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LESSON XLII.-Points for illustration:— The lawyer's question—the

double law, love to God, and love to our neighbour (90)—Jesus'

question, “What think ye of Christ?" (91)—Christ human and divine. 90. Love, the fulfilling of the Law.-Two girls were going to a neighbouring town, each carrying on her head a heavy basket of fruit to sell. One of them was murmuring and fretting all the way, and complaining of the weight of her basket. The other went along smiling and singing, and seeming to be very happy. At last the first got out of patience with her companion, and said, “How can you go on so merry and joyful? your basket is as heavy as mine, and I know you are not a bit stronger than I am.

I don't understand it." Oh,” said the other, “it's easy enough to understand. I have a certain little plant which I put on the top of my load, and it makes it so light I hardly feel it.” “Indeed, that must be a very precious little plant. I wish I could lighten my load with it. Where does it grow? Tell me. What do you call it ?”—“ It grows wherever you plant it; and give it a chance to take root, and there's no knowing the relief it gives. Its name is love, the love of Jesus. I have found out that Jesus loved me so much that He died to save my soul. This makes me love Him, Whatever I do, whether it be carrying this basket or anything else, I think to myself, I am doing this for Jesus, to shew that I love Him; and this makes everything easy and pleasant." Bible Jewels.

91. What think ye of Jesus?_Think: it is this word which makes the question suit all. It is not give, or some poor one might say, “I am shut out;" or, what do ye for Christ? or some helpless sufferer on his bed might exclaim, “I can do nothing.” But think we all can. If you try not to think, you cannot do it, it is impossible. There is no avoiding this question, then. Is Christ in all or any of your thoughts? (Psal. x. 4; xciv. 11.) An old man lay on his deathbed, and beside him was his son, a worldly-minded youth. The father yearned for his boy's conversion; but how could he win him? He tried in this way. He asked his son to grant him a favour ere he died; and the dying request could not be refused. But the young man was astonished when he heard what it was. The request was this—that he would promise that for six months after his father's death he would retire into his room for half an hour every day, and think. And what about?" asked the son. “ That I leave to yourself,” replied the father, and soon after died. The youth was not so unnatural as to neglect his promise, and for some time he had no difficulty in passing the half-hour; for business and the change in his position suggested subjects. But at last a thought about the immortality of his soul crossed his mind, and with it came others alike serious, until his half-hours became whole hours, and he was led to read the Bi , and think, and think, and think, until he was brought to believe in his Saviour Jesus, and was a saved soul. Can you bear to be alone for half-an-hour, and think on serious subjects ?

What think ye? The question is personal, direct. Not what does parent, or pastor, or teacher think,

ye, yourself. Of Christ. Think ye of Him as the Anointed, God's Son, your Saviour, your Judge ? “ Search me, O God, and know my heart; try me, and know my thoughts,” (Psal. cxxxix. 23, 24.)J.R. P.

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LESSON XLIII.--Points for illustration :-A new-year's day's work

orderliness and obedience, “ as the Lord commanded Moses so did he,” (92)—the cloud and the fire, God's presence by day and by night-the tabernacle of our bodies (2 Cor. v. 1)—God loves the

gates of Zion. 92. Obedience. During Havelock's stay in England, a gentleman went one evening to the house of the colonel, in compliance with an invitation. In the course of conversation Mrs. Havelock turned suddenly round to her husband, and said, “My dear, where is Henry?" referring to her son, whom she had not seen during the whole afternoon. The colonel started to his feet. Well, poor fellow! he's standing on London Bridge, and in this cold, too! I told him to wait for me there at twelve o'clock to-day; and, in the pressure of business, I quite forgot the appointment." It was now about seven o'clock in the evening. The colonel at once rose, ordered a cab to be called; and as he went forth to deliver his son from his watch on London Bridge, he turned to excuse himself from his visitor, saying, “ You see, sir, that is the discipline of a soldier's family.” In the course of an hour he returned with poor Harry, who seemed to have passed through the afternoon's experience with the greatest good humour. LESSON XLIV.-Points for illustration :- Atonement needed for priest,

people, and place (93)-confession: the hand on the goat's headsin removed: the scape-goat-Jesus typified in all-pardon of sin

and access to God through the blood of Jesus (94.) 93. To whom are we to confess?

