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Presidential Popular Vote in 1884 and 1888.

PRESIDENTIAL POPULAR VOTE, 1884.

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610

33,829
22,032

762
1,847
2,017
1,961
1,685

101

18,128
8,563

1,284
3,923
8,738
46,961

135
10,849
8,293

6,512

24,827
19,773
64,274

Alabama
Arkansas
California
Colorado..
Connecticut..
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Illinois..
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas.
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine.
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada.
N. Hampshire
New Jersey.
New York.
N. Carolina.
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
S. Carolina..
Tennessee
Texas
Vermont
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin

34,839
16,199
11,118

92,973
72,927
89,288
27,603
67,182
16,976
31,769

94,653
312,584
244,992
177,316

90,132
152,961
62,546
51,656

96,866
122,352
189,361
70,065
76,510
235,988
54,391

5,578
39,187
127,778
563,048
142,952
368,286

24,604
392, 785
12,391
69,764
133,270
223,679!

17,831
145,497
67,317
146,459

59,144
50,895
102,416
36,166
65,898
13,053
28,031
47,692
337,411
238, 480
197,089
154, 406
118, 122

46,347
71,716
85,748
146,724
192,669
111,685

43,509
202,929
76,903

7,193
43,250
123, 366
562,001
125,068
400,082

26,860
473,804
19,030
21,733
124,090
91,701
39,514
139, 356

63,096
161,157

16,341
1,693

120
3,994

578
24,382

753
3,583

2,920

762
2,494

64
72
168)
2,005
3,028
1,472
4,954
3,139

838
2,143
2,827
9,925
18,403
4,684
2,153
2,899
1,571
6,153
25,001

454
11,269

492
15,787

928

20,060
24,372

3,308
41,620

33,001
33,059

26
552

22,512

1,615
4,063

3,456

4,412
1,047
17,884

17,002
5,170

726
17,002

422

31,796

2,256
81,019
6,639

957
3,321
785

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22,183

805
4,5981

6,141
4,221

14,698

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Alabama.. Arkansas. California.. Colorado... Connecticut.. Delaware... Florida Georgia. Illinois. Indiana Iowa. Kansas Kentucky. Louisiana Maine... Maryland.. Massachusetts. Michigan Minnesota Mississippi. Missouri Nebraska. Nevada N. Hampshire. New Jersey New York N. Carolina. Ohio... Oregon. Pennsylvania.. Rhode Island.. S. Carolina... Tennessee... Texas. Vermont Virginia.... West Virginia.. Wisconsin

117,320 85,962 117,729 37,567 74,920 16,414 39,561 100,499 348,278 261,013 179,877 102,745 183,800 85,032 50,481 106,168 151,855 213,469 104,385 85,471 261,974 80,552

5,326 43,382 151,493 635,757 147,902 396,455

26,522 446,633 17,530 65,825 158,779 234,883

16,788 151,977 78,677 155,232

56,197 58,752 124,816 50,774 74,584 12,973 26,657 40,496 370,473 263,361 211,598 182,904 155, 134 30,484 73,734

99,986 183,892 236,387 142,492

30,096 236,257 108,425

7,229 45,724 144,344 648,759 134,784 416,054

33,291 526 091

21,968 13,736 138,988 88,422 45,192 150,438 78,171 176,553

583

641 5,761 2,191 4,234 400

423 1,808 21,695 9,881 3,550 6,779 5,225

160 2,691 4,767 8,701 20,942 15,311

218 4,539 9,429

41 1,566 7,904 30,231

2,789 24,356

1,677 20,947 1,250

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5,969 4,749 1,460 1,678 1,084 14,277

1,508 8,552

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Plumed Knight.-A sobriquet of James G. Blaine, originating in a speech of Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll, who said: “Like an armed warrior, like a plumed knight, James G. Blaine marched down the halls of the American Congress and threw his shining lance full and fair against the brazen forehead of every defamer of this country and maligner of its honor.'

Political Bargain is a corrupt arrangement whereby a politician promises support to a measure or man in consideration of similar support to be given to some measure or man of his choice. The election of John Quincy Adams in 1824 was charged to a bargain between him and Henry Clay, the price being the Secretaryship of State. Clay was, as a matter of fact, appointed to this position, but although the charge clung to him, and in after years injured him politically, there is no proof of its truth.

Clay always denied the charge. Political bargains are now so common as not to be matters either for surprise or comment.

Political Boss is a politician that absolutely controls his party or faction. Such were Tweed and Kelly in New York.

Political Workers. (See Boys, The.)

