Adams. As President he served two terms, from 1829 to 1837. The principal events of his administration were Indian wars, controversies about the United States Bank, nullification troubles, tariff agitation and changes, and the removals from office effected by him. At the end of his second term he retired to private life at “ The Hermitage.” Jackson was a Democrat. (See Democratic Republican Party.) From his time dates a new departure in the politics of this country, namely, the principle of rotation in office for the subordinate employes of the government and the distribution of the offices to political retainers as spoils of the campaign. In character Jackson was stern, bluff, uncompromising and most determined. It was due to his energy that the nullification troubles were so promptly quelled, and this same trait was well shown in the persistence of his fight against the United States Bank. His comment on a decision by the Supreme Court in the Cherokee Case is indicative of the man. He said: Well, John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it.” (See Cherokee Case.)

Jackson Men.-A name assumed by the followers of Andrew Jackson about 1828 to distinguish them from the followers of John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay. These latter, called at first Adams and Clay Republicans, came to be known as National Republicans, and they were one of the elements that subsequently formed the Whig party, while the Jackson men soon came to be known as Democrats merely. Jackson men were known also as Jackson Republicans. (See Democratic-Republican Party; National Republican Party; Whig Party.)

Jack the Giant-Killer.-A nickname applied to John Randolph, of Virginia, because in debate he compared himself to David and his opponent to Goliah.

Jay, John, was born in New York City, December 23, 1745, and died at Bedford, New York, May 17, 1829. He was a graduate of Columbia and a lawyer by profession. He took part in the formation of a State Constitution in 1776, and served in the Continental

Congress from 1774 to 1777 and in 1778 and 1779, during the latter years as its president. He was also ChiefJustice of his State. In 1779 he became Minister to Spain, and in 1783 was one of the negotiators of the Treaty of Paris. He then became Secretary of Foreign Affairs until 1789, when he was appointed Chief-Justice of the United States. He was next engaged in the negotiation of the treaty that became known as Jay's Treaty (which see). From 1795 to 1801 he was Governor of New York State. He then retired to private life.

Jay's Treaty.-The treaty of 1783, which closed the Revolution, provided that the British should evacuate all forts within the territory of the United States. England's delay in fulfilling this stipulation, her authorization to privateers to seize neutral vessels trading in the French West Indies, and the rights of search and impressment which she claimed, led President Washington in the early part of 1794 to appoint Chief-Justice John „Jay minister extraordinary to Great Britain for the purpose of negotiating a treaty. The result of Jay's efforts was submitted to the Senate for ratification in June, 1795, and soon received the sanction of that body and was completed by Washington's signature. It provided for a speedy evacuation of the forts on what were then our northern and northwestern frontiers, arranged for compensation for illegal seizures, and regulated commercial questions to some extent, but it recognized by implication the right of search and was not wholly satisfactory in other points. The question of its endorsement by the government led to a bitter discussion, during which copies of the treaty and effigies of Jay were publicly burned and the most outrageous charges were made against Washington “in terms,” as he said, "so exaggerated and indecent as could scarcely be applied to a Nero, a notorions defaulter, or even to a common pickpocket.” The President, nevertheless, believing the treaty on the whole to be the best that could be obtained, lent the weight of his influence in its favor, and the House of Representatives in April, 1796, by a vote of 51 to 48

finally decided to carry it into effect. The discussion in the House gave occasion to Fisher Ames, of Massachusetts, for a remarkable speech in defense of the treaty.

Jefferson Democrats. (See Clintonian Democrats.)

Jeffersonian Democrat.-Democrats delight in applying this designation to any public man of their party whose simplicity, directness, sympathy with the people and views on public economy meet their approbation.

Jeffersonian Simplicity.—Thomas Jefferson intensely disliked all display. He objected even to the title of Mister; he refused to wear knee-breeches and wore pantaloons; he abolished the presidential levees, and in going to the Capitol to his inauguration he rode on horseback alone. The Democratic party, deriving as it does, many of its principles from Jefferson, has always affected to follow him in the matter of simplicity.

