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in which the Republic itself rode safely. The popular feeling, now entirely with Octavian, added acclamations to the honours which were voted by the Senate—the constant use of the triumphal dress, a quinquennial festival to be kept in his name, the observance of his birthday with religious rites, and the addition of his name to the Senate and People of Rome in the public prayers for the state. This alteration of the style and title which had so long floated on the banners of the Republic, and had been affixed to her treaties and mandates—the S. P. Q. R., at the sight of which kings and commonwealths had trembled—was the most significant sign of the change now completed. The Vestal Virgins, with the Senate and people, went out to meet the returning conqueror beyond the gates, and he entered the city in a triple triumph for his Dalmatian victories, for the battle of Actium, and for the conquest of Egypt, on the 7th, 8th, and 9th of Sextilis (August). The triumph was followed by splendid games, by the dedication of the Julian basilica in the Forum, which now became the usual Senate-house, and of the shrine for the worship of Caesar on the spot where his body had been burnt, besides other temples built from the spoils of Egypt. The vast quantities of precious metals brought back by Octavian from the East—the plunder chiefly of the temples at Alexandria—enabled him to heap rewards upon his soldiers and pour largesses on the citizens, and completely disturbed the prices of money and commodities at Rome. All classes shared in the public wealth; and "the enhancement of prices hardly touched a populace whose subsistence and diversions were provided by the state."* The restoration of universal peace—for no account was taken of the petty wars in Gaul and Spain—was solemnly inaugurated by the closing of the temple of Janus in the Forum, for the third time in all Roman history. Its first shutting had marked the peaceful reign of Numa; its second, the end of the First Punic War.

• "Estates and commodities were doubled in nominal value, and the interest of money at the same time sank two-thirds." (Merivale, vol. iii. p. 465.)

BOOK VIII.

THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN ITS GREATNESS:

OR,

THE GESARS AND THE ANTONINES.

FROM AUGUSTUS TO COMMODUS. B.C. 29 TO A.D. 193.

VOL. III.

CONTENTS OF BOOK VIII.

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