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check upon the power of Congress to legislate within .the scope of its authority. Legislation exceeding the constitutional power of Congress will be declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, if that body is appealed to by either party to any controversy arising in an attempt to enforce such laws. Each House is, by the Constitution, “the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members."

Congressman. (See House of Representatives; Congressman-at-Large.)

Congressman-at-Large.—The Act of February 25, 1882, provided for the reapportionment of Representatives. (See Apportionment.) In cases where the number assigned to a State was increased and the Legislature of that State did not provide for rearrangement of the districts, the additional members were to be elected on a general ticket by the whole State, the old districts each electing one member as before. Where the representation of a State was diminished and a corresponding change of district was not made, the whole number of members was to be elected on a general ticket. There is at present but one Congressman-at-large. He is from Pennsylvania.

Conkling, Roscoe, was born at Albany, New York, October 30, 1829. From 1859 to 1863 and 1865 to 1867 he served in the House, and from 1867 to 1881 in the United States Senate. In 1881 he resigned. (See Stalwarts.) Subsequently he devoted himself exclusively to his profession of the law in which he held prominent rank. He died at New York, April 18, 1888.

Connecticut was one of the original States of the Union. It had two capitals, Hartford and New Haven, up to 1873, when the former was made the sole seat of government. The population in 1880 was 622,700, and in the last census (1890) 746,258. Connecticut is entitled to four members of the House of Representatives, and casts six electoral votes. It is a somewhat doubtful State in national politics. From 1860 to 1884 it was Republican, except that in 1876 Tilden had a small majority, and in 1884 Cleveland a small plurality. It takes its name from its principal river, which means in

the Indian tongue, “long river." Popularly it is variously known as the Freestone, Nutmeg, or Wooden Nutmeg State, or the Land of Steady Habits. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Conscience Whigs.-In 1850 the Whigs in Congress had taken the position that the slavery question, which they regarded as settled by the Compromise of 1850, should not be reopened. This policy was approved by President Fillmore. Their attitude led to dissensions in the party in many of the States. In Massachusetts those opposed to the stand thus taken by the leaders were known as Conscience Whigs; those that approved it as Cotton Whigs. The reason of the name is obvious. In New York, Fillmore's State, the supporters of his view were known as Silver Grays, a name given to them because they were mostly the older members. They were also called Snuff-takers. Those opposing it, headed by William H. Seward; were called Woolly Heads, or Seward Whigs.

Conscription Bill. (See Drafts.)

Conservatives.-A name assumed by certain political parties in many nations. These parties are sometimes actually, and always avowedly, opposed to changes from old and established forms and practices. In United States history these names have never been in general use, but in Van Buren's administration the name was applied to those Democrats that at the special session of Congress, of September, 1837, opposed the establishment of the sub-treasury system. In the Congress that met December, 1839, they had practically disappeared. The name was also assumed by Southern whites during the reconstruction period following the Civil War, to show their adherence to the old State governments, the abolition of which by Congress they opposed. In Virginia the name was in use until 1872. The name was also used at the North during this period. The Democrats applied it to themselves to draw moderate Republican votes.

Constitution, The, is a Covenant with Death and an Agreement with Hell.-One of the mottoes

of the Abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator. (See Abolitionists.)

Constitutional Union Party.-- This name was adopted at a convention in Baltimore, in May, 1860, of those Whigs that had not, on the dissolution of their party, joined either the Republicans or Democrats. In 1856 they had constituted a portion of the American party. They denounced the platforms of existing parties as tending “to widen political divisions," and declared their principle to be the Constitution of the country, the union of the States, and the enforcement of the laws." John Bell, of Tennessee, and Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, were respectively nominated for President and Vice-President. This ticket carried Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee, receiving thirtynine electoral votes. In several of the States “fusion” tickets of electors had been named, and in these the popular vote for each ticket can only be estimated. Bell's total popular vote is variously estimated from about 590,000 to 650,000, of which the former is probably more nearly correct. This party disappeared at the beginning of the Civil War.

Constitution of the Country, The, the Union of the States, and the Enforcement of the Laws. -This phrase is from the platform of the Constitutional Union Party, adopted at its convention in Baltimore, May 19, 1860.

Constitution of the United States.-The history of the formation of our Constitution is given under the heading of Convention of 1787 (which see). It was signed, as indicated below, by all the delegates to that convention except Gerry, of Massachusetts, and Mason and Randolph, of Virginia. Having been transmitted to Congress, that body, on September 28, 1787, ordered it to be submitted to conventions chosen in the separate States by the people thereof. Such conventions were chosen, and through them eleven States ratified the Constitution on the following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788;

Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788; Virginia, June 26, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788. As the seventh article provided that the ratification of nine States should be sufficient, it was therefore adopted. March 4, 1789, was the day set for the operations of the new government to commence. Subsequently it was ratified by the two remaining States—by North Carolina on November 21, 1789, and by Rhode Island on May 29, 1790. The text of the various amendments is given below with the body of the Constitution. The dates of the adoption of the amendments are given under the heading Amendments to the Constitution (which see).

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

OF AMERICA.

PREAMBLE.

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more

perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I.

SECTION I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

SECTION II.

Ist Clause. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

2d Clause. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

3d Clause. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within

this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the wbole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed three-fifths of all other per: sons. [Altered by the Fourteenth Amendment, Section II.] The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative;

and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey, four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

4th Clause. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

5th Clause. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

SECTION III. 1st Clause. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

2d Clause. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or ctherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3d Clause. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4th Clause. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

5th clause. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

6th Clause. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief-Justice shall preside; and no person

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