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France, and Florida from Spain (see preceding section of this article), she joined her portion of Louisiana to Florida and divided by the Apalachicola River West from East Florida. Both of these passed to Spain in 1783. Spain claimed that when, in 1800, she ceded ” Louisiana to France, she only gave back what she had obtained from that country, and that West Florida, which she obtained from England, still remained hers. The United States maintained that Spain had given to France the whole original extent of Louisiana, and that Florida west of the Perdids was a part of our purchase from France in 1803. Our government did not press this claim till 1810, but then, under direction of the President, Governor Claiborne, of the Territory of Orleans, took possession of all West Florida except Mobile, and in 1813 General Wilkinson obtained possession of Mobile also. There was a growing desire in the United States to seize East Florida. Congress as early as 1811 passed secret acts authorizing the President to take "temporary possession” of it, though nothing came of this. In 1814 and 1818 Jackson made raids into the coveted territory (see Indian Wars), which seemed to show to Spain the danger her territory was in. She did not think it worth defending, and on February 22, 1819, the Spanish Minister at Washington signed a treaty by which Florida was ceded to the United States. Our government in return assumed claims of its citizens against Spain to the amount of $5,000,000, and accepted the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Mexico. By the same treaty Spain accepted the forty-second degree of north latitude as the northern limit to her claims of territory west of the Rocky Mountains. The United States Senate at once ratified this treaty, but Spain delayed till early in 1821, and in July of that year possession was surrendered.
III. TEXAS.—Previous to 1819 the United States had claimed as part of the Louisiana purchase the region known as Texas as far as the Rio Grande River, but by the Spanish treaty of that year yielded its claim. Soon afterward, inhabitants of the United States began to
remove to Texas, where they obtained grants of land and settled. It thus grew into a State which was closely allied to the United States. This emigration to Texas and the subsequent annexation were part of the political scheme of the South to maintain its power in Congress by the addition of slave-territory, to offset the creation of free States in the North. În 1827 and 1829, Clay and Calhoun, as Secretaries of State, tried to obtain Texas by purchase, offering $1,000,000 and $5,000,000, but without success. In March, 1836, Texas, dissatisfied with the government of Mexico, declared its independence. A short war followed. The Mexicans committed massacres at Goliad and the Alamo (see Thermopylæ of Texas), but on April 10th, at the San Jacinto, Santa Anna, the Mexican President, with 5,000 men, was badly defeated by 700 men under General Sam. Houston, the commander of the Texan forces. Santa Anna agreed to a treaty which recognized the independence of Texas. This was not ratified by Mexico, but in March, 1837, the United States recognized the independence of the Republic of Texas, and soon England, France and Belgium did likewise. In 1837 Texas made application to Congress for annexation, but with no immediate result. The presidential campaign of 1844 turned largely on this question. The Democratic convention nominated Polk, who favored annexation, instead of Van Buren, who opposed it. Clay, the Whig candidate, was also supposed to be against the project. In the meantime, Calhoun, Secretary of State, had negotiated a treaty of annexation with Texas in April, 1844, including the territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers, disputes as to which finally led to the Mexican War (which see). This treaty failed of ratification at the hands of the Senate. Polk was elected, partly by reason of the votes thrown away on Birney (see Liberty Party), but his election was taken as a sign of popular approval of annexation, and Congress and Tyler's administration now became attached to the project. Early in 1845 Congress authorized the President to negotiate a treaty
of annexation. Tyler hastened to accomplish the object, though without a treaty, and on the last day of his term sent a special messenger to Texas. This emissary on June 18th secured the consent of the Congress of Texas, which was ratified by a popular vote on July 4th. А resolution for the admission of Texas as a State was passed in the House of Representatives by a vote of one hundred and forty-one to fifth-six on December 16, 1845, and in the Senate by a vote of thirty-one to thirteen on December 22d, and Texas was declared a State of the Union on December 29, 1845.
