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Tomainder were admitted to the Union and the dates on which the Southern States were re-admitted after the Civil War:

No.

STATES.

DATE OF RATIFICATION

OR ADMISSION.

DATE OF RE-ADMISSION,

July 15, 1870.

June 25, 1888...

January 26, 1870.

June 25, 1868.

July 24, 1868. June 25, 1868.. February 23, 1870.

1.. Delaware... 2.. Pennsylvania.. 3.. New Jersey. 4.. Georgia.. 5.. Connecticut. 8.. Massachusetts. 7.. Maryland.... 8.. South Carolina... 9.. New Hampshire. 10.. Virginia u.. New York. 12.. North Carolina. 13.. Rhode Island. 14.. Vermont.. 15.. Kentucky.. 16.. Tennessee. 17.. Ohio.. 18. Louisiana. 19. Indiana.. 20.. Mississippi. 21 Illinois. 22 Alabama.. 23.. Maine. 24.. Missouri 25.. Arkansas.. 26.. Michigan.. 27.. Florida. 28.. Texas.. 29.. Iowa.. 30.. Wisconsin. 31.. California. 32.. Minnesota 33.. Oregon. 34 Kansas.. 35.. West Virginia. 36.. Nevada.. 37.. Nebraska 38.. Colorado.... 39.. Wyoming.. 40.. North Dakota 41.. South Dakota. 42..Montana. 43.. Washington...

December 7, 1787 December 12, 1787. December 18, 1787.. January 2, 1788. January 9, 1788. February 6, 1788. April 28, 1788. May 23, 1788. June 21, 1788. June 26, 1788. July 26, 1788. November 21, 1789. May 29, 1790. March 4, 1791. June 1, 1792. June 1, 1796. November 29, 1802. April 30, 1812 December 11, 1816.. December 10, 1817. December 3, 1818 December 14, 1819.. March 15, 1820 August 10, 1821 June 15, 1836... January 26, 1837. March 3, 1845.. December 29, 1845.. December 28, 1846.. May 29, 1848. September 9, 1850. May 11, 1858 February 14, 1859. January 29, 1861. June 19, 1863.. October 31, 1864. March 1, 1867. August 1, 1876. July 10, 1889.. November 2, 1889. November 2, 1889. November 2, 1889. November 2, 1889.

June 25, 1868.

June 22, 1868.. June 25, 1868. March 30, 1870.

Alabama was separated from Mississippi Territory (see Territories) in 1817, and made into Alabama Terri. tory with the capital at St. Stephens. It was admitted to the Union on December 14, 1819. On January 11, 1861, an ordinance of secession was adopted in a State

convention and by Act of June 25, 1868, the State was readmitted to the Union. The capital is Montgomery. The population in 1880 was 1,262,505, and in the last census (1890) 1,513,017. Alabama has eight representatives in Congress and ten electoral votes. It is a Democratic State. The name is of Indian derivation, and was once supposed to mean “ Here we rest,” though it is now said to have no known meaning. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Alabama' Claims.-During the Civil War several Confederate cruisers were built in England, and some were equipped in the ports of that nation and her colonies. This was all in violation of Great Britain's avowedly neutral position, of her own statutes and of international law, and in spite of the fact that our minister to England, Charles Francis Adams, repeatedly protested and called the attention of the English government to what was being done. Moreover, while neutrality was strictly enforced against United States vessels in British ports, even to the extent of prohibiting their taking on board coal which had been deposited by our government, Confederate vessels found no difficulty, through the connivance of officials, in coaling and even arming in such ports. Chief among the cruisers which were built or equipped in England were the Florida, the Georgia, the Shenandoah and the Alabama; the last named because of her especially destructive career gave her name to the claims which arose from the depredations of all such vessels on the commerce of the United States. As a result of Great Britain's action in these matters the United States claimed damages from her for

direct losses in the capture and destruction of a large number of vessels, with their cargoes, and in the heavy national expenditures in the pursuit of the cruisers; and indirect injury in the transfer of a large part of the American commercial marine to the British flag, in the enhanced payment of insurance, in the prolongation of the war, and in the addition of a large sum to the cost of the war and the suppression of the rebellion.” The dispute between the two governments stood unsettled

till after the war. In 1866 the United States offered to submit the question to arbitration, but would not agree to a proposition made by Great Britain to limit the discussion to the damage done by the cruisers, since this would be an abandonment of our position that the granting of the rights of belligerents to the Confederate States (by the Queen's proclamation of May 13, 1861) was unjustified by necessity, morals, treaties or international law. In 1871, however, England proposed a joint commission to settle various disputes which existed between the two governments; the United States consented with the proviso that the Alabama claims should be considered and disposed of by the commission; England agreed and the result was the Treaty of Washington (which see). By this treaty the Alabama claims were referred to arbitrators who afterward met at Geneva, Switzerland, and on September 14, 1872, awarded to the United States $15,500,000 to be paid by Great Britain in satisfaction of all the Alabama claims. This was duly paid within the year. The United States Court of Claims has jurisdiction of cases brought by those who claim a share in this indemnity. (See Geneva Award.)

