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shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

7th Clause." Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be ble subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

SECTION IV.

1st Clause. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

2d Clause. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in Deoember, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

SECTION V. 1st Clause. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.

2d Clause. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

3d Clause. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4th Clause. Neither House during the session of Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

SECTION VI. 1st Clause. The Senators and Representatives shall receivo a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2d Clause. No Senator or Representative shåll, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been in. greased, during such time; and no person holding any office

under the United States shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

SECTION VII. 1st Clause. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

2d Clause. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter their objections at large on their journal and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration twothirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed 'it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

3d Clause. Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

SECTION VIII. The Congress shall have power:

1st Clause. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises,

to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

2d Clause. To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

3d Clause. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;

4th Clause. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

5th Clause. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

6th clause. To provide for the punishment of counterfeita ing the securities and current coin of the United States; 7th Clause. To establish post-offices and post-roads; 8th Clause. To promote the progress of science and useful

arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

9th Clause. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

10th Clause. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;

11th Clause. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

12th Clause. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

13th Clause. To provide and maintain a navy;

14th Clause. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

15th Clause. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

16th Clause. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

17th Clause.. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; and

18th clause. To make all jaws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

SECTION IX.

1st clause. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shåll not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

2d Clause. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

3d Clause. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

4th Clause. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proporticn to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.

5th Clause. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.

6th Clause. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

oth Clause. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published from time to time.

8th Clause. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding any office of profit or trust urder them, shall without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, 1 om any king, prince, or foreign state.

SECTION X. 18t Clause. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attain. der or ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility,

2d Clause. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports and exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

3d Clause. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, un. less actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II.

SECTION I. 1st Clause. The executive power shall be vested in a Presi. dent of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the VicePresident, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

2d Clause. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

*3d Clause. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with them. selves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted

* This clause has been superseded by the Twelfth Amendment.

for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the the seat of Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certifi. cates; and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for President, and if no person have a majority, then, from the five highest on the list, the said House shall, in like manner, choose the President. But, in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States; the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States; and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of a President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be VicePresident. But, if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the Vice-President.

4th Clause. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

5th Clause. No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.'

6th Clause. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President; and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

7th Clause. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

8th Clause. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."

SECTION II. 1st Clause. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of

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