Jefferson, Thomas, was born at Shadwell, Virginia, April 2, 1743; he died on the same day with John Adams, July 4, 1826, at Monticello. Virginia. He graduated at William and Mary College and became a member of the bar. He was a member of the House of Burgesses from 1769 to 1774; between 1775 and 1778 he was a member of the Continental Congress; it was he that wrote the Declaration of Independence (but few changes were made in his draft of that document). In 1779 he became Governor of Virginia, and retained the post until 1781. He represented this country abroad first generally and then in France. He became Secretary of State under Washington, and represented in the latter's Cabinet those principles of strict construction that formed at least the theoretical basis of the party founded by him, the Democratic Republican. Elected Vice-President under Adams in 1797, he was elected in 1801 to succeed the latter, and served as President two terms. The principal events of his administration were the purchase of Louisiana (by far the most important) (see Annexations I.), the war with the Barbary pirates, and the embargo. At the end of his second term he retired to his home at Monticello where he passed the remainder of his life. He was the founder of the Demo

cratic-Republican party, a party that has existed to the present day. Though of aristocratic birth his sympathies were intensely popular; he hated display and pomp and carried his love of simplicity to the extreme of objecting even to so harmless a title as Mister. His influence on the government has been to check the tendency to extreme centralization which, if developed, might have led to a nation too unpliable and unwieldy for long life, and has made it the admirable combination of pliability and resistance that it is. (See State Sovereignty; Kentucky Resolutions of 1798.)

Jingoism.—This word arose in British politics. During the war between Russia and Turkey, English sympathy was most strongly with Turkey and hostile to Russia. A song

became popular the refrain of which was:

"We don't want to fight, but, by Jingo, if we doWe've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money, too."

From this arose the name jingoism as applied to the war feeling against Russia. The term has, however, come to mean in politics, any advocacy of national bluster. It is sometimes used in this country.

Johnny Reb was a name by which the Union soldiers during the Civil War familiarly called the Confederates. Reb is of course an abbreviation for rebel.

Johnson, Andrew, was born at Raleigh, North Carolina, December 29, 1808, and died in Carter County, Tennessee, July 31, 1875. He was mayor of Greenville, Tennessee; member of the State Legislature in 1835 and State Senate in 1841; Congressman from Tennessee from 1843 to 1853. He was at this time a Democrat. From 1853 to 1857 he was Governor of Tennessee, and United States Senator from 1857 to 1862. In 1862 he was appointed Military Governor of Tennessee, and in 1864 the Republicans nominated him as Vice-President. On Lincoln's assassination he became President. He began almost at once to quarrel with Congress, and his impeachment marked the culmination of that conflict. (See Impeachments.) The most important matter during nis administration was Reconstruction (which see).

Johnson's early education had been neglected to such an extent that it was only after his marriage that he learned to read and write. He was persistent and determined, but blind to the political signs of the times. In 1875 he was elected United States Senator, but served only at the extra session, dying in July.

Johnson, Reverdy, was born at Annapolis, Maryland, May 21, 1796, and died at the same place February 10, 1876. He was a lawyer. He served as Senator from 1845 to 1849, and as Attorney-General under Taylor; during this time he was a Whig. From 1863 to 1868 he was again Senator, this time as a Democrat, and in 1869 he was Minister to Great Britain.

Johnson, Richard Mentor, was born at Bryant's Station, Kentucky, October 17, 1781; he died November 19, 1850. He served in the War of 1812. He was a Democrat, and as such served in Congress from 1807 to 1819; from 1820 to 1829 he was in the Senate, and from 1829 to 1839 again in the House. He was the Democratic vice-presidential candidate in 1840.

Judge Lynch.-A popular name for a body of persons who take the law into their own hands in punishing criminals or those suspected of being such. (See Lynch Law.)

Judiciary.-1. NATIONAL. The third Article of the Constitution provides for the establishment of United States courts to have jurisdiction both in law and in equity. This jurisdiction is in general distinct from, but is sometimes concurrent with, that of the State courts. The system which Congress adopted at its first session remains unaltered in its essentials to the present time, except for the addition of the Court of Claims in 1855. The judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. They retain office during good behavior. The judicial power of the United States is vested in a Supreme Court, nine Circuit Courts and sixty-one District Courts, besides the Court of Claims. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction only of “cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall

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