were condemned and sold for a total sum of $384,753. Of late the absolute necessity of immediate action has been appreciated, if our navy is to be maintained even in a condition of moderate effectiveness. The following table shows what has been done and what it is proposed to do.

The double-turreted monitors, the cruisers Chicago, Boston, Atlanta, Dolphin, and gunboats numbers 1 and 2, were authorized prior to 1884. The armored cruisers numbers 1 and 2 were authorized in 1886, the cruisers Charleston and Baltimore in 1885, the Newark in 1886, the dynamite-boat in 1886, cruisers numbers 1 and 2, and gunboats numbers 3 and 4, in 1887, the first-class torpedo-boat in 1886. The secondclass torpedo-boat Stiletto was originally built and used as a yacht, but her extraordinary speed caused the government to purchase her.

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pay of seamen is $258 per annum; or ordinary seamen $210. The pay of the retired list of naval officers is seventy-five per cent. of the sea pay of the rank held at the time of retirement. They are to be retired from active service at the age of sixty-two years, or may (except in certain grades) be retired after forty

years of service regardless of age. The present retired list contains rear-adınirals to the number of thirty-three. The United States Navy Yards are situated as follows:

1. Brooklyn Navy Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y.
2. Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Mass.
3. Gosport Navy Yard, near Norfolk, Virginia.
4. Kittery Navy Yard, opposite Portsmouth, N. H.
5. League Island Navy Yard, seven miles below Philadelphia, Pa.
6. Mare Island Navy Yard, near San Francisco, Cal.
7. New London Naval Station (unfinished), New London, Conn.
8. Pensacola Navy Yard, Pensacola, Fla.
9. Washington City Navy Yard, Washington, D. C.
10. Norfolk Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va.

There are naval stations at New London, Conn., Port Royal, S. C., and Key West, Fla., and a torpedo station at Newport, R. I.

The officers of the navy are trained for their profession at the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis (which see). The United States marine corps consists of 2,000 men, including 81 commissioned officers. Colonel Charles Hayward is commandant. The President is commander-in-chief of the navy (Constitution, Article 2, section 2). He acts through the Secretary of the Navy, who is at the head of the Navy Department. (See Navy Department of the.) The old vessels of the navy still in commission consist of sever steel and iron vessels and one torpedo boat-all steam vessels; twentythree wooden steam vessels, three wooden steam receiving ships, twelve iron and wooden steam tugs, one wooden sailing practice vessel, two wooden sailing school ships, one wooden sailing store ship, six wooden sailing receiving ships. On all these vessels the heavy ordnance consists entirely of old muzzle-loading, guns. Within the last few years the necessity of increasing the strength and formidability of our navy has been recognized by the Government, and as a result the present, or what is known as the “ New United States Navy,” consists of the following armored and unarmored vessels: Chicago, 26 guns; Boston, 20 guns; Atlanta, 20 guns; Charleston, 22 guns; Baltimore, 24 guns; Newark, Philadelphia, San Francisco, 29 guns each; Maine, 32 guns; Texas, 30 guns; Cincinnati, Raleigh, 25 guns each; Cruiser, No. 9, Cruiser No. 11, Detroit, 20 guns each; New York, 34 guns; Cruiser, No. 6, 38 guns;

Monterey, 16 guns; Indiana, Massachusetts, Oregon, 40 guns each; Concord, Yorktown, Petral, Bennington, 15 guns each; Puritan, 20 guns; Miantonomah, Terror, Monadnock, 10 guns each, and a number of smaller vessels used for harbor defences, etc. It is the custom of foreign ships-of-war entering the harbor, or in passing in the vicinity of a fort, to hoist at the fore the flag of the country in whose waters they are and salute it; on the completion of the salute to the flag, a salute (of 21 guns) is returned as soon as possible by the nearest fort or battery; if there are several forts or batteries in sight, or within the radius of six miles, the principal fort returns the salute. The Presidential salute of twenty-one guns was adopted that a uni. formity in national salutes might be maintained, it being the same number of guns as the royal salute of England. The reason why twenty-one should have been selected as the number of guns has been a source of search and

