made in 1871. In this prescript the name of the association is never mentioned, two asterisks (**) being inserted instead; their local lodges were called dens; the masters, cyclops; the members, ghouls. A county was a province; governed by grand giant and four goblins. A congressional district was a dominion, governed by a grand Titan and six furies. A State was a realm, governed by a grand dragon and eight hydras. The whole country was the empire, governed by a grand wizard and ten genii. Their banner was triangular, a black dragon on a yellow field with a red border; their mysteries were never to be written, but only orally communicated; the distinctive feature of their dress was a covering for the head descending to the breast, holes being cut for the eyes and mouth; the covering being decorated in any startling or fantastic manner. The order succeeded in its purpose; the midnight raids of men thus clad, who administered whippings or other punishment, had the effect intended, and the Ku-Klux became a terror to all negroes, keeping them either from exercising their political rights or else causing them to act with their persecutors. The order, however, outran its original purpose, and where mere whippings did not accomplish the desired end as with Northern whites that had come South and with the bolder negroes, murder was resorted to. The disorders grew, and in March, 1871, a congressional investigating committee was appointed; in the same month President Grant in a message to Congress asked for legislation to enable the restoration of order at the South, as neither life nor property were there secure, and as the transportation of the mails and the collection of the revenue were interfered with. The Ku-Klux Act or Force Bill was promptly passed. This bill provided for the punishment by fine or imprisonment, or both, of attempts to interfere with the privilege of any citizen to vote, giving the federal courts cognizance of suits arising thereunder and giving federal judges power to exclude from juries persons whom they judged to be in sympathy with the accused. In cases where Štate authorities were unable or unwilling

to give adequate protection the President was authorized to employ the military and naval power of the United States to secure the same, and suspend the writ of habeas corpus. The second section of the bill, declaring the punishment for any conspiracy to prevent a person from enjoying his legal rights was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1883. The habeas corpus provision was to remain in force only to the end of the next session of Congress. An attempt to renew it failed in 1872. In October, 1871, President Grant issued two proclamations, the first ordering certain associations in South Carolina to surrender their arms and disguises within five days; the second, at the expiration of the five days suspending the writ of habeas corpus. Many arrests and convictions followed, and the association was crushed within four months. The Ku-Klux Klan was known by various other names, as White League and Invisible Empire. The name Ku-Klux has ever since been applied in a general way to troubles between the negroes and whites at the South.

Labor Parties. (See Progressive Labor Party; Union Labor Party; United Labor Party.)

Laissez Faire-Laissez Passer are two French phrases, in the imperative, meaning let work and allow exchange. They sum up the demands of those economists that advocate freedom of labor and freedom of com

Their meaning has at times been perverted and made to extend to the theory of freedom from all restraint for the individual in morals and in politics. But the well recognized application of the terms is to the theory of political economy that demands the abolition of restraints on labor and trade.

Lamar, Lucius Q. C., was born in Putnam County, Georgia, September 17, 1825. He graduated at Emory College, and was admitted to the bar. In 1849 he moved to Mississippi, where he was for a while professor of mathematics in the State University. Returning to Georgia and the practice of law, he was in 1853 elected to the Legislature. In 1854 he again moved to Mississippi, which State he represented in the Thirty-fifth and


Thirty-sixth Congress. In 1860 he resigned, seceding with his State. He served in the Confederate


and also as emissary to Russia for the Confederacy. He acted as professor, first of political economy and then of law, in the University of Mississippi. He served in the Forty-third and Forty-fourth Congress, and in 1876 was elected to the Senate. He was reëlected, but resigned in order to accept the post of Secretary of the Interior in President Cleveland's Cabinet. In January, 1888, his nomination as Associate-Justice of the Supreme Court was confirmed hy the Senate, and he now occupies that place.

L'Amistad Case. (See Amistad Case, The.)

