and Grant accepted the resignation. On April 4th the
articles of impeachment were presented to the Senate.
Belknap claimed that being no longer a civil officer of
the United States he was not liable to impeachment.
During May the Senate debated this question, and finally
by a vote of thirty-seven to twenty-nine, declared that it
had jurisdiction notwithstanding the resignation. Dur-
ing July the trial proceeded, and on August 1st a vote
was taken. On three of the articles the vote stood
thirty-six to twenty-five for conviction, on another
thirty-five to twenty-five for conviction, and on another
thirty-seven to twenty-five for conviction, the minority
holding that Belknap, being out of office, was not liable
on impeachment proceedings. As the necessary two-
thirds vote was not obtained, Belknap was acquitted.

Imports. (See Exports and Imports.)
Impressment. (See War of 1812.)

Incidental Protection. (See Tariffs of the United

Income Tax.-An income tax has been levied by the United States Government but once in its history, and then it was established because of the necessity for revenue caused by the Civil War. An act passed in 1861 created a tax of three per cent. on incomes of $800 per annum and over. The rates of taxation, the amounts of the incomes taxed, and the proportion of the income exempt from taxation, were changed by various acts till in 1872 it was abolished. The amounts collected by this tax are given in the following table:

1863.. 1864. 1865 1866, 1867

$ 2,741,858
72,982, 159



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Some arrears have since been collected, making the total derived from the income tax $346,911,760.48. (See Internal Revenue.)

Independents. This name is applied in politics to voters whose party fealty is not so strong as to bind them to the support of the nominee of their party if they dis

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approve of him personally, or to members of a legislative body acting separately from parties either because chosen so to do or chosen on a fusion ticket. The latest instance was the movement caused by the nomination in 1884 of Blaine by the Republicans in causing the defection of a large body of Independents whose action in the State of New York probably decided the contest. (See Pivotal State.) The leaders in this revolt were George W. Curtis, Carl Schurz and others.

Independence Now and Independence Forever. (See Sink or Swim, etc.)

Independent Party.—The formal name of the Greenback-Labor party in 1876. The nominees of the party in that year were Peter Cooper and Samuel F. Cary.

Independent Treasury. (See Sub-Treasury System.)

Indiana.-In 1800 the Northwest Territory (see Territories) was divided, Ohio being separated and the remainder being called Indiana Territory; from this in 1805 Michigan Territory was cut off, and in 1809 Illinois Territory; what remained was admitted as a State to the Union December 11, 1816. The capital is Indianapolis. The population in 1880 was 1,978,301, and in the last census (1890) 2,192,404. Indiana has thirteen Congressmen and fifteen electoral votes. In national politics the State cannot be considered sure for either party, though it is generally Republican. Since 1860 it has been Republican, except in 1876 and 1884 when it was Democratic, owing probably to the name of one of its popular citizens, Hendricks, on that ticket. The name of the State was formed from the word “Indian"; popularly its name is the Hoosier State and the inhabitants are called Hoosiers. (See Hoosiers; Governors; Legislatures.)

Indiana Territory. (See Territories.)

Indian Territory.--The larger part of this region was acquired by the Louisana purchase. (See Annexations I. It is an unorganized territory of the United States, set aside for Indian tribes and public lands by act of June 30, 1834, but its extent has been diminished

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from time to time. The population in 1880 was estimated at 70,000. (See Oklahoma Boomers; Cimarron.)

Indian Wars.-From the earliest years of our history difficulties have been constantly occurring with the Indians within our borders. Only one of these has had any special political significance, and but a brief reference to some of the principal Indian wars will be attempted. From 1790 to 1795 a war was waged with the Miami Confederacy in Ohio and neighboring territory. Generals Harmar and St. Clair met with reverses, but General Wayne crushed the outbreak in 1793. The Indians of the West formed a conspiracy some years later under Tecumseh and Elkswatama the Prophet, renewed hostilities, and were defeated in 1811 at Tippecanoe by General Harrison. During the war of 1812 the Northern Indians joined their forces with the British and gave us much trouble; they, together with the British, were defeated at the River Thames in 1813 by Harrison, and Tecumseh was killed. In the same year and the next General Andrew Jackson conducted operations against the Creeks in the South, who were brought to terms by victories at Tallushatchie, Talladega and the Horse Shoe Bend of the Tallapoosa River. In 1817 the Seminoles in Georgia and Alabama showed signs of hostility. General Jackson subdued them in the spring of the next iards had encouraged the Indians, Jackson entered Florida, then a Spanish possession, and captured St. Marks. He seized two Englishmen, Arbuthnot and Ambrister, who were tried by court-martial on a charge of inciting the Indians, found guilty and executed. He then took possession of Pensacola and captured Fort Barrancas on the shore of the bay after a slight resistance. The execution of two British subjects raised such a storm of indignation in England that another war was threatened, but the English ministry admitted the justice of the act. Jackson's enemies endeavored to have Congress pass a vote of censure, but that body and the President supported him. Spain also complained of his proceeding, but without effect. (See Annexations II.)" In

