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1872, increased this amount to $50,000. At the following session an attempt was made to repeal this increase. It passed Congress, was vetoed by Grant, and failed to pass over the veto. In case of inability on the part of the President to perform the duties of his office, it devolves on the Vice-President. The further regulation of this subject is left to Congress. For the rules established under this power see President; Presidential Succession.

Executive Departments. (See Interior, Department of the; Justice, Department of; Navy, Department of the; Post Office Department; State Department; Treasury Department; War Department.)

Executive Session is the name applied to sessions of the Senate held for the transaction of executive business; that is, the confirmation of nominations of the President, or the ratification of treaties. These sessions are secret. The clerks that are necessarily present are sworn to secrecy, and violation of the oath may lead to dismissal and punishment for contempt. The punishment of Senators for revealing the proceedings is expulsion. Nevertheless, the proceedings appear in the newspapers with considerable regularity, and to a great extent the rule is a dead letter. The subject of making these sessions open is being agitated at present. Whether any part of the proceedings of either House is to be public or secret is a matter subject to the exclusive control of the House affected. The rules of the House of Representatives provide for secret sessions under certain circumstances.

Exequatur is an official recognition of a consul or commercial agent by the government to which he is sent, authorizing him to perform his duties in that country. It is a Latin word, meaning “let him perform.'

Expatriation means the act or state of banishment from one's native country, and it also means the voluntary renunciation of the rights and liabilities of citizenship in one country to become the citizen or subject of another. It is in this latter sense that it is used here.

In the early part of this century, the United States was almost the only nation that claimed for individuals the right of expatriation without the consent of the governmert of which they were citizens or subjects. The European nations, as a rule, maintained that the permission of the sovereign was necessary; and the enforcement by England of this claim was one of the causes of the War of 1812. Fortunately England did not carry into practice the theoretical extreme of her doctrine, which would have permitted her to hang as traitors all prisoners captured in that war who had once been British subjects. It must be said, however, that notwithstanding the position of the United States in regard to citizens or subjects of foreign powers, the right of voluntary renunciation of allegiance to the United States by one of our citizens was unsettled, so far as legislation was concerned, until the Act of Congress of July 27, 1868, asserted that expatriation "is a natural and inherent right of all people," but the action of the Department of State had previously seemed practically to admit the right. As far as foreign states are concerned, however, the United States has steadily maintained its original position. The first formal recognition of its claims was secured in an expatriation treaty with the North German Confederation, signed February 22, 1868. England first recognized the right of voluntary expatriation by act of parliament in 1870, and immediately concluded an expatriation treaty with the United States. All the leading nations of Europe now recognize the right, including besides those just mentioned, France, Austria, Russia, Italy and Spain. (See Naturalization.)

Expenditures and Receipts of the United States.Besides the annual expenditure of the government as given under the heading Appropriations, there are "permanent annual appropriations," which cause expenditure by reason of provisions in existing laws involving outlays which thus need no especial appropriations. These are: 1. Specific, including cost of collection of customs revenue, $5,500,000;

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arming and equiping the militia of the United States, $200,000; (c) interest at six per cent. to the Smithsonian Institute on the bequest held by the government for it, $39,000 per annum; and 2. Indefinite, including interest on the public debt, amount required for sinking fund, and numerous similar requirements. The total receipts of the United States from the beginning of the government to the present time, 1892, exclusive of loans, have been $11,862,357,521, while the expenditures for the same period have been $12,562,064,702. From 1866 to 1891, the receipts were sufficiently in excess of the expenditures for the accumulation of a surplus of about $115,000,000. (See Surplus.) By the passage of additional pension bills, since the latter date, however, the expenditures of the government are now materially in excess of the revenue.

Explorations and Important Events.-On the 3d of August, 1492, a little before sunrise, Christopher Columbus set sail from the port of Palos, in Spain, under the patronage of Queen Isabella, to discover a western passage to the Indies, and any lands that might intervene on the way. On the 13th of October, the same year, about two hours before midnight, a light was discovered. Morning came, and an island appeared in view. It was named San Salvador. Thus was the New World discovered.

1513.-Florida discovered by Ponce de Leon, and taken possession of for

Spain. 1537.-California discovered by Cortez. 1583.-Northeast coast of America taken possession of by the English. 1586.—Tobacco introduced into England by Sir Walter Raleigh. 1614.—“New England” so called for the first time. 1619.-Slavery introduced into Virginia by the Dutch. 1620.–Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. . 1630.-Settlement of Massachusetts Bay Colony at Boston. 1631.–First Vessel built in New England. 1636.-Providence founded by Roger Williams. 1640.–Use of tobacco prohibited by law in Massachusetts. 1652.-A Mint established in New England; "Pine tree” shillings coined. 1673.-New York taken by the Dutch. 1697.-War between the New England Colonies and the Acadians termi

nated by the peace of Ryswick. 1699.-Woolen Cloth manufactured in New England. 1708.-Massachusetts first issues paper money. 1752.- Invention of the lightning rod by Dr. Franklin.

