try.” In 1851-52 petitions for a territorial organization of this region were presented to Congress, and in 1853 a bill organizing it as the Territory of Nebraska was reported in the House. This bill failed in the Senate. În the next Congress substantially the same bill was reported to the Senate from the Committee on Territories by Stephen A. Douglas. In the meantime, A. Dixon, of Kentucky, had given notice that he would move an amendment exempting this Territory from the operations of the Missouri Compromise. Douglas, not to be outdone in the service of slavery, had the bill recommitted, and reported the following measure: Two Territories were to be organized, Kansas to include all of this region in the latitude of Missouri and west of that State, and Nebraska the remainder. The southern boundary of Kansas was moved to thirty-seven degrees north latitude, the strip between thirty-six degrees thirty minutes and thirty-seven degrees being left to the Indians. Moreover, in order to carry into effect the principle of the Compromise of 1850 (so said the bill), it was provided that: 1. The question of slavery was to be left to the people. 2. Questions involving the title to slaves were to be left to local courts with the right to appeal to the United States Supreme Court. 3. The fugitive slave laws were to apply to the Territories. Further, so far as this region was concerned, the Missouri Compromise was declared repealed. In this shape the bill, known as the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, was passed and signed by President Pierce. This measure divided the Whig party, most of the Southern Whigs joining the Democrats. All Northerners opposed to the measure were known as “Anti-Nebraskas," and these joined the party known soon after as Republican.

Kentuc.-A name applied to the Kentucky boatmen about 1800. They are described as “ half-horse, half alligator, tipped with snapping-turtle,” lawless and a terror to the neighborhood.

Kentucky was originally a part of Virginia, but was ceded to the national government in 1784, though the cession was not finally settled for several years. (See

Territories.) In 1790 it became a separate Territory. By Act of February 4, 1791, taking effect June 1, 1792, Kentucky was admitted to the Union. During the Civil War it did not secede, though represented in the Confederate Congress by members chosen by Kentuckians who were fighting on the Southern side. Martial law was proclaimed in Kentucky by Lincoln on July 5, 1864, and the State was restored to the civil authorities by Johnson on October 18, 1865. The capital is Frankfort. The population in 1880_was 1,648,690, and in the last census (1890) 1,858,635. Kentucky is entitled to eleven members of the House of Representatives and thirteen electoral votes. It is solidly Democratic. The name is of Indian derivation, and means “the dark and bloody ground,” alluding to the frequent battles of the Indian tribes. Popularly it is called the Corn Cracker State, and its inhabitants are known as Corn Crackers. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Kentucky Resolution of 1799. (See Kentucky Resolutions of 1798.)

Kentucky Resolutions of 1798, were introduced in the Kentucky Legislature in that year by George Nicholas, but Thomas Jefferson is now known to have been the author. They were directed against the Alien and Sedition Laws, and against acts passed to punish frauds on the Bank of the United States. They opposed broad construction of the Constitution, and affirmed that instrument to be a “compact,” each State being one party, “its co-States forming as to itself the other party.” These resolutions and similar ones, prepared by James Madison, passed by Virginia in 1799, were submitted to other States for their

approval, but such States as returned answers expressed non-concurrence in the views there formulated. The Kentucky Resolution of 1799 repeated the former statements regarding the Constitution, and entered a solemn protest against the abuses complained of.

Kickers.—To kick means to show opposition, and in politics kickers are members of a party that do not accept its nominations or fiats with good grace. When

a kicker carries his dissatisfaction to the length of withdrawing from his party, he becomes a bolter (which see).

Kid-glove Politics.-Movements looking to reform, especially in local politics, are frequently undertaken by those classes of the community that are in good circumstances. This is natural, as these have more leisure to devote to the task. Such movements are naturally odious to corrupt machine politicians, and as one means of discrediting these efforts among laboring men, they seek to awaken class prejudice. Kid-glove politics and kid-glove politicians are terms employed to create this prejudice.

King Caucus.-A term applied to the Congressional Caucus by reason of its absolute power. (See Congressional Caucus.)

King of the Feds was a nickname applied to Alexander Hamilton, the ablest of the Federalist leaders.