A parent asked a priest a boy to bless,
Who forthwith charged him that he must confess;
“Well,” said the boy, “suppose that I am willing,
What is your charge?”—“To you 'tis but a shilling."
“Must all men pay? and all men make confession ?"
“Yes, every man of Catholic profession.”
To whom do you confess ?"-"

"Why, the Dean.”
“And does he charge you?”—“Yes, a whole thirteen.”
“Do Deans confess?"_“Yes, boy, indeed they do,
Confess to Bishops, and pay smartly too."
"Do Bishops, then, confess? If so, to whom?"
“Why, they confess, and pay the Church of Rome.”
Well” quoth the boy, "all this is surely odd,
And does the Pope confess ?”—“O yes, to God.”
And does God charge the Pope?"-"No," quoth the priest,
God charges nothing.' Why, then God is best;
God can forgive, and He is always willing-
To Him will I confess, and save my shilling !".

-Christian Journal. 94. What the blood demands.—Whilst Captain Hedley Vicars was waiting, in Canada, in November, 1851, the arrival of a brother officer in his room, and idly turning over the leaves of the Bible, his eye caught the well-known words, “The blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanseth us from all sin.” Closing the book, he said, “If this be true for me, henceforth I will live, by the grace of God, as a man should live who has been washed in the blood of Jesus Christ."

THE

SABBATH SCHOOL MAGAZINE.

THE EARLY TRANSLATIONS OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE.

NO. IV.

The specimens of the early translations of the Holy Scriptures into the vernacular tongue of England, presented in these pages, illustrate the gradual development of the language, which owes more to the English Bible, both for its growth and the preservation of its Saxon purity, than to any other book that ever existed. Wickliffe's translation brought down our notices to nigh the close of the fourteenth century, (1388.) The use of the Bible in the vernacular tongue had hitherto not been denied to the common people, to whom, however, it was still only accessible in rare and costly manuscript copies. In 1540, Cranmer bears testimony, in his preface to the Bible, that Scripture had been read in the vulgar tongue for above & century, adding, “and many hundred years before that, it was translated and read in the Saxons' tongue, which at that time was our mothers' tongue.” Similar testimony is given by Foxe the martyrologist, and Sir Thomas More. The Gospel light diffused by Wickliffe and his followers flickered feebly throughout the century which succeeded the appearance of his translation, during which period the power of the Church of Rome was in the ascendant. Wickliffe's principles were denounced by the Romish hierarchy as heresy. With equal zeal, but with less wisdom than their master had evinced, his successors involved themselves in insurrectionary movements of the time, and became obnoxious to the civil law. The reforming tendency which Wickliffe set agoing was thus unhappily arrested for a hundred years. “ The fire of heresy," says Froude, "continued to smoulder, exploding occasionally in insurrection, occasionally blazing up in nobler form, When some poor seeker for the truth, groping for a vision of God in the darkness of the years which followed, found his way into that high Presence through the martyr's fire. But, substantially, the nation relapsed NO, XII.]

(VOL. XXIII.