1765.-Stamp Act passed by Parliament. 1770.-Destruction of tea in Boston Harbor. 1774.-First Continental Congress assembles at Philadelphia September 3. 1776.-Declaration of Independence, July 4. 1776.-British evacuate Boston. 1778. - British evacuate Philadelphia. 1781.-Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown October 19.

1783.- Treaty of peace with England signed at Paris September 3. 1784.-Ratification of treaty by the Continental Congress. 1787.-Constitution framed in Philadelphia, 1789.-Inauguration of Washington as first President of the United

States. 1790.--Constitution adopted by all the States.

Exports and Imports.-The following table gives the imports of foreign merchandise into, and exportation of domestic and foreign merchandise from, the United States for the years ending June 30th, from 1865 to 1891 :

YEAR.

EXPORTS.

IMPORTS.

Excess.

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1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891

$166,029,303

348,859,522 294,506,141 281,952,899 286,117,697 392,771,768 442,820,178 444,177,586 522,479,922 586,283,040 513,442,711 540,384,671 602, 475,220 694,865,766 710,439,441 835,638,658 902,367,346 750,542,257 823,839,402 740,513,609 742,189,755 679,524,830 716,183,211 695,954,507 742,401,375 857,828,684 884,480,810

$238,745,580
434,812,066
395,761,096
357,436,440
417,506,379
435,958,408
520,223,684
626,595,077
642, 136,210
567,406,342
533,005,436
460,741,190
451,323,126
437,051,532
445,777,775
667,954.746
642,664,628
724,639,574
723,180,914
667,697,693
577,527,329
635,436,136
692,319,768
723,957,114
745, 131,652
789,310,409
844,916,196

$72,716,277 imports.

85,952,544 101,254,955

75,483,541 131,388,682 43,186,640 77,403,506 182.417,491 119,656,288 18,876,698 exports. 19,562,725 imports. 79,643,481 exports. 151, 152,094 257,814,234 204,661,666 167.683,912 259,702,718

25,902,683 100,658,488

72,815,916 164,662,426 44,088,694 23,863,443 28,002,607 imports.

2,730,277 68,518,275 exports. 39,564,614

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The following table shows the exports and imports of specie for the same period : (See Balance of Trade.)

YEAR.

EXPORTS.

IMPORTS.

EXCESS.

1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891

$67,643,226
86,044,071
60,868,372
93,784,102
57,138,380
58, 155,666
98,441,988
79,877,534
84,608,574
66,630,405
92,132,142
56,506,302
56.162,237
33,740,125
24,997,441
17,142,919
19,406,847
49,417,479
31,820,333
67,133,383
42,231,525
72,463,410
35,997,691
23,195,504
80,214,994
35,782, 189
183,912,816

$9,810,072 10,700,092 22,070,475 14,188,368 19,807,876 26,419,179 21,270,024 13,743,689 21,480,937 28,454,906 20,900,717 15,936,681 40,774,414 29,821, 314 20,296,000 93,034,310 110,575,497 42,472,390 28,489,391 37,426,262 43,242, 323 38,593,656 60,170,792 59,337,986 28,962,073 33,976,326 54,491,014

$57,833, 154 exports.
75,343,979
38,797,897
79,595,734
37,330,504
31,736,487
77,171,964
66, 133,845
63,127,637
38,175,499
71,231,425
40,569,621
15,387,823
3,918,811
4,701,441
75,891,391 imports.
91,168,650

6,945,089 exports.
3,330,942
29,707,121

1,010,798 imports.
33,869,754 exports.
24,173, 101 imports.
26,142,482
53,252,921 exports.

1,805,863
129,421,802

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Exposition, World's Columbian.-The World's Columbian Exposition was created by an act of Congress approved April 25, 1890, entitled, “ An act to provide for celebrating the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufacturers and the products of the soil, mine and sea, in the city of Chicago, in the state of Illinois. The act provided for the appointment of commissioners, who should organize the Exposition, and when these pre; liminaries were completed, the President was required to make a public proclamation of the fact and officially invite “ all the nations of the earth” to participate in the Exposition. This proclamation was issued December 24, 1890, The ceremonies established by the

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