3. Copyright; patents ; trade marks, etc.
4. Weights; measures ; markets; currency; bank-

ing; exchange.
5. Locomotion; highways ; waterroads ; railway;

post and telegraph. c. Social law :

1. Corporations; associations; meetings; press.
2. Working classes (saving banks, etc.)

3. Insurance (fire, water, etc.)
The books of reference (besides the above mentioned)
R. von Mohl, Die Polizeiwissenschaft.
L. von Stein, Handbuch der Verwaltungslehre.
A. Batbie, Précis du cours de droit public et administ-

ratif. M. Ducrocq, Cours de droit administratif. M. Block, Dictionnaire de l'administration. R. von Mohl, Geschichte und Litteratur der Staatswissen

schaften. W. Roscher, System der Volkswirthschaft. (The first

part in the translation by Lalor). Besides these, the students are made acquainted with the more important literary productions bearing on the subject.

POLITICAL ECONOMY. In order to give the students in the second year an adequate idea of the scope of the subject, the fundamental truths of the science are laid before them as completely as possible in the limited space of time.

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