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and many citizens refused to vote for Masons, men, as they declared, who considered the edicts of their fraternity as above the laws of the country. This feeling led the National Republican party in New York to name a State ticket containing no Masons, but an Anti-Mason convention was, notwithstanding, held, and a ticket pledged to oppose Free Masonry was nominated. The vote polled by the Anti-Masons was comparatively small, but the party increased so rapidly that by 1830'it was, in New York, the great opponent of the Democrats, whose head, Andrew Jackson, was a Mason. In 1831 the party held a national convention and nominated William Wirt of Maryland and Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania. This ticket received the electoral vote of only Vermont. The party was swallowed up in the Whig party, of which it remained a powerful faction. maintained a separate existence only in Pennsylvania where in 1835 its nominee for governor was elected. (See American Party II.)

Anti-Monopoly Party.-The Anti-Monopoly Organization of the United States met at Chicago May 14, 1884, and nominated Benjamin F. Butler of Massachusetts for the Presidency. It adopted a platform demanding economical government and the enactment and enforcement of equitable laws, including an InterState Commerce Law (one has since been enacted), establishing Labor Bureaus, providing Industrial Arbitration, a direct vote for Senators, a graduated income tax, payment of the national debt as it matures, and fostering care" for agriculture; while it denounced the tariff and the grant of land to corporations. Their nominee was also selected by the Greenback Labor party, the joint ticket being known as the People's party. It polled 130,000 votes.

Anti-Nebraska Men.-A name applied to the Northern Whigs that opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Bill in 1854. These were joined by Democrats of similar views, and together they controlled the House in the Thirty-fourth Congress. The Republican party sprang from them.

Anti-Prohibitionists are those who oppose the adoption of laws prohibiting the sale of liquor for a beverage.

Anti-Renters, The.-Portions of the land in Albany, Rensselaer, Columbia, Greene, Delaware, Schoharie and Otsego counties in New York State were originally part of large estates belonging to the old Dutch patroons, as they were called. The tenants held the farms by perpetual leases on rents payable in produce. These estates were owned by several of the old families of the State, the Livingstons, the Van Rensselaers, and others. The tenants had long been dissatisfied with this arrangement, and the death, in 1839, of Stephen Van Rensselaer brought matters to a head. Stephen Van Rensselaer had allowed the rents to fall largely in arrears; his son now attempted to collect these rents and was met by organized opposition. Men disguised as Indians terrorized the region. Attempts of the sheriff to collect the rents were likewise unsuccessful; the militia that accompanied him was largely outnumbered and the attempt failed. This was known as the “Helderberg War.”

For a time the “ Anti-Renters were a political factor in the State, holding the balance of power and using it to serve their own ends. In 1850 the difficulty was compromised, the owners of the manors selling the land to the tenants.

Anti-Slavery. (See Abolitionists.)

Anti-War Democrats.-The Democratic National Convention met August 29, 1864, and among other resolutions censuring the war acts of the government, a resolution was passed declaring it to be “the sense of the American people that after four years of failure to restore the Union by the experiment of war immediate efforts be made for a cessation of hostilities, with a view to an ultimate convention of the States to the end that

peace may be restored on the basis of the Federal union of the States.” Such Democrats as favored these views were known as “AntiWar Democrats. The same term was applied to those members of the early Democratic party that opposed the

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war of 1812. They sided on this point with the Federalists against the majority of their own party. Those who opposed the war and wished for peace at any price were called “submission men.

Articles of Confederation.—On June 11, 1776, the Colonial Congress, assembled in Philadelphia, resolved to appoint a committee, consisting of one member from each colony, to prepare a form of confederation to be entered into between the colonies. The committee reported, a few changes were made in the wording of the document that they submitted, and on November 15, 1777, it was agreed to by Congress. It was submitted to the States for ratification, and it was provided that it should be conclusive when signed by the delegates of all the States, as these should authorize the ratification. On the 9th of July, 1778, it was signed on behalf of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence plantations, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina. It was signed for North Carolina on July 21st, for Georgia on July 24th, and for New Jersey on November 26tli. One delegate of Delaware signed on Feburary 12, 1779, and the other two on May 5th. On March 1, 1781, the delegates of Maryland signed, and on the next day, March 2, 1781, Congress assembled under its new powers. By this instrument, known as the “ Articles of Confederation,” the United States were governed before the adoption of the Constitution. While these articles gave to Congress power to perform many of the acts of à sovereign government, they gave to it no power to enforce its own commands, and as a consequence it was impossible in spite of strenuous efforts to raise revenue. The debt, principal and interest, fell into arrears, the soldiers of the Revolution remained unpaid and Congress could not even induce the States to give it power to retaliate on nations bent on ruining our trade. The attendance of members in Congress grew smaller and smaller, and it required an especial appeal to have the quorum necessary for the ratification of the treaty of peace with Great Britain. July 14, 1758, the ratifi

cation by nine States of the present Constitution (prepared by the Convention of 1787) was announced by Congress. After January, 1789, the attendance of a few members, who met and adjourned from day to day, gave a nominal existence to Congress, and on March 2, two days before the time fixed for the beginning of the new government, even this pretence of existence was dropped and the old Congress was dead. The following is the text of these articles:

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION AND PER

PETUAL UNION

Between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay,

Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and

Georgia. ARTICLE I. The style of this confederacy shall be, "THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.”

ARTICLE II. Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right, which is not, by this confederation, expressly delegated to the United States in Congress assembled.

ARTICLE III. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare; binding themselves to assist each other against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.

ARTICLE IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States; and the people of each State shall have free ingress and egress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively; provided, that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State to any other State of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided, also, that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any State on the property of the United States, or either of them.

If any person guilty of, or charged with treason, felony or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand of the governor or executive power of the State from

which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offense.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each cf these States to the records, acts and judicial proceedings, of the courts and magistrates of every other State.

ARTICLE V. For the more convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the Legislature of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each State to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and send others in their stead for the remainder of the year.

No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven members, and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years, nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.

Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.

In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each State shall have one yote.

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Congress; and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrest and imprisonment during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.

ARTICLE VÍ. No State, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty with any king, prince or State; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign State; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever, between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.

No State shall lay any imposts or duties which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any king, prince or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress to the courts of France and Spain.

No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such number only as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defense of such State or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State, in time of peace, except such number only as in the judgment of the United States in Congress assembled,

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