guess, with no satisfactory results. Of the many surmises, the two carrying the most weight of opinion are: first, that twenty-one was the same number of years fixed by English law as the age of majority; the second, that seven was the original salute, and three times seven would signify one seven for each of the divisions, England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland. It is also asserted that the United States adopted this salute to signify to the mother country that her child had reached his majority, and was prepared, in law, to inherit the land; and to this end fired the “gun of 1770,” the figures of which year added together equalled twenty-one. The salutes given in addition to the presidential salute are as follows: To the vice-president of the United States and the president of the Senate, 19 guns; members of cabinet, chief justice of U. S., speaker of House of Representatives, 17 guns; rear admiral, 13 guns; commodore, 11 guns; captain, 9 guns; to a sovereign or chief magistrate of any foreign country, 21 guns, to the heir apparent or consort of a reigning sovereign, 21 guns. A salute in accordance with their rank is also given to the viceroy, governor

general or governors of provinces belonging to foreign states, to ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiary, to envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary, to ministers resident accredited to the United States, to charges d'affairs in charge of missions in the United States, to consuls general accredited to the United States and to officers of foreign services. The salary of the principal officers of the United States navy is as follows: Rear-admiral, at sea $6,000, on shore duty $5,000, leave or waiting orders $4,000; commodore, at sea $5,000, on shore duty $4,000, leave or waiting orders $3,000; captain, at sea $4,500, on shore duty $3,500, leave or waiting orders $2,800; commander, at sea $3,500, on shore duty $3,000, leave or waiting orders $2,300; lieut.-commander, first four years, at sea $2,800, thereafter $3,000, on shore duty $2,400, thereafter $2,600, leave or waiting orders $2,000, thereafter $2,200; lieutenant, first five years, at sea $2,400, thereafter $2,600, on shore duty $2,000, thereafter $2,200, leave or waiting orders $1,600, thereafter $1,800; lieutenant, junior grade, first five years, at sea $1,800, thereafter $2,000, on shore duty $1,500, thereafter $1,700, leave or waiting orders $1,200, thereafter $1,400; ensign, first five years, at sea $1,200.

Nebraska was originally a part of the Louisiana purchase. (See Annexations I.; Territories.) In 1854 it was organized as a separate territory, including Montana, Dakota, Wyoming and part of Colorado, as these now exist. On March 1, 1867, the President's proclamation, following an act of Congress, declared it to be a State. The capital is Lincoln. The population in 1880 was 452,402, and in the last census, 1890, 1,058,910. Nebraska has three seats in the House of Representatives and five electoral votes. It is Republican in politics. Its name is of Indian origin, and is supposed to mean “shallow water." (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Neutrality is the abstention from engaging in a war carried on between other nations and the preservation of complete impartiality toward all the belligerents. The territory of the neutral is inviolable, but if permission to use it is granted to che belligerent it must be granted to

all. War vessels with their prizes may enter neutral ports unless forbidden; by the laws of the United States prizes are not admitted to our ports. The right of belligerents to raise forces in a neutral country, if granted to one, must be granted to all; the United States permits this to none. It is practically recognized at present that a neutral flag protects both vessel and cargo, except articles contraband of war, and that neutral goods, with the same exception, are protected even on a belligerent vessel. Neutral vessels must be provided with proper papers and must submit to reasonable examination. (See Blockade; Contraband of War.) The persons and property of belligerents are protected while in neutral jurisdiction. War ships of belligerents must preserve peace with each other while in neutral harbors, or within a marine league of a neutral coast. If a war-ship leaves a neutral port, war-ships of its enemy are not permitted to leave till a day later; this is called the “twenty-four hour rule." The person and property of a neutral are inviolable even when among belligerents, so long as he abstains from participating in hostilities.

Nevada was originally a part of Mexico and was ceded to us by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. (See Annexations IV.). It was organized as a separate Territory in 1861, and was admitted to the Union on October 31, 1864, by the President's proclamation, in accordance with an act of Congress. The capital is Carson City. The population in 1880 was 62,266 and in the last census (1890) 45,761. Nevada has one representative in Congress and three electoral votes. In 1872 and 1880 the vote for President was Democratic and in 1876 and 1884 Republican. Its name is of Spanish origin and means “snow covered.” Popularly it is known as the Sage Hen State. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

New Breeches.-A nickname applied to the Constitution while it was before the people for ratification.

New England Emigrant Aid Company, was a corporation chartered by the Massachusetts Legislature

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