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then Arbor day has been observed in Colorado, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Indiana, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Florida, Alabama, Missouri, California, Kentucky, Maine and Georgia. In several other states its observance has been secured by the recommendation of the Grange, the Grand Army of the Republic, or by State agricultural societies. While at the outset economic tree-planting was the primary aim, the adornment of home and school grounds soon followed. On the first Obio Arbor Day, the children of Cincinnati joined in an attractive celebration, in the form of planting memorial trees and dedicating them to authors, statesmen, and other distinguished citizens. B. G. Northrop says, concerning the value of the observance of Arbor Day: “While forests should not be planted on our rich arable lands, there are in New England and all the Atlantic states large areas of barrens worthless for field

crops,

that

may be profitably devoted to wood-growing. The feasibility of reclaiming our most sterile wastes is proved by many facts both at home and abroad. Our Atlantic sand plains were once covered with forests and can be reforested. Over 10,000 acres on Cape Cod, which thirty years ago were barren, sandy plains, are now covered with thriving planted forests.”

Aristocrats.-A name applied by the Republicans to a section of the Federalists in 1796. Also called the British Party:

Arizona is a Territory of the United States. It originally formed parts of the Mexican cession and the Gadsden purchase. (See Annexations IV and V.) It was separated from New Mexico and organized by Act of February 24, 1863. Phoenix is the capital. The population in 1880 was 40,440 and in the last census (1890) 59,602. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Area of the United States. The area of the various territories which have been acquired by the United States from time to time is given under Annexations. The areas of the various States and Territories and of the United States are given in the following

areas

table, the figures including the gross land and water

as given in the census of 1890, except as to Alaska, the extent of which is given as estimated by the special agent for that census:

STATES AND TERRITORIES.
Alabama..
Alaska Territory.
Arizona..
Arkansas
California.........
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Dakota, North.
Dakota, South.
Delaware...
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia.
Idaho
Illinois.
Indiana
Indian Territory
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine...
Maryland
Massachusetts.
Michigan..
Minnesota.
Mississippi.
Missouri..
Montana..
Nebraska
Nevada..
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New Mexico
New York..
North Carolina
Ohio..
Oregon..
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island..
South Carolina.
Tennessee.
Texas..
Utah..
Vermont.
Virginia..
Washington.
West Virginia..
Wisconsin..
Wyoming..
Oklahama Territory.
Delaware Bay.
Rariton Bay and Lower New York Bay.

Total United States.....

GROSS AREA IN
SQUARE MILES.

52,250 577,390 113,020

53,850 158,360 103,925

4,990 70,775 77,650 2,050

70 58,680 59,475 84,800 56,650 36,350 31,400 56,025 82,080 40,400 48,720 33,040 12,210

8,315 58,915 83,365 46,810 69,415 146,080

77,510 110,700

9,305

7,815 122,580 49,170 52,250 41,060 96,030 45,215

1,250 30,570 42,050 265,780 84,970

9,565 42,450 69,180 24,780 56,040 97,890 39,030

620 100

:,,3,603,710

Arkansas.-The State of Arkansas was originally a portion of the Louisiana purchase. (See Annexations 1.) It was separated as Arkansaw Territory from Missouri in 1819, and was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836. On May 6, 1861, a convention passed an ordinance of secession, and the State was re-admitted to the Union June 22, 1868. The capital is Little Rock. The population in 1880 was 802,525, and in the last 1890, census 1,128,179. Arkansas sends five members to the House of Representatives and has seven electoral votes; it is a Democratic State. In 1881 the Legislature declared the pronunciation of its name to be Ar-kan-saw. The name is of Indian origin and has no known meaning. Arkansas is popularly known as the Bear State, in allusion to the figures on the coat of arms of Missouri, of which it was once a part. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Army of the United States.—On January 1, 1892, the army contained:

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The last division includes the engineer service, recruiting parties, ordnance department, hospital service, Indian scouts, West Point, signal detachments and general service.

The army is commanded by three major-generals, and six brigadier-generals. The pay of the officers is as follows:

PAY DURING FIRST 5 YEARS

of Service. Major-General...

$7,500 Brigadier-General.

5,500 Colonel.

3,500 Lieutenant-Colonel.

3,000 Major..

2,500 Captain, mounted.

2,000 Captain, not mounted.

1,800 First Lieutenant, mounted.

1,600 First Lieutenant, not mounted.

1,500 Second Lieutenant..