1831 and 1832 the Sacs, Foxes and Winnebagoes, led by Black Hawk, refused to leave lands which they had ceded to the government, but the Black Hawk War, as the resulting disturbance is called, was soon ended and the leader captured. In 1836 and 1837 there were minor disturbances in the South with the Creeks and Chicopees, connected with their removal west of the Mississippi. From 1835 to 1843 the Seminoles in Florida, led by Osceola, were in arms, refusing to remove to Western reservations. In December, 1835, Major Dade with a force of over a hundred men fell into an ambush and all but four of the command perished. Various battles were fought, but the Indians prolonged the war among


swamps of Florida for seven years.

Colonel Zachary Taylor was among the leaders of our troops. Finally, after the expenditure of many men and much money the persistent Indians were removed to the West. In 1872 the Modoc Indians in Oregon refused to go upon a designated reservation. They retreated before the troops to a volcanic region known as the lava-beds and could not be conquered. A peace conference held with them in April, 1873, was broken up by their treacherous murder of General Canby and Dr. Thomas. About the first of June, however, General Davis forced them to surrender; Captain Jack, their leader, and others were executed. In 1876 the Sioux Indians gave trouble in the Black Hills region on the borders of Montana and Wyoming. A large force of regulars was sent against them under Generals Terry, Crook, Custer and Reno. On June 25, 1876, the two latter attacked at different points a large Indian village situated on the Little Horn River. General Custer was killed with 261 men of the Seventh Cavalry and 52 were wounded. Reno held his ground till saved by reënforcements. Additional troops were sent to the spot and the Indians were defeated in several engagements, and in the beginning of 1877 the Indian chief, Sitting Bull, escaped to Canada. In 1877 trouble with the Nez Percé Indians of Idaho, led by their chief Joseph, came to a head. General Howard was sent against them, they were soon hemmed in, and in October

were completely defeated by Colonel Miles. In 1879 an outbreak of the Ute Indians cost the lives of the government agent Major Thornburgh and a . number of soldiers before it was quelled.

Ingalls, John James, was born in Middleton, Massachusetts, December 29, 1833. He is a graduate of Williams College and a lawyer by profession. In 1858 he moved to Kansas, holding several territorial offices. In 1873, he entered the United States Senate and was constantly re-elected until 1891 when he was defeated by the Farmers Alliance candidate. He was President pro tempore of the Senate from 1887 to 1891.

Innocuous Desuetude.- March 1, 1886, President Cleveland sent a special message to the Senate on the subject of removals from office. In it he used the above words in referring to certain laws which had become dead letters.

Insolvent Laws. (See Bankruptcy.)

Insurrection. The Constitution, Article 1, section 8, clause 15, gives Congress the power to call forth the militia to suppress insurrections. Acts were passed in 1792, 1795 and 1807, giving the President power to call forth the militia when notified by an associate justice of the Supreme Court or a district judge that the execution of the laws is obstructed, and on application of a legislature or a governor, when the legislature could not be convened, and to employ also the land and naval forces of the United States. The Whisky Insurrection was directed against the federal authority, and the President employed force to suppress it on notification by the federal judge. During the Buckshot War the Governor of Pennsylvania asked for assistance, but it was refused. The Governor of Rhode Island made a similar application during the Dorr Rebellion and the regulars were held ready for action, but their aid proved unnecessary. These last two cases came under Article 4, section 4, of the Constitution, which provides that “that the United States shall protect” each State “on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. When

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