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In the early part of this century, the United States was almost the only nation that claimed for individuals the right of expatriation without the consent of the government of which they were citizens or subjects. The European nations, as a rule, maintained that the permission of the sovereign was necessary; and the enforcement by England of this claim was one of the causes of the War of 1812. Fortunately England did not carry into practice the theoretical extreme of her doctrine, which would have permitted her to hang as traitors all prisoners captured in that war who had once been British subjects. It must be said, however, that notwithstanding the position of the United States in regard to citizens or subjects of foreign powers, the right of voluntary renunciation of allegiance to the United States by one of our citizens was unsettled, so far as legislation was concerned, until the Act of Congress of July 27, 1868, asserted that expatriation" is a natural and inherent right of all people,” but the action of the Department of State had previously seemed practically to admit the right. As far as foreign states are concerned, however, the United States has steadily maintained its original position. The first formal recognition of its claims was secured in an expatriation treaty with the North German Confederation, signed February 22, 1868. England first recognized the right of voluntary expatriation by act of parliament in 1870, and immediately concluded an expatriation treaty with the United States. All the leading nations of Europe now recognize the right, including besides those just mentioned, France, Austria, Russia, Italy and Spain. (See Naturalization.)

Expenditures and Receipts of the United States. Besides the annual expenditure of the government as given under the heading Appropriations, there are permanent annual appropriations,” which cause expenditure by reason of provisions in existing laws involving outlays which thus need no especial appropriations. These are: 1. Specific, including (a) cost of collection of customs revenue, $5,500,000; (6)

arming and equiping the militia of the United States, $200,000; (c) interest at six per cent. to the Smithsonian Institute on the bequest held by the government for it, $39,000 per annum; and 2. Indefinite, including interest on the public debt, amount required for sinking fund, and numerous similar requirements. The total receipts of the United States from the beginning of the government to the present time, 1892, exclusive of loans, have been $11,862,357,521, while the expenditures for the same period have been $12,562,064,702. From 1866 to 1891, the receipts were sufficiently in excess of the expenditures for the accumulation of a surplus of about $115,000,000. (See Surplus.) By the passage of additional pension bills, since the latter date, however, the expenditures of the government are now materially in excess of the revenue.

Explorations and Important Events.—On the 3d of August, 1492, a little before sunrise, Christopher Columbus set sail from the port of Palos, in Spain, under the patronage of Queen Isabella, to discover a western passage to the Indies, and any lands that might intervene on the way. On the 13th of October, the same year, about two hours before midnight, a light was discovered. Morning came, and an island appeared in view. It was named San Salvador. Thus was the New World discovered.

1513.-Florida discovered by Ponce de Leon, and taken possession of for

Spain. 1537.--California discovered by Cortez. 1583.–Northeast coast of America taken possession of by the English. 1586.- Tobacco introduced into England by Sir Walter Raleigh. 1614.—“New England ” so called for the first time. 1619.-Slavery introduced into Virginia by the Dutch. 1620.-Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. 1630.-Settlement of Massachusetts Bay Colony at Boston. 1631.-First Vessel built in New England. 1636.-Providence founded by Roger Williams. 1640.–Use of tobacco prohibited by law in Massachusetts. 1652.-A Mint established in New England; “Pine tree” shillings coined. 1673.- New York taken by the Dutch. 1697.-War between the New England Colonies and the Acadians termi.

nated by the peace of Ryswick. 1699.-Woolen Cloth manufactured in New England. 1708.-Massachusetts first issues paper money. 1752.- Invention of the lightning rod by Dr. Franklin.

1765.-Stamp Act passed by Parliament. 1770.- Destruction of tea in Boston Harbor. 1774.- First Continental Congress assembles at Philadelphia September 3. 1776.- Declaration of Independence, July 4. 1776.-British evacuate Boston, 1778.- British evacuate Philadelphia. 1781. Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown October 19.

1783.- Treaty of peace with England signed at Paris September 3. 1784.-Ratification of treaty by the Continental Congress. 1787.-Constitution framed in Philadelphia. 1789.- Inauguration of Washington as first President of the United

States. 1790.-Constitution adopted by all the States.

Exports and Imports.- The following table gives the imports of foreign merchandise into, and exportation of domestic and foreign merchandise from, the United States for the years ending June 30th, from 1865 to 1891 :

YEAR.

EXPORTS.

IMPORTS.

EXCESS.

