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regard as unfriendly any such acts of European intermeddling with the political affairs of the two Americas, and it left to be determined by the circumstances of each particular case how far the United States would find it wise to go in opposing it.

Monroe, James, was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, April 29, 1758. He died July 4, 1831. He graduated at William and Mary College, served in the Continental army and then read law under Jefferson. He was a member of the Virginia Legislature in 1782, and of the Continental Congress in 1783, where he served until 1786. From 1790 to 1794 he was United States Senator, from 1794 to 1796 Minister to France, and Governor of Virginia from 1799 to 1802. He was then, in succession, Minister, again to France to negotiate for the purchase of Louisiana, to Great Britain and to Spain. Once more Governor of Virginia in 1811, he became Secretary of State during Madison's administration and retained that post to the end of the latter's second term. He was then chosen President, 1817, and he served two terms. During his incumbency of the office, party feeling died away entirely and the era of good feeling set in. The Monroe Doctrine was his most important official act, and the Missouri Compromise by far the most important measure of his administration. (See those titles.) In 1831 he removed to New York, where he died. He was of the Republican party of his day (see Democratic-Republican Party), and of the more extreme and radical wing.

Montana was originally part of the Louisiana purchase. (See Annexations I; Territories.). It was organized as a separate Territory in 1854. On November 8,1889 it was admitted as a State. The population by the census of 1890 was 132,159. It has one seat in the House of Representatives and three electorial votes. The capital is Helena.

Moral Leper.—A leper is one afflicted with leprosy, a disgusting and loathsome skin disease. By calling a man a moral leper it is intended to indicate that his moral nature is as disgusting as the physical nature of

the leper. The phrase was used by some opponents of Grover Cleveland in the presidential campaign of 1884.

Morey Letter.—About two weeks before the presidential election of 1880, a letter purporting to have been written by James A. Garfield, the Republican candidate, to H. L. Morey, of the Employers' Union, Lynn, Massachusetts, was published. It was a short note relating to the Chinese question. It asserted the writer's belief that “individuals or companies have the right to buy labor where they can get it the cheapest," that our treaty with the Chinese government should be “religiously kept” until abrogated, and added that he was not prepared to say that it should be abrogated” just then. The letter appeared in a New York daily paper, and fac-similes were at once published in all the Democratic newspapers and circulated by Democratic campaign committees. It was thought that a large part of the labor vote of the country would be alienated from Garfield. Garfield at once declared the letter a forgery, but several prominent men familiar with his handwriting declared their belief in its authenticity. An employe of the paper that first published it was arrested on the charge of forging it, but the prosecution of the case was subsequently abandoned. In the judicial examination, however, evidence was produced to show that there was no such person as H. L. Morey, of Lynn. A witness that had sworn to the authenticity of the letter was subsequently convicted of perjury and sentenced to eight years' imprisonment.

Morgan, William. (See Anti-Masonic Party; Good Enough Morgan Till After Election.)

Mormons.-The Mormons are a religious sect who also take the name - The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.” Their founder was Joseph Smith, who claimed to have discovered by divine direction certain golden plates bearing a written revelation. This was in 1827, and near Palmyra, New York. The contents of the plates, being deciphered by Smith, formed what is known as the “ Book of Mormon.” This was printed in 1830, and it was at once charged by unbe

lievers to be nothing more than a romance, written some years previously, by one Spaulding, but never published. The same year the church was organized with Smith as president. From time to time the head of the church has announced special revelations on various subjects. One of these, privately announced in 1843, but not publicly made known till nine years later, reversed the teaching of the Book of Mormon and sanctioned polygamy. With the main body of the Mormons, polygamy, though not practiced by all, is defended, praised and encouraged. In 1831 the church removed to Ohio, where they became obnoxious and were driven out. Mormons had meanwhile begun to settle in Missouri. They were driven hence in 1838, and then removed to Illinois, where on the banks of the Mississippi they founded a city called Nauvoo ("beautiful"). Here also they became obnoxious because of their resistance to the legal government, anā their supposed immoralities. In 1844 the Governor of the State called out the militia, but Smith and his brother surrendered on the Governor's pledge of their safety. A mob, however, broke into the jail where they were confined and killed both of them. Brigham Ycung took Smith's place at the head of the church, and resistance to the legal authorities was continued. In 1846 the emigration of the Mormons to a new and unsettled region west of the Rocky Mountains began. In 1848 they were collected at Salt Lake City and in other parts of Utah, which is still their stronghold, though the neighboring Territories and even more distant places contain some of the sect. They attempted, without success, in 1850 to obtain Utah's admission to the Union as the State of Deseret (“the land of the honey-bee”). When Utah was organized as a Territory in that year, Young was appointed Governor by President Fiilmore. The Mormons for many years continued a course of terrorizing, which drove away federal officers, judges and other “gentiles," as they called non-believers, and Young was removed from the governorship. In 1857 the Mormons were guilty of the murder of a hundred emigrants. This “Mountain

