into his own hands. Some have derived the name from one Lynch, of Virginia, who caught a thief and flogged him with his own hands.

Machine, The.- When the organization of a party falls into the hands of professional politicians, who use it corruptly to serve their own political or personal ends, it is commonly known as the machine. 6. The machinery of a party” is a phrase first used by Aaron Burr.

Mad Anthony Wayne.--Anthony Wayne called “mad” because of his impetuosity, bravery and apparent rashness. His most signal exploit during the Revolution was the surprise and capture of Stony Point, on the Hudson, on the night of July 15, 1779. In 1794 he completely routed the Miami Indians after the successive failures of Generals Harmar and St. Clair.

Madison, James, was born at Port Conway, Virginia, March 16, 1751, and died at Montpelier, in the same State, June 28, 1836. He graduated from Princeton College and was admitted to the bar. In 1776 he was a member of the Virginia Legislature. From 1780 to 1783, and from 1786 to 1788 he served in the Continental Congress. He was also a member of the convention of 1787; in fact, a resolution offered by him in the Virginia Legislature led to that convention. tween 1789 and 1797 he served in Congress. He was Secretary of State under Jefferson, and was elected to succeed him as President in 1809. His administration was forced into the War of 1812 with England, and that struggle is the principal event of his administration. He served two terms. He was in close sympathy with Jefferson, whose views he shared and by whom he was implicitly trusted. He was an able writer and one of the founders of the Democratic Republican party.

Magna Charta, (Latin words meaning “great charter,”) called also the Charter of Liberties, was an instrument signed at Runnymede, June 15, 1215, by King John of England, who was forced thereto by the barons of the kingdom. Besides restraining certain royal prerogatives that had been abused, and introducing various improvements into the law, it provided for the


protection of every freeman from loss of life, liberty or property, except by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land, and the king declared, “we will sell to no man; we will not deny or delay to any man right or jus

Magna Charta was the foundation of English liberties, and its chief protective provisions have been incorporated in the Constitution of this country and the separate States. (See Bill of Rights; Petition of Right.)

Magnetic Statesman.-James G. Blaine is sometimes so called. His friends claim for him the quality so prominent in Henry Clay, of personal magnetismthe personal charm that makes followers even of opponents.

Maine. The State of Maine was for thirty years after the formation of this nation a part of Massachusetts. In 1819, the Legislature of the latter submitted the question of separation to a popular vote of the people of Maine who voted in favor of it by a large majority. It was admitted to the Union in 1820 by an Act of March 3d, taking effect March 15th. The capital is Augusta. The population in 1880 was 648,936 and in the last census (1890) 661,086. Maine has four represetatives in Congress and six electoral votes. In politics it is counted a certain Republican State. It was named for a district in France, and is known popularly as the Pine Tree or Lumber State, from its principal industry. (See Governors; Legislatures; Northeast Boundary.)

Maine Law. (See Prohibition.)

Man, A, Who Was in the Public Service for Fifty Years, and Never Attempted to Deceive His Countrymen.—This occurs in the eulogy on Henry Clay, delivered by John C. Breckenridge.

Man, The, With the Sling.-A nickname of John Randolph, of Virginia, given him because in debate he compared himself to David, and his opponent to Goliath.

Manning, Daniel, was born at Albany, New York, August 16, 1831. He received an elementary public school education, and at the age of eleven entered the office of the Albany Argus as office boy. He rose step

by step and finally became manager and president of the Argus Company. He became identified with various commercial enterprises; was director in several banks and president of one of them. After 1874, he was in various ways closely identified with the management of the Democratic party in his State, although he never held elective office. President Cleveland appointed him Secretary of the Treasury, a post that he filled with remarkable ability until ill health compelled his resignation. From this illness he never recovered; he died December 24, 1887.

Man of Destiny, The.--A name applied to Grover Cleveland in allusion to his rapid rise from Mayor of Buffalo and an unknown man in 1881, to President in 1885.