1,400

Maximum

Pay.
10,500
7,700
4,500
4,000
3,500
2,800
2,520
2,240
2,100
1,960

The pay is graded, acccording to years of active service, being increased at the rate of ten per cent. for every five years of service until after twenty years' service the maximum is reached; in the case of colonels and lieutenantcolonels the maximum is fixed somewhat lower. Officers are allowed mileage at the rate of eight cents a mile for every mile traveled under orders. The pay of the men is graded from $13 a month and rations, for the first two years, to $21 a month and rations after twenty years' service. The retired list of the army is limited to 400 officers. Any commissioned officer that has served thirty years may be retired on his own request at the discretion of the President, or having served forty years on his own request absolutely; or having served forty-five years, or having attained the age of sixty-two years, at the discretion of the President, without any act of his own. The pay is seventy-five per cent. of the pay allotted to officers of his rank in active service at the time of retirement. There are at present thirty-one general officers on the list, being one general, four major-generals and twenty-six brigader-generals. The general officers of the army are at present (1892) as follows: RANK. NAME.

COMMAND. Major-General.. .John M. Schofield.. United States Army. Major-General. ..Oliver 0. Howard,

.. Depart. of the East. Major-General.. ....Nelson A. Miles.

. Depart. of Missouri. Brigadier-General.. Thomas H. Ruger.. .. Depart. of California. Brigadier-General. .Wesley Merritt..

.. Depart. of Dakota. Brigadier-General..... David S. Stanley.

.. Depart. of Texas. Brigadier-General. ..John R. Brooke..

... Depart. of the Platte. Brigadier-General.....A .Mc D.McCook.

Depart. of Arizona. Brigadier-Genaral.....A. V. Kautz...

.. Depart. of the Columbia.

The commanaers of the army have been as follows: Major-General George Washington, June 15, 1775, to December 23, 1783. Major-General Henry Knox, December 23, 1783, to June 20, 1784. Lieutenant-Colonel Josiah Harmar, General-in-Chief by brevet, Sep

tember, 1788, to March, 1791.
Major-General Arthur St. Clair, March 4, 1791, to March, 1792.
Major-General Anthony Wayné, April 11, 1792, to December 15, 1796.
Major-General James Wilkinson, December 15, 1796, to July, 1798.
Lieutenant-General George Washington, July 3, 1798, to his death,

December 14, 1799.
Major-General James Wilkinson, June, 1800, to January, 1812.
Major-General Henry Dearborn, January 27, 1812, to June, 1815.
Major-General Jacob Brown, June, 1815, to February 21, 1828.

1810 1812 1815

1838

Major-General Alexander Macomb, May 21, 1828, to June, 1841.
Major-General Winfield Scott (brevet Lieutenant-General), June, 1841,

to November 1, 1861.
Major-General George B. McClellan, November 1, 1861, to March 11, 1862.
Major-General H. W. Halleck, July 11, 1862, to March 12, 1864.
Lieutenant-General U.S. Grant, March 12, 1864, to July 25, 1866, and as

General to March 4, 1869. General W. T. Sherman, March 4, 1869, to November 1, 1883. Lieutenant-General P. H. Sheridan, November 1, 1883, to August 5, 1888. Major-General J. M. Schofield, August 5, 1888, to

The maximum strength of the army, including officers and men, as authorized by Congress at various times, was as follows:

1789 1 regiment of Infantry, 1 battery of Artillery.. 840
1792
Indian War..

5,120 1791 .Peace organization.

3,629 1801 Peace organization

5,144 1807 .Peace organization.

3,278 . Peace organization.

7,154 War of 1812..

11,831 War of 1812

9,413 1817-21 Peace organization.

9,980 1822-32.... Peace organization.

6,184 1833-37. .Peace organization..

7,198 42.... Florida War

12,539 1813–46.. Peace organization.

8,613 1847 Mexican War

.17,812 1848 Mexican War.

.30,890 1819-55. Peace organization.

.10,320 1856-61... Peace organization

.12,931 1862 Civil War.

.39,273 1863-66.... Civil War..

43,332 1867 Peace organization

54,641 1868–69....Peace organization

52,922 1870 Peace organization

37,313 1871 .Peace organization

35,353 1872-74 Peace organization

32,264 1875—92.... Peace organization

.27,489 The President of the United States is commander-inchief of the army (Constitution, Article 2, section 2), and under him is the Secretary of War. (See War Department.)

Arm-in-Arm Convention.-A name given to a convention of Republicans that supported President Johnson's policy on reconstruction; it met in Philadelphia in August, 1866. Its name arose from the fact that the members from Massachusetts and from South Carolina entered the convention together at the head of the delegates.

Aroostook Disturbance. (See Northeast Boundary.)

Arthur, Chester A.- Was born at Fairfield, Franklin County, Vermont, October 5, 1830. During his

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