IV. NEW MEXICO AND UPPER CALIFORNIA. The name New Mexico was originally applied to the territory now known as Utah, Nevada and large portions of Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico. Upper California comprised what is now the State of California. These regions, which belonged to Mexico, were conquered during the Mexican War, and by the treaty of 1848, which ended that contest, passed to the United States. (See Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.) Our government paid to Mexico for this cession $15,000,000, and assumed debts due from Mexico to our citizens amounting to $3,250,000. A portion of this acquisition (that part of New Mexico east of the Rio Grande) was claimed by Texas, and one of the provisions of Henry Clay's Omnibus Bill, passed in 1850, provided for the payment of $10,000,000 to Texas in satisfaction of her claim.
V. GADSDEN PURCHASE.—Disputes still remained with reference to those portions of Arizona and New Mexico south of the Gila River, and Mexican troops were sent thither. Trouble was averted, however, by the Gadsden Treaty, December 30, 1853, so called because it was negotiated by our Minister to Mexico, General James Gadsden. By this treaty the United States obtained the disputed territory, for which we paid $10,000,000.
VI. ALASKA.-By a treaty of March 30, 1867, ratified by the Senate June 20th of the same year, Russia ceded to the United States what is now the Territory of Alaska. The price paid was $7,200,000. The following
table shows the original area of the United States and the areas of the various annexed regions:
United States in 1783..
59,268 376,133 545,783
Subsequent measurements and changes in boundaries have somewhat changed these figures. (See Area of the United States.). For propositions concerning the annexation of Cuba and Santo Domingo, see Cuba, Annexation of; Santo Domingo, Annexation of. (See also Territories.)
Annual Message of the President to Congress. (See President's Message.)
Another County Heard From.-During the excitement incident to the Presidential campaign of 1876, this phrase gained currency. The returns were very slowly received from some of the doubtful States, especially in Florida, and each addition to the uncompleted vote was hailed as above.
Anti-Federal Junto.-When it was proposed in the Pennsylvania Legislature to issue a call for a convention to ratify the United States Constitution, nineteen of the members withdrew, leaving the House without a quorum. Enough of these were, however, dragged to the House to allow business to be transacted. September, 1787, sixteen of these same members signed an address against the Constitution; this address contained so many misstatements that it soon became an object of ridicule. To the signers and their followers the name of AntiFederal Junto was given.
Anti-Federalists.-Those that were in favor of the adoption of the Constitution when that instrument was before the people for ratification were called Federalists; those opposed, Anti-Federalists. The objections of these latter may be stated as follows: It was feared
that contests between the States and the Federal government would follow, with the result either that the Union would go down or that the central government would usurp the sovereign powers of the States; further objections were that it contained no bill of rights, no safeguards of liberty, but was just such an instrument as ambitious men would desire for the purpose of furthering their plans. The party was composed principally of local politicians who were jealous of enlarged political relations and of farmers who were fearful of additional taxes. In two States their efforts were of avail, in Rhode Island and North Carolina. In Pennsylvania they offered considerable opposition but were overborne. (See Anti-Federal Junto.) In New York a deadlock between them and the Federalists was the cause of that State's failure to choose electors for the first President. After the adoption of the Constitution the same fears that had made them oppose it, now made them insist on strict construction of its provisions. In Congress they opposed Hamilton's financial measures, but they were without organization, and the issue that had called them into life being dead, the party had little existence except in name. By the year 1793 it had become a part of the Republican party.
Anti-Ku-Klux Act. (See Ku-Klux Act.)
Anti-Lecompton Democrats.—A name applied to those Northern Democrats, among them Stephen A. Douglas, that opposed the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution (which see).
Anti-Masonic Party.-In 1826 William Morgan of Batavia, Genesee County, New York, who had declared his intention of publishing a book containing the secrets of the Society of the Free Masons, was arrested for debt. On his release he was at once hurried to a close carriage and taken to Niagara; he was never again heard from. Some time afterward a body, asserted by some to be his, was found in the river below the falls. The affair created enormous excitement and raised insuperable prejudices against all Free Masons in a large part of the community; the prejudice was carried even into politics