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Milan Decree. (See Embargo Act.)
Mileage.--Compensation for traveling expenses at so much a mile is called mileage. This allowance is made by law to members of Congress for their journeys to and from Washington. Constructive mileage is an allowance for journeys which are merely supposed to be made, as when Congress adjourns and a new President takes office, or an extra session is called. Constructive mileage is now prohibited by law.
Mileage Expose.--On December 22, 1848, Horace Greeley published a statement showing the distance by the shortest post-route from the residence of each member of Congress to Washington, the distance for which he received mileage, the amount paid him, and the excess over what he would have received on the basis of the shortest mail-route. The total of this excess for the Thirtieth Congress was $73,492.60, and the excess in miles was 183,031. Almost every Congressman had failed to make his journey as short as possible. Greeley's exposé caused considerable ill-feeling against him; its immediate effect was seen in the adoption of shorter routes by Congressmen in traveling, and several years later the rate of mileage was reduced one-half and constructive mileage was abolished by law.
Military Academy at West Point. (See United States Military Academy at West Point.)
Military Necessity-The Emancipation Proclamation declares that it is issued as an act of " military necessity' by the President as Commander-in-chief of the army and navy. This phrase is used to emphasize the fact that the President issued the proclamation merely in his military capacity.
Mill Boy of the Slashes.--Henry Clay was often so called in reference to his life as a poor boy when he was sent on errands to a mill at a place near his home called “the Slashes."
Milligan Case. (See Habeas Corpus.)
Millions for Defense, but Not One Cent for I ribute. (See X. Y. 2. Mission.)
Minimum Duties. (See Customs Duties.)
Minister Plenipotentiary. (See Foreign Service.) Minister Resident. (See Foreign Service.)
Minnesota.-The portion of Minnesota east of the Mississippi once formed part of the Northwest Territory. (see
. Territories), and the portion west of the Mississippi was a part of the Louisiana purchase. (See Annexations I.) The present Minnesota and Dakota were organized into a Territory, under the former of those names, in 1849, and the State of Minnesota was admitted to the Union May 11, 1858. The capital is St. Paul. The population in 1880 was 780,773, and in the last census (1890)1,301,826. Minnesota is entitled to five seats in the House of Representatives and has seven electoral votes. It is a strong Republican State. The name is Indian in origin and means “sky-tinted water." Popularly Minnesota is known as the Gopher State. (See Governors; Legislatures.)
Minority Representation.- Where the vote of the majority of a community or district elects the delegate for that district it is evident that the minority is disfranchised-unrepresented. Minority representation seeks to secure for this portion of the community a voice in the Legislature, in the proportion that it bears to the whole. To accomplish this various plans have been suggested. One provides for the election of several delegates from a district, each voter casting a ballot for but one individual, but indicating a second and third choice, and so on, in case his first choice has already received votes enough to elect him; thus no vote is wasted and every opinion is represented in proportion to its following: Another plan provides for one vote by every voter in districts laid out on a large scale. Every person receiving more than a fixed number of votes (say 1,000) is considered elected and is entitled in the legislative body to one vote in that body for every 1,000 votes cast for him.
Mint. (See Coinage.)
Mississippi.-The larger portion of the present State of Mississippi came into the possession of the United States by the Treaty of Paris (which see) in 1783. Georgia,
however, claimed this region and it was included in her cession of 1802 to the national government.
A strip along the Northern edge was ceded by South Carolina in 1790, and the Southern portion was part of the Louisiana purchase of 1803. (See Annexations I; Territories.) The organization of Mississippi Territory, which included what is now Alabama, was commenced in 1798, and was completed two years later. The State was admitted to the Union on December 10, 1817. On January 9, 1861, a State convention passed an ordinance of secession, Mississippi was re-admitted to the Union by Act of February 23, 1870. The capital is Jackson. The population in 1880 was 1,131,597, and in the last census (1890) 1,289,600. Mississippi has seven seats in the House of Representatives and nine electoral votes. In 1872 the electoral vote was cast for the Republican candidates, but since then it has been Democratic by large majorities. This State is named after the great river of the country, which in the Indian tongue is “great river,” or “great father of waters;" popularly it is known as the Bayou State. (See Governors; Legislatures.)