Alabama Territory. (See Territories.)

Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867 (see Annexations VI). It is an unorganized territory of the United States and remained without the forms of civil government till 1884, when the Act of May 17th provided for the appointment of a governor and other officers, and also a district court. Sitka is the capital. The population in 1880 was estimated at 30.178, and in the last census (1890) 30,329. (See Governers.)

Albany Regency.-A name applied to the combination of politicians that from 1820 to 1855 managed the Democratic party in the State of New York.

The name arose from the fact that most of them lived in Albany, N. Y. Prominent among them were Martin Van Buren, Wm. L. Marcy, John A. Dix and Silas Wright. Their success was due mainly to their thorough organi. zation.

Alexander the Coppersmith.-A nickname applied to Hamilton by those that were dissatisfied with the copper cents coined in 1793 at his suggestion as Secretary of the Treasury.

Algerine War.-(See Barbary Pirates.)

Alien and Sedition Laws.-During the troubles of this country with France in 1798 there was a considerable portion of the community in sympathy with France, and attacks of the most scurrilous nature were continually made against the President and Congress. This state of things was the occasion for the passage of the above-named bills. The first Alien bill lengthened the period of residence for the purpose of naturalization to fourteeen years. All aliens thereafter to come into the country were to be registered, and the certificate of registration was to be the only proof of residence. Alien enemies could never become citizens. A third bill

gave the President power in case of war with a foreign nation or danger of invasion by it, to seize or expel all resident alien citizens of that nation. Another bill, signed by the President June 25th, gave him power to send away any alien whom he might think dangerous to the country; if after being ordered away he were found here he might be imprisoned for three years and could never become a citizen; aliens so imprisoned could be removed from the country by the President's order, and on voluntarily returning be imprisoned at the President's discretion; the act provided for various details concerning the carrying out of its intention, and gave the United States courts cognizance of cases arising thereunder. The action of the law was limited to two years. The Sedition bill was passed in July and declared any one that in any way hindered any officer of the United States in the discharge of his duty, or opposed any of its laws, to be guilty of a high crime and misdemeanor, punishable by a maximum fine of five thousand dollars and maximum imprisonment of five years; further, writing, printing or publishing any false, scandalous and malicious writing against Congress or the President or aiding therein, was made punishable by a

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maximum fine of two thousand dollars and maximum imprisonment of two years; but the truth of the matter, if proved, was to be a good defense. This act was to expire March, 1801. The opposition aroused by these bills was enormous, and though the prosecutions under them were very few, they made Adams' administration and the Federal party very unpopular. Hamilton had in vain tried to prevent the party from committing this blunder.

Allegiance.-Every citizen of the United States owes paramount allegiance to the national government. The opinion that he owed allegiance to his State first and to the Union only secondarily, which was bound up in the doctrine of state sovereignty, may be considered as finally negatived by the results of the Civil War. As to foreign states, no one can become a citizen of the United States by naturalization without first renouncing all allegiance to his former governmeut. (See Expatriation; Naturalization.)

All Men are Created Equal.-- The second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence begins: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,” etc. (see Declaration of Independence). This phrase, either as given above or slightly different, was used in the Declarations of Right contained in many of the State constitutions adopted about 1776. It is sometimes quoted, “ All men are born free and equal.” That form was used in the constitution adopted by Massachusetts in 1780.

All Quiet Along the Potomac.- This phrase became proverbial during the fall of 1861 and the beginning of 1862. The weather at that time seemed favorable to a campaign, and McClellan's army of about two hundred thousand men was in excellent condition, and yet no advance was undertaken. McClellan's policy, at that period, is sometimes referred to as a policy of “masterly inactivity.

All We Ask is to Be Let Alone. This phrase occurred in the message of Jefferson Davis to the Confederate Congress in March, 1861. He referred to Northern preparations to oppose secession.

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