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International Expositions.—The idea of an exhibition of the industries of all nations is said to have been suggested by Mr. Whishaw, secretary of the Society of Arts, London, in 1844. The first direct movement in favor of it, however, was made by Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria. He was president of the Society of Arts, and June 30, 1849, called a meeting of the society at Buckingham Palace, and proposed that it should take the initiative in getting up an industrial fair, to which all the countries of the world should be invited to contribute. The society at once took
the idea and used all the means in their power to promote it. Early in 1850 they appointed a formal commission, with Prince Albert at its head, to promote the scheme. A few days later a meeting was held at the Mansion House, London, to raise funds, and £10,000 were at once subscribed. In a short time a guarantee fund of £200,000 was obtained and the project was fairly begun. The first nation to follow the brilliant example of Great Britain was, of course, the United States, and the second " Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations” was opened at New York, July 14, 1853. It was held like that of Great Britain in a crystal palace, a building constructed entirely of glass and iron, and built expressly for it. The preparation and manaugement of this exhibition were undertaken by a stock company. The exhibition on this occasion was probably even more complete and magnificent than that of Great Britain, for the idea had gained in favor now with all nations, and no civilized country failed to send samples of its best work in art and manufacture. This fair was open four months. Since then international exhibitions have been held in all the principal cities of Europe, and in this country the Centennial Exposition held at Philadelphia in 1876 demonstrated the popularity of these exhibitions.
International Law consists of rules for the conduct of different nations and their subjects with respect to each other, which rules are deducted from reason, justice
and the nature of governments. In the ancient world one nation had few rights which another was bound to respect. International law in anything like a systematic shape is a modern product, and the general recognition of it is yet more recent. Many of its important principles are still in the stage of development, though minor questions, such as the treatment of embassadors, have long been settled. Treaties, declarations of war and international documents and discussions generally, together with the works of great writers, constitute the body of international law. It may be divided into three departments: first, principles regulating the conduct of states to each other; second, principles regulating the rights and obligations of individuals arising out of international relations; third, principles regulating the conduct of individuals as affected by the internal laws of other nations. International law differs from the internal law of States in this, that there is no final authority to compel its observance or punish its breach; yet public opinion and combinations of other nations are a potent check on the one that would disregard its obligations. During the last generation much has been done to secure recognition from civilized nations of certain general rules governing their actions toward each other, such as the rights of neutrals and the question of blockades, and long steps have been taken toward the substitution of arbitration in place of war in the settlement of international disputes.
Inter-State Commerce Act, The, was passed by the Senate January 14, 1887, by a vote of 45 to 15, and by the House on January 21, 1887, by a vote of 178 to 41; it was approved by President Cleveland February 4, 1887. The act provides for the appointment of an Inter-State Commerce Commission, consisting of five members. These shall not be connected in any way with common carriers subject to the provisions of the act, nor are they to engage in other business; not more than three are to be of the same political party; they are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, the first members for the terms of two, three, four, five and six years
respectively, ana their successors for the terms of six years each; they each receive a salary of $7,500 per annum. The act applies to common carriers conveying merchandise or passengers between one State, Territory
the District of Columbia, to another one of those divisions. Unjust and unreasonable charges and unjust discrimination are prohibited; the latter is defined to be the demanding from one person of greater compensation than is asked from another for a like service. It is made unlawful to give undue advantage to one person, locality or kind of traffic over another, or to discriminate between connecting lines. The “long and short haul clause " provides that the rate for a short haul shall not equal nor exceed the rate for a long haul under like conditions, except as the Commission may provide or may relieve from the operations of this section. Freight's cannot be pooled with connecting lines; schedules of rates, which must be conformed to, are to be made public, and ten days notice of any advance must be given. Combinations to prevent continuous carriage are prohibited. Persons suffering by reason of violations of the act may secure damages in the United States Courts, or they may complain to the Commission, who have power to compel the attendance of persons and the production of papers, and who shall investigate and order
reparation or the ceasing of the violation of the act, and the circuit courts of the United States are given power to enforce these orders, subject to an appeal to the Supreme Court in certain instances. Each willful violation of the act is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine not exceeding $5,000. Common carriers subject to the act are to submit annual reports to the commission; the commission is to make a yearly report to the Secretary of the Interior who shall transmit the same to Congress. Certain exceptions are made in the operation of the act; reduced rates may be granted on property for governmental and charitable purposes, for purposes of exhibitions and fairs, reduced rates may be made for excursion tickets, etc., and for ministers, and passes may be given to officers or employes of railroads. The commission is at present
constituted as follows: Jas. W. McGill, of Iowa, chairman; William R. Morrison, of Illinois, Augustus Schoonmaker, of New York, Alfred C. Chapin, of New York, and Wheelock G. Veazey, of Vermont.