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Meadows massacre was not avenged till 1877, when John D. Lee was executed for his participation in it. From 1857 to 1859 federal soldiers were in the neighborhood to support the national officials, and they met with some resistance. On March 14, 1882, Congress passed what is known as the Edmunds' Bill, approved March 22d, making polygamy a misdemeanor and practically denying the franchise to polygamists.

In 1877 Young died and was succeeded by John Taylor as head of the church. The admission of Utah to the Union is not likely to occur so long as there is a possibility of its establishing polygamy on a legal basis when "it has the powers and functions of a State.

Morrill Tariff.-A tariff bill passed in 1861.

Morrison Tariff Bill.-On March 11, 1884, William R. Morrison, of Illinois, reported from the Committee of Ways and Means to the House of Representatives a bill reducing most of the existing duties on imports twenty per cent. and putting additional articles on the free list of the tariff. The bill is called the “ Morrison bill” and the “horizontal bill.” On May 6th, by a vote of 159 to 155 (10 not voting), the House struck out the enacting clause, thus killing the bill. Of the majority 42 were Democrats, and of the minority 4 were Republicans.

Morton, Levi Parsons, was born at Shoreham, Vermont, May 16, 1824. From a clerk in a country store be became a prominent and successful merchant. Having removed to New York he founded, in 1863, the banking house of Morton, Bliss & Co. In 1878 he was elected to Congress, and he was reëlected in 1880. He was Minister to France from 1881 to 1885. In 1888 he was nominated by the Republicans for Vice-President.

Mother of Presidents.-Virginia is sometimes so called because it was the birth-place of seven Presidents.

Mother of States.-A name occasionally given to Virginia because several States have been partly or wholly formed of territory that once belonged to it.

Mountain Meadows Massacre. (See Mormons.)

Mud-Sill is another name for the cross-ties used as a foundation for the rails in railroad building. In 1858 Senator Hammond in referring to the working classes as the foundation of society and government, used the words, the “very mud-sill of society.” The term spread and was considered an equivalent for the working classes. During the Civil War, the Southerners, who had aristocratic tendencies, often referred to inhabitants of the manufacturing States of the North, as “Northern mud-sills.”

Mugwump.-- This word is said to be derived from the language of the Algonquin Indians among whom it meant a chief or person of importance. It came to be applied derisively to persons who exaggerated their wisdom and importance, and during the presidential campaign of 1884 it was used to designate those Republicans that refused to support Blaine, the candidate of their party. The name was adopted by these Independents who lost sight of the reproach it had been intended to convey.. (See Independents.)

Mulligan Letters.—This name has been applied to two series of letters between James G. Blaine and Warren Fisher on certain business transactions. In 1876 charges of corruption in connection with legislation favoring the Little Rock and Fort Smith railroad, and with other official transactions were made against Blaine. A resolution to investigate these matters was passed by the House of Representatives of which Blaine was a member. The letters above referred to, had been written in relation to this matter and they had passed into the hands of one Mulligan, a former clerk of Fisher. Mulligan came to Washington at the instance of the investigating committee; in an interview Blaine obtained possession of the letters and confronted the committee with them and a statement which he had prepared showing his connection with the matter. This was just prior to the meeting of the National Republican convention. During the meeting of the convention Blaine was sunstruck and the investigation was dropped. The charges

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