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1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891

$166,029,303

348,859,522 294,506,141 281,952,899 286,117,697 392,771,768 442,820,178 444,177,586 522, 479,922 586,283,040 513,442,711 540,384,671 602,475,220 694,865,766 710,439,441 835,638,658 902,367,346 750,542,257 823,839, 402 740,513,609 742, 189,755 679,524,830 716,183,211 695,954,507 742, 401,375 857,828,684 884,480,810

$238,745,580
434,812,066
395,761,096
357,436,440
417,506,379
435,958,408
520,223,684
626,595,077
642, 136,210
567,406,342
533,005,436
460,741,190
451,323, 126
437,051,532
445,777,775
667,954.746
642,664,628
724,639,574
723,180,914
667,697,693
577,527,329
635,436,136
692,319,768
723,957, 114
745, 131,652
789,310,409
844,916,196

$72,716,277 imports.

85,952,544 101,254,955

75,483,541 131,388,682 43,186,640 77,403,506 182,417,491 119,656,288 18,876,698 exports. 19,562,725 imports. 79,643,481 exports. 151, 152,094 257,814,234 204,661,666 167,683,912 259,702,718

25,902,683 100,658,488

72,815,916 164,662,426 44,088,694 23,863, 443 28,002,607 imports.

2,730,277 68,518,275 exports. 39,564,614

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66

The following table shows the exports and imports of specie for the same period : (See Balance of Trade.)

YEAR.

EXPORTS.

IMPORTS.

EXCESS.

66

1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891

$67,643,226

86,044,071 60,868,372 93,784,102 57,138,380 58, 155,666 98,441,988 79,877,534 84,608,574 66,630,405 92,132, 142 56,506, 302 56.162,237 33,740, 125 24,997,441 17,142,919 19,406,847 49,417,479 31,820,333 67,133,383 42,231,525 72,463,410 35,997,691 33,195,504 80,214,994 35,782, 189 183,912,816

$9,810,072 10,700,092 22,070,475 14,188,368 19,807,876 26,419,179 21,270,024 13,743,689 21,480,937 28,454,906 20,900,717 15,936,681 40,774,414 29,821,314 20,296,000 93,034,310 110,575,497 42,472,390 28,489,391 37,426,262 43,242, 323 38,593,656 60,170,792 59,337,986 28,962,073 33,976,326 54,491,014

$57,833,154 exports.

75,343,979
38,797,897
79,595,734
37,330,504
31,736,487
77,171,964
66,133,845
63,127,637
38,175,499
71,231,425
40,569,621
15,387,823

3,918,811
4,701,441
75,891,391 imports.
91,168,650
6,945,089 exports.
3,330,942
29,707,121

1,010,798 imports.
33,869,754 exports.
24,173,101 imports.
26,142,482
53,252,921 exports.

1,805,863
129,421,802

Exposition, World's Columbian.-The World's Columbian Exposition was created by an act of Congress approved April 23, 1890, entitled, " An act to provide for celebrating the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufacturers and the products of the soil, mine and sea, in the city of Chicago, in the state of Illinois. The act provided for the appointment of commissioners, who should organize the Exposition, and when these preliminaries were completed, the President was reqnired to make a public proclamation of the fact and officially invite “ all the nations of the earth” to participate in the Exposition. This proclamation was issued December 24, 1890, The ceremonies established by the

act are in two parts : those to be observed this

year, 1892, in the dedication of the buildings of the great Exposition, and those next year attendant upon the formal opening of the Exposition to visitors. The dedicatory ceremonies of this year are as follows: October 12, 1892, the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus, the President of the United States, with the Governors of the various States, and other prominent military and civil dignitaries, will officially participate in imposing ceremonies at Chicago, dedicating the grounds and buildings of the Exposition. The ceremonies are to embrace a four days' celebration. A military encampment will be held during these four days, at which will be present about 10,000 of the National Guard, and such of the regular army as are detailed for the duty.

Wednesday, the 12th, will be ushered in by a salute of forty-eight battery volleys. At ten o'clock the troops will receive the President at the main building of the Exposition, which he will enter, attended by such officials of the Government and members of the diplomatic corps as may be present. The representatives of the 'thirteen original States will be received with appropriate ceremonies, and of the remaining States in the order of their admission.

On Thursday, October 13, there will be a grand civic and industrial display, moving through the principal streets of Chicago to Jackson Park.

In this display, illustrations of the leading events in the life of Columbus and in the history of our country since its discovery will be given. A grand dedication ball will be given Thursday night.

Immediately upon the conclusion of these dedication ceremomies the work of installing the exhibits will begin.

Ex Post Facto Laws.—Strictly speaking, an ex post facto law is one that takes effect retroactively; that is, on transactions which took place before its passage. The provision in the Constitution of the United States (Article 1, section 9, clause 3), that “no

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