Polk, James Knox, was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, November 2, 1795. He died at Nashville, Tennessee, June 15, 1849. He was graduated at the University of North Carolina and admitted to the bar. In politics he was a Democrat. He was a member of the House of Representatives from 1825 to 1839, and during the last four years was speaker. From 1839 to 1843 he was Governor of Tennessee; from 1845 to 1849 he was President. During his administration the Mexican War was fought and the Oregon boundary dispute was settled.

Poll Tax.-A poll tax is a tax levied on every head or poll of the population. It is a direct tax, and in its original form bears necessarily more heavily on the poor than on the rich; the tendency at present, therefore, is to supply its place with an income tax. Congress has power, by Article 1, section 9, of the Constitution, to

levy a poll tax in proportion to the census, but this power has never been exercised. The States, however, have very generally levied such taxes. In 1860 it was employed by twenty-seven of the States and Territories. It is not now so common, and some of the State Constitutions forbid it. In some States, as in Massachusetts, its payment is a necessary pre-requisite for voting. Where it is employed it is not uncommon to except certain classes, as ministers, from its payment.

Pond Tax Law. (See Prohibition.)

Poor Man's Dollar.-The silver dollar is so-called by those favoring its compulsory coinage. (See Silver Question.)

Poor Richard.—In 1732 Benjamin Franklin began the publication of “Poor Richard's Almanac.” It has become renowned by reason of the homely but striking maxims it contained.

Popular Sovereignty.-This name was applied to the doctrine that the principle of slavery “should be kept out of the national Legislature, and left to the people of the Confederacy in their respective local governments.” It was first stated as above by Lewis Cass in 1847. Behind this doctrine the Northern Democrats sought refuge, both from the Wilmot Proviso and from the Southern demands for active measures in benalf of slavery. On the other hand, Calhoun maintained that a man's right to his property, even though it be in slaves, must everywhere be maintained, so that a man could take his slave into any territory regardless of the wishes of the inhabitants thereof. Calhoun nicknamed the doctrine “squatter” sovereignty. Douglas, its chief supporter, maintained that it was the basis of the compromise of 1850, and in the Kansas-Nebraska Bill another attempt to apply it was made. But when it became evident that this doctrine meant the admission of all future Territories as free, the interpretation was strained so as to bring it within Calhoun's declarations, on the ground that a Territory could not manifest its intentions on the subject until it was ready to be admitted as a State, in other words, not through its Territorial

government. A disagreement on this subject led to the withdrawal of a part of the Democratic national convention which nominated Douglas in 1860.

Population of the United States.—The table on page 399 gives the population of the United States as shown by the decennial census which the Constitution provides for (Article 1, section 2, clause 3). Indians not taxed are excluded, as are also the whole populations of Alaska and Indian Territory, which have not yet been fully organized. The first were estimated in 1881 at 245,000; the second, in 1880, at 30,178; and the third, in 1880, at 70,000. The total population, actual and estimated, in 1880 was about 50,500,000. The totals of the last three censuses include a few Chinese, Japanese and civilized or taxed Indians, who together numbered 1,054 in 1880.

According to the census of 1890 the total population of the United States was 62,622,250.

The following table shows the population of the various States and Territories for 1890:

STATES AND TERRITORIES.

1890.

STATES AND TERRITORIES.

1890.

Alabama.
Arizona..
Arkansas.
California.
Colorado..
Connecticut
Dakota..
Delaware.
District of Columbia..
Florida.
Georgia.
Idaho..
Illinois..
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Maine.
Maryland..
Massachusetts..
Michigan...
Minnesota.
Mississippi.
Missouri.

..1,513,017 Montana..

59,620 Nebraska.
.1,128,179 Nevada..
.1,208,130 New Hampshire..

419,198 New Jersey..
746,258 New Mexico..

New York...
168,493 North Carolina..
230,392 North Dakota.

391,422|Ohio.. .1,837,353 Oklahoma.

84,385 Oregon.... .3,826,351 Pennsylvania.. .2,192,404 Rhode Island. .1,911,896 South Carolina..

1,427,096 South Dakota. .1,858,635 Tennessee...... .1,118,587 Texas......

661,086 Utah.
.1,042,390 Vermont.
.2,238,943 Virginia....
.2,093,889 Washington..

1,301,826 West Virginia.......
..1,289,600 Wisconsin..
.2,679, 184'Wyoming.

132, 159 .1,058,910

45,761

376,530 .1,444,933

153,593 .5,997,853 .1,617,947

182,719 .3,672,316

61,834

313,767 .5,258,014

345,506 .1,151,149

328,808 .1,767,518 .2,235,523

207,905

332,422 1,655,980 349,390

762,704 .1,686,880

60,705 .62,622,250

Total..

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