M

into obedience-the Church was reprieved for a century." In the meantime the mind of the English people, and of all northern Europe, was ripening for the era of the Reformation. Everywhere the people were becoming restless under the debasing supremacy of the Pope; and the priests of Rome were everywhere rendering themselves odious by their ignorance, their tyranny, their selfishness, and their revolting profligacy. The obvious policy of Rome was to suppress the circulation of religious writings of every description, and especially the English Bible, which, in the form of Wickliffe's version, was growing in favour with the people. Meanwhile a new power appeared in Europe, which was destined to exercise an influence over the human race, only second to that in store for the Bible itself. This was the discovery of the art of Printing, the advantage of which was most appropriately—shall we not rather say providentially?—first enjoyed by the Bible itself. It seemed as if that noble art had all at once leaped into perfection in Germany, in the production of the celebrated folio Bible in Latin, which issued from the press at Mentz in the year 1450. A copy of this superb volume is deposited in the British Museum Library, and was shewn to the public on the occasion of the first great Exhibition in London, when it astonished all who were curious in the history and progress of typography, by the superiority of its printing. It is known as the Mazarin Bible; and a copy was sold a few years ago at the price of about £300. Italy, France, and Spain, possessed Bibles in their own languages before the reign of Henry VIII. commenced in England, in 1509,—that reign which, notwithstanding all its vices, gave royal authority to a new translation of the Scriptures, and to its circulation amongst the people. Thirty years before the date just quoted, there had been five distinct translations printed in Germany, twelve more being printed before the appearance of Luther, in 1518. But from the end of the fourteenth century, until the publication of Tyndale's New Testament, in 1525, no attempt seems to have been made to improve upon the English version of Wickliffe and his coadjutors. It was not till ten years later that the whole Bible appeared, at which period it was printed under the editorship of Miles Coverdale. The first “authorized version" was not published till 1540. But exactly seven years before the publication of Tyndale's New Testament, an event took place which prepared the minds and bearts of men for that great Reformation movement, in which a free Bible was to lead the way. Alluding to the common feeling of discontent and expectancy throughout northern Europe at the period, the historian Froude observes,—“At such times the minds of men

was in

are like a train of gunpowder, the isolated grains of which have no relation to each other and no effect on each other ; but let a spark kindle but one of them, and they shoot into instant union in a common explosion. Such a spark was kindled in Germany, at Wittenberg, on the 31st of October, 1517. In the middle of that day Luther's denunciation of Indulgences was fixed against the gate of AllSaints Church, Wittenberg, and it became, like the brazen serpent in the wilderness, the sign to which the sick spirits throughout the western world looked hopefully and were healed.” The first blow of the Reformation from Popery was struck by a brave hand, which recoiled not from repeating the blow till the system of Popery in Germany was shattered. The influence of the movement thus inaugurated spread over northern Europe like an electric wave. There was a universal awakening of the human mind, and a universal cry arose for guidance and information. The demand for books—especially for the Book of books satiable. Ardent and enterprising youth flocked from all nations to Wittenberg to hear Luther and Melancthon. Patrick Hamilton was there from Scotland, who, on returning to his native land, proclaimed a free Gospel to his countrymon; for which he was condemned to perish at the stake, in 1527, at the early age of four-and-twenty. There, also, was William Tyndale, who, under the influence of Luther's teaching and example, resolved to give to England that translation of the New Testament which has been already alluded to. He had been & Franciscan friar and a priest, but had in early life doffed his friar's cowl and priest's cassock, and made himself rather notable for the expression of free opinions as to the corrupt state of the Church. England became too hot for him, so he found it necessary to conduct the labour of his translation at Hamburg. The printing of the work was, however, commenced at Cologne. Apprehending seizure at that place, he carried the half-completed types to Worms, and an edition of 3000 copies was finished and secretly sent to London, where an association of Christian Brothers succeeded in circulating them broad and wide. The historian already quoted says, “The council threatened, the bishops anathematized. They opened subscriptions to buy up the hated and dreadful volumes. They burnt them publicly at St. Paul's. The whip, the gaol, the stake, did their worst; and their worst was nothing. The high dignitaries of the earth were fighting against Heaven, and met the success which ever attends such contests. Three editions were sold before 1530 ; and in that

year a fresh instalment was completed. The Pentateuch was added to the New Testament; and afterwards, by Tyndale himself, or under

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