Mississippi Territory. (See Territories.)
Missouri.-Was originally a part of the Louisiana purchase. (See Annexations I.) In 1805, Louisiana Territory was formed, of which Missouri was a part, and to which it gave its name in 1812, when the State of Louisiana was admitted to the Union. The question of the admission of Missouri gave rise to much commotion in Congress (see Missouri Compromise), but finally on August 10, 1821, President Monroe, pursuing the acts of Congress, proclaimed it to be a State. The capital is Jefferson City. The population in 1880, was 2,168,380, and in the last census (1890) 2,679,184. Missouri sends fourteen Representatives to Congress and has sixteen electoral votes. It is a certain Democratic State. The name of the State ard river is of Indian origin and means “muddy water;" popularly Missouri is sometimes called the Pennsylvania of the West. (See Governors; Legislatures.)
Missouri Compromise.--- On the admission of
Louisiana as a State, the remainder of the Louisiana purchase was organized as the Territory of Missouri. În 1818 the portion now comprising the State of Missouri applied for admission to the Union. In 1819 a bill for this purpose, containing a clause prohibiting slavery, was passed by the House, but it was defeated by the Senate. In 1820 a bill was sent by the Senate to the House providing for the admission of Maine, and containing à rider authorizing Missouri to organize. There was no objection to the admission of Maine, the House having already passed a bill for that purpose, but it refused to allow the Senate to force its views on the Missouri question upon it. The Senate bill was accordingly disagreed to. A compromise was now patched up on the basis of a resolution of Senator Thomas, of Illinois. The Missouri and Maine bills were to be separated. Missouri was to be admitted as a slave State, but slavery was to be prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana purchase north of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north latitude. There was also a clause providing for the return of fugitive slaves. A provision in the Constitution adopted by Missouri, forbidding its Legislature to emancipate slaves and ordering it to prevent the immigration of free negroes, led to further opposition, and at the next session of Congress, in February, 1821, Missouri was required to bind herself that the citizens of other States should enjoy all privileges “to which they are entitled under the Constitution of the United States." Henry Clay was largely instrumental in bringing about this compromise ; he was chairman of the last committee. Yet so little did he foresee its consequences, that he is reported to have said to a Missouri delegate after its passage: "Now, go home and prepare your State for gradual emancipation.” Maine was admitted in 1820, Missouri in 1821.
Missouri, Territory of. (See Territories.)
Monetary Conference. (See Paris Monetary Conference.)
Monó-Metallism. (See L:- Metallism.)
Monroe Doctrine.- President Monroe's annual message to Congress in 1823 contained the following sentences: “We owe it to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and the allied powers, to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered, and shall not interfere; but with the governments which have declared their independence and maintained it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and just principles, acknowledged, we could not view an interposition for oppressing them, or controlling in any
other manner their destiny, by any European power, in any other light than as a manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States." Also, “the American continents should no longer be subjects for any new European colonial settlement.” These expressions embody what is known as the Monroe Doctrine. President Monroe's mention of these subjects was occasioned by the formation in Europe, a few years previously, of what was called the “holy alliance”—an alliance between Russia, France, Austria and Prussia to maintain the monarchical system of government in Europe. It was supposed that they desired to extend their operations to the New World also, especially with reference to the colonies of Spain, some of which had asserted, and obtained from the United States the recognition of, their independence. England sided with our country on this question, and the result was that the allies did not carry out their project. As popularly understood, the Monroe doctrine meant a political protection and a guaranty of freedom from European interference to all states of North and South America. It was not, however, intended to, and by its words it did not, declare that the United States would take up arms against European interference on these continents, nor was its intention to limit or embarrass the policy of our nation in the future. It merely declared that the United States would