Land Grants.-By this name is known the grant of land to corporations to encourage and aid the construction of railroads in portions of the country in which it would otherwise be unprofitable. These grants are usually made directly to the companies. Before 1862 they were made to the States in order to enable them to extend aid to corporations within their borders. To every State, at its admission, Congress has granted five per cent. of the public lands within its limits on condition of the exemption of the remainder from State taxation. In 1850 the first grant for railroad purposes was made. It consisted of about 2,500,000 acres granted to the State of Illinois, and it was used to aid the Illinois Central Railroad. In 1856 about 2,000,000 acres went to Florida, a similar amount was received by Arkansas, while various other States received large tracts all more or less used to encourage railroad building. But the grant of colossal areas began with the construction of the Pacific Railroads (which see). The Union Pacific received 2,000,000; the Kansas Pacific 6,000,000; the Central Pacific (as successor of_the Western Pacific) 1,100,000, and on its Oregon Branch 3,000,000; the Oregon and California 3,500,000; the Southern Pacific 6,000,000; and the Southern Pacific branch line 3,500,000 acres. Among others that received large grants were the Burlington and Missouri River and the Hannibal and St. Joseph. But the most stupendous grants

try.” In 1851-52 petitions for a territorial organization of this region were presented to Congress, and in 1853 a bill organizing it as the Territory of Nebraska was reported in the House. This bill failed in the Senate. In the next Congress substantially the same bill was reported to the Senate from the Committee on Territories by Stephen A. Douglas. In the meantime, A. Dixon, of Kentucky, had given notice that he would move an amendment exempting this Territory from the operations of the Missouri Compromise. Douglas, not to be outdone in the service of slavery, had the bill recommitted, and reported the following measure: Two Territories were to be organized, Kansas to include all of this region in the latitude of Missouri and west of that State, and Nebraska the remainder. The southern boundary of Kansas was moved to thirty-seven degrees north latitude, the strip between thirty-six degrees thirty minutes and thirty-seven degrees being left to the Indians. Moreover, in order to carry into effect the principle of the Compromise of 1850 (so said the bill), it was provided that: 1. The question of slavery was to be left to the people. 2. Questions involving the title to slaves were to be left to local courts with the right to appeal to the United States Supreme Court. 3. The fugitive slave laws were to apply to the Territories. Further, so far as this region was concerned, the Missouri Compromise was declared repealed. In this shape the bill, known as the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, was passed and signed by President Pierce. This measure divided the Whig party, most of the Southern Whigs joining the Democrats. All Northerners opposed to the measure were known as “Anti-Nebraskas,” and these joined the party known soon after as Republican.

Kentuc.-A name applied to the Kentucky boatmen about 1800. They are described as “ half-horse, half alligator, tipped with snapping-turtle,” lawless and a terror to the neighborhood.

Kentucky was originally a part of Virginia, but was ceded to the national government in 1784, though the cession was not finally settled for several years. (See

Territories.) In 1790 it became a separate Territory. By Act of February 4, 1791, taking effect June 1, 1792, Kentucky was admitted to the Union. During the Civil War it did not secede, though represented in the Confederate Congress by members chosen by Kentuckians who were fighting on the Southern side. Martial law was proclaimed in Kentucky by Lincoln on July 5, 1864, and the State was restored to the civil authorities by Johnson on October 18, 1865. The capital is Frankfort. The population in 1880_was 1,648,690, and in the last census (1890) 1,858,635. Kentucky is entitled to eleven members of the House of Representatives and thirteen electoral votes. It is solidly Democratic. The name is of Indian derivation, and means “the dark and bloody ground," alluding to the frequent battles of the Indian tribes. Popularly it is called the Corn Cracker State, and its inhabitants are known as Corn Crackers. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Kentucky Resolution of 1799. (See Kentucky Resolutions of 1798.)

Kentucky Resolutions of 1798, were introduced in the Kentucky Legislature in that year by George Nicholas, but Thomas Jefferson is now known to have been the author. They were directed against the Alien and Sedition Laws, and against acts passed to punish frauds on the Bank of the United States. They opposed broad construction of the Constitution, and affirmed that instrument to be a “compact," each State being one party, “its co-States forming as to itself the other party.” These resolutions and similar ones, prepared by James Madison, passed by Virginia in 1799, were submitted to other States for their

approval, but such States as returned answers expressed non-concurrence in the views there formulated. The Kentucky Resolution of 1799 repeated the former statements regarding the Constitution, and entered a solemn protest against the abuses complained of.

Kickers.—To kick means to show opposition, and in politics kickers are members of a party that do not accept its nominations or fiats with good grace. When

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