Inter-State Extradition. (See Extradition.)
In the Line of Succession.—Thomas Jefferson was Secretary of State under Washington; James Madison held the office under Jefferson; James Monroe under Madison; John Quincy Adams under Monroe. Each one of these secretaries had subsequently become President, in every case, except that of Jefferson, immediately after the President under whom he served in that capacity. Henry Clay was Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams, and when in 1832 he ran for the presidency against Andrew Jackson, he was therefore said to be in the lineof succession.
In the Name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress.-In May, 1775, Ethan Allen surprised Fort Ticonderoga, then in the hands of the British. To Allen's demand for surrender the commander replied, “By whose authority?” to which Allen answered: * In the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress."
Invisible Empire.—A name by which the Ku-Klux Klan was sometimes known.
Iowa.—This State originally constituted part of the region acquired by the Louisiana purchase. (See Annexations 1.) It formed at one time part of the Territory of Missouri. (See Territories.) After the admission of Missouri to the Union, Iowa was neglected till 1834 when it was placed under the jurisdiction of Michigan; in 1836 it was transferred to Wisconsin, and in 1838 was erected into the separate Territory of Iowa; it was admitted as a State December 28, 1846. The capital is Des Moines. The population in 1880 was 1,624,615, and inthe last census (1890) 1,911,896. Iowa is entitled to eleven Congressmen and thirteen electoral votes; it is Republican in politics. Its name is derived from its principal river, which in the Indian tongue is variously stated to mean “the beautiful land,” the sleepy ones,
and “this is the place;" popularly it is called the Hawkeye State. (See Governors; Legislatures.)
I Propose to Fight it out on this Line, if it Takes all Summer.—This sentence was contained in the dispatch of General Grant to the Secretary of War after the battle of Spottsylvania, May, 1864.
Irish Vote. (See German Vote.)
Iron-clad Oath of Office.-A popular name for the oath of office prescribed July 2, 1862, in which the person not only promises to defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign or domestic, but also swears that he has never given aid or encouragement to its enemies, or accepted office under any government hostile to the United States.
Irrepressible Conflict.-The conflict beetween freedom and slavery was referred to by William H. Seward in a speech delivered October 25, 1858. He declared that “it is an irrepressible conflict between opposing and enduring forces.
I Was Born an American, I Live an American, I Shall Die an American.—This sentence is from a speech of Daniel Webster, delivered July 17, 1850.
Jackson, Andrew, was born at Waxhaw Settlement, North Carolina, March 15, 1767, and died at « The Hermitage," his residence near Nashville, Tennessee, January 8, 1845. As a boy he fought in the Revolutionary army,
He then studied law and was admitted to the bar. His early education had been neglected, nor was this shortcoming ever thoroughly repaired. He served in the House of Representatives from 1796 to 1797, and in the Senate from 1797 to 1798. He had made a name for himself in Tennessee as prosecuting attorney. He had won military glory in fights with the Indians, and his services in the Creek War increased his reputation. He was made a Major-General, and in 1815 won the battle of New Orleans against the British. From 1823 to 1825 he again served as Senator, and in 1824 was defeated for the presidency by John Quincy Adams. In the next presidential contest he defeated