Marshall, John, was born at Germantown, Virginina, September 24, 1755, and died at Philadelphia, July 6, 1835. He was a lawyer. In politics he was a Federalist. In 1797 and 1798 he was an envoy to France. (See X. Y. Z. Mission.) He served in Congress in 1799 and 1800. He was Secretary of State under Adams. In 1801 he was appointed Chief-Justice • and served until his death. In his early life he was sometimes known as “ General Marshall," a title acquired in the mititia.

Martial Law, is that system of government which is established over civil affairs in the discretion of the commander of a military force occupying a region of territory. It supersedes all ordinary government for the time being. Ît is only justified by necessity. It may be authorized by a State Legislature, when the public safety demands it. Congress has power to declare it when necessary, but not in a State not engaged in war and where the ordinary forms of justice are not obstructed.

Martling Men.-The combination of the Lewisites and Burrites against the Clintonians in New York State politics. (See Clintonians.)

Maryland was one of the original States of the Union. The capital is Annapolis. The population in 1880 was 934,943 and in the last censas (1890)1,042,390. Mary

land sends six representatives to Congress and has eight electoral votes. It is a sure Democratic State. The original colony of Maryland was named after Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I. of England. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Mason and Dixon's Line.—This line was originally the parallel of latitude 39 deg. 43 min. 26.3 sec., which separates Pennsylvania from Maryland. It received its name from Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two English mathematicians and astronomers, who traced the greater part of it, between the years 1763 and 1767, though the last thirty-six miles were finished by others. It was practically the dividing line between the free and the slave States in the East. During the discussion in Congress on the Missouri Compromise, John Randolph, of Roanoke, Virginia, made free use of the phrase, and thereafter it became popular as signifying the dividing line between free and slave territory throughout the country. The boundary, as thus extended by popular usage, followed the Ohio River to the Mississippi, and west of that was the parallel of 36 deg. 30 min., the Southern boundary of Missouri, though Missouri itself was a slave State.

Mason and Slidell. (See Trent Affair.)

Massachusetts was one of the original States of the Union. Maine, originally a part of it, was seperated in 1819-20. The capital is Boston. The population in 1880 was 1,783,085, and in the last census (1890) 2,238,043. Massachusetts sends twelve representatives to Congress, and is entitled to fourteen electoral votes. In national politics it has been Republican. The name is an Indian one; popularly the State is called the Old Colony, the Bay State, or the Old Bay State. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Masterly Inactivity. (See All Quiet Along the Potomac.)

Mattie Van Buren.-Martin Van Buren was sometimes familiarly called “Mattie.”

Maximilian.—During the Civil War Napoleon III., then on the throne of France, sent over troops to enforce

certain claims against Mexico. The Frenck soldiers entered the city of Mexico in June, 1863, and forced the Republican President, Juarez, to retreat. Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, was asked by France to accept the throne of Mexico. An election was held by which the Mexicans were made to seem desirous of having him rule over them. He accepted the throne under the title of Maximilian I., Emperor of Mexico, and arrived at the capital in June, 1864. The United States government made frequent remonstrances against this violation of the Monroe Doctrine, but had too much on their own hands to permit their interference. The French troops were finally withdrawn and Maximilian, being left to his own resources, was unable to hold his position against Juarez. He was captured, condemned to death, and shot at Queretaro on June 19, 1867.

McClellan Minute Men. (See American Knights.)

McDonald, Joseph E., was born in Ohio August 29, 1819. His family removed to Indiana in his childhood. In early youth apprenticed to a saddler; was admitted to the bar; served as prosecuting attorney; was elected to Congress in 1849; served two terms as Attorney-General of his State; served in the United States Senate 1875 to 1881. He was a Democrat. Died June 21, 1891.

McLeod Case.-In 1840 one Alexander McLeod came to New York State on business and boasted of his part in the taking of the Caroline (see Canadian Rebellion) a few years previously. He was arrested in Lockport and indicted for murder. The British Minister demanded his release on the grounds that McLeod had acted under orders and that the courts of the State of New York had not jurisdiction to interfere in a case that lay only between the national governments of Great Britain and the United States. Our federal government admitted the justice of the British position, but stated that McLeod could only be released by operation of the law. The Attorney-General of the United States proceeded to Lockport to give McLeod all possible assistance. The discharge of the prisoner was sought for under a writ of habeas corpus, but the court held that there was

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