King, Rufus, was born at Scarborough, Massachusetts (now Maine), March 24,1755. He died at Jamaica, New York, April 29, 1827. He was a graduate of Harvard, served in the Continental Congress, and in 1788 moved to New York. From 1789 to 1796 he was United States Senator, from 1796 to 1803 Minister to Great Britain, from 1813 to 1825 again Senator, and in 1825 and 1826 again Minister to Great Britain. He was a Federalist, and from 1800 to 1812 he was each time his party's nominee for Vice-President.

King, William Rufus, was born in Sampson County, North Carolina, April 7, 1786, and died at Cahawba, Alabama, April 18, 1853. He was graduated at the University of North Carolina. By profession he was a lawyer, in politics a Democrat. He served in Congress from 1811 to 1816, and in the Senate from 1819 to 1844. From 1844 to 1846 he was Minister to France, and from 1846 to 1853 again a Senator. In 1852 he was elected Vice-President.

Kitchen Cabinet is a name applied to a certain circle of intimate friends of President Andrew Jackson. These friends were said to have more influence with the President than his official Cabinet. The principal

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member of the Kitchen Cabinet was Duff Green, of St. Louis, who established the newspaper, The United States Telegraph, in Washington. This paper was the President's organ until 1831, when Green, siding with Calhoun against Jackson, lost_the latter's confidence. The Globe, John C. Rives and Francis P. Blair, editors, then became the President's organ, and Blair became a member of his Kitchen Cabinet. Other members were William B. Lewis, of Nashville, who was appointed Second Auditor of the Treasury; Isaac Hill, of New Hampshire, who was made Second Comptroller of the Treasury, and Amos Kendall, of Kentucky, who was made Fourth Auditor of the Treasury and finally in 1835 joined the the official Cabinet as Postmaster-General. The term has also been applied to certain advisers of President John Tyler and of President Andrew Johnson, but Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet is meant when the term is used without qualification.

Knifing is a form of political treachery practiced by political organizations against candidates of their own party distasteful to the organization. Although openly pretending to support and aid the candidate of the party, the organization secretly uses its influence against him, and on election day either fails to furnish ballots bearing the candidate's name, or distributes those bearing the name of his opponent. This form of treachery is allied to trading, but differs from it in motive. The motive in trading is not directly a desire to defeat this particular candidate of its own party, but the desire either to elect some other member of the party or to gain the pecuniary reward offered, the defeat of the candidate traded off being merely incidental. In knifing the motive is revenge or hate of the candidate knifed, the trading necessary to accomplish this end being merely incidental. Both of these forms of treachery may usually be discovered by comparison, district by district, of the votes for the particular candidate with the vote for other candidates of the party, and with the vote of previous years. (See Trading.)

Knights of Labor. (Šee Order of Knights of Labor.)

Knights of the Golden Circle. (See American Knights.)

Knights of the Mighty Host. (See American Knights.)

Knights of the Order of the Sons of Liberty. (See American Knights.)

Knights of the White Camelia.-One of the names by which the Ku-Klux Klan was known.

Know-Nothing Party. (See American Party.).

Koszta Affair.-One of the leaders in the Hungarian rebellion of 1849 against Austria was Martin Koszta. When the revolt was crushed he fled and finally took refuge in the United States where he commenced the steps necessary to secure full citizenship in this country. In 1854 he went to Turkey on business, received a passport from the American consul at Smyrna, and went ashore. The Austrian consul caused him to be thrown

the bay, from which he was picked up and put on board an Austrian frigate. Our representative demanded his release, which was refused. Thereupon Captain Ingraham of the United States sloop of war St. Louis cleared his ship for action and threatened to open fire. This spirited action caused the Austrian officials to surrender Koszta to the charge of the French consul until the question should be settled. A lengthy discussion ensused between Baron Hülseman, Austrian minister at Washington, and William L. Marcy, then Secretary of State under Pierce. As a result of Marcy's able arguments Koszta was released and he returned to the United States.

Ku-Klux Klan was an organization that sprung up at the South during the period of reconstruction. Its objects were the suppression of the negro as a factor in politics; its means, terrorization, ending in many cases in murder. It was a secret organization; its origin is unknown, but it is supposed to have sprung about 1867 from numerous local associations all having the same end in view. Such information as we have in regard to it is founded on a copy of its constitution (prescript as it was termed), and on a congressional investigation

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