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A.D. 364.] PARTITION OF THE EMPIRE. 719
THE DIVISION OF THE EAST AND WEST: AND THE FALL OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE. A.D. 363 TO A.D. 476.
"As it now stands, the Coliseum is a striking image of Home itself—decayed, vacant, Berioos, yet grand—half-gray and half-green—erect on one side and fallen on the other, ■with consecrated ground in its bosom—inhabited by a beadsman; visited by every caste; for moralists, antiquaries, painters, architects, devotees, all meet here, to meditate, to examine, to draw, to measure, and to pray."—Forsyth.
PARTITION O? THE EMPIRE BETWEEN VALENTINIAN I. AHD VALENS—CAMPAIGNS OP VALENTINIAN IN THE WEST—HE IS SUCCEEDED BT ORATIAN AND VALENTINIAN II.
— VALENS, IN THE EAST, PUTS DOWN PROCOPICS—HIS TYRANNY AND ARIAN FANATICISM—THE OOTHS, EXPELLED BY THE HUNS, ARE RECEIVED INTO HOJSIA—THEIR
REBELLION, AND VICTORY OVER VALEN8 AT HADRIANciPLE THE0D03WS I. THE
GREAT, EMPEROR OP THE EAST1—PEACE WITH THE GOTHS—CLPHILAS—REVOLT OP
ARCADIUS IN THE EAST, AND HONORIUS IN THE WEST—RUPINUS AND STILICHO
RISE AND PALL OP RUPINUS, EUTROPIUS, AND OAINAS — THE EMPRESS EUDOXIA DEATH OP ARCADIUS—THEODOSIUS II. — THE EASTERN EMPIRE—ALARIO DE-
— SIEGB AND SACK OP ROME BY THE OOTHS—ELEVATION AND PALL OP ATTA-
AND ASIA THE HUNS OP THE TURKISH RACE—ATTILA, KING OP THE HUNS
—EXTENT OP HIS DOMINIONS: EXAGGERATIONS OP HIS POWER — HIS INVASION OP THE EAST—HIS CHARACTER—TREATY WITH THB EASTERN EMPIRE—DEATH OP THEODOSIUS II.—MARCIAN—THE PRANKS IN GAUL—RISE OP THE MEROVINGIANS—
ATTILA INVADES GAUL — SIEGE OP ORLEANS AND DECISIVE BATTLE OP CHALONS
DEATHS OP THEODORIO I., ATTILA, AND A&TIUS SUPREMACY OP THE GERMAN RACE
—DEATH OP VALENTINIAN III.—MAXIMUS AND A VITUS—POWER OP COUNT RICIMER —LEO I.—MAJORIAN, SEVERUS, ANTHEMIUS, AND OLYDRIUS—DEATH OF RICIMER GLYCER1US AND JULIUS NEPOS—ROMULUS AUQUSTULUS DEPOSED BY ODOACER
—END OF THB WESTERN EMPIRE.
The partition of the Roman World into the Eastern and "Western Empires, under Valentinian and Valens, was a confession that the time had come when the undivided attention and efforts of a single ruler were insufficient to ward off the dangers that were closing around from the East and North. It might well he taken as the epoch whence began that series of events, by which the transition is made from the ancient to the medieval civilization and polity,—the great movement which, after destroying the Roman Empire in the West, gave birth to the States of Europe that were fully constituted about the era of Charlemagne. But in the midst of that series of events stands forth one so momentous, that common consent has adopted it as the closing epoch of Ancient History,—the deposition of the last of the Augnsti who reigned at Rome by a barbarian chieftain, as a prelude to the establishment of the Gothic Kingdom of Italy on the ruins of the Western Empire. The importance of that catastrophe demands that we should briefly trace, as an epilogue to Ancient History, the 112 years that may be more fitly regarded as a prologue to that of the Middle Ages.
Valentinian had chosen the post where danger was most imminent, and he proved himself worthy to meet that danger. In Ad. 365, and again in 368, the Alemanni crossed the Rhine, were driven back with great slaughter and again defeated on their own territory, and the frontier of the Rhine was secured by a line of fortifications. The Burgcndians now first appear as a formidable people, at feud with the AlemannL The Saxons, who had become bolder in their depredations on the coasts of Gaul and Britain, were routed by Severus, the count of the Saxon shore, in Ad. 370. In Britain, where the Caledonians of the North have now given place to the obscure race of the Picts, and to the Gaelic Scots, who had crossed over from Ireland, and where the irruptions of these barbarians had lately demanded the presence of Constans—the valour of Theodosius, the father of the emperor, not only drove back the invaders and their Saxon allies, but reconquered the country between the two walls, which became the province of Valentia (a.d. 367). The same general afterwards recovered Africa from the usurper Firmus (ad. 374). Valens rewarded his services, after the death of Valentinian, by beheading him at Carthage (ad. 376). The death of the elder emperor took place suddenly, when he had been speaking with great excitement to an embassy of the Quadi, at Bregetio (near Presburg), in Pannonia (Nov. 17, A.d. 375). His military abilities and good legislation were stained by excessive cruelty; but his religious toleration deserves the more praise from its contrast to the fury with which his brother, an Arian hke himself, persecuted the orthodox in the East, As early as 367, Valentinian had bestowed the dignity of Augustus on his son Gratian, whose younger brother, Valestinia* II, a child of four or five years old, was now proclaimed by the army. The Western Provinces were divided between them, Gratian having the preA.D. 376.] THE GOTHS EXPELLED BY THE HUNS. 721
fecture of the Gauls, and Valentinian those of Italy and Illyricum.
In the East, Valens began his reign by the dismissal of the prefect Sallust, and other indications of his arbitrary temper. His absence at Antioch, to conduct the Persian War, gave an opportunity for the proclamation of Procopius, who had been doomed to death as a relative of Julian, but had escaped (Sep. 28th, A.d. 365). Sallust, restored to his post by his timid master, gained two great battles over Procopius, who was betrayed in his hidingplace, and put to death (May 28th, A.d. 366). This danger called forth the natural cruelty to which Valens was as prone from weakness as his brother from severity; and his courtiers were enriched by the wealth of those who suffered on the charge of treason. The political executions were followed by a religious persecution. Valens received public baptism at the hands of Eudoxus, the Arian bishop of Constantinople; prelates of the same sect were forced upon the reluctant people in Antioch and other cities; and the necessity of recalling Athanasius, in order to quiet the tumultuous Alexandrians, was amply revenged after his death upon the Egyptian Catholics. Among the most conspicuous victims were the monks of the desert of Nitria, on the western margin of the Delta.
While Valens was indulging in these luxuries of tyranny, his dominions first, and soon after all the countries of the empire, were threatened by a new storm, which justifies the historian in dating from his reign the disastrous period of the fall of the Roman Empire. The great nation of the Goths had for some time settled down in the wide belt of country they had won, from the Baltic to the Euxine; and the Visigoths, who were nearest to the Danube, had, to a great extent, adopted Roman civilization and the Christian religion. After the victories of Constantine over the Gothic chieftain Araric, in A.d. 332, the Goths remained at peace with Rome for a whole generation; and this period is illustrated by the reign of the great Hermanric, whose name forms one of the earliest links between imperial history and old Teutonic literature, being celebrated in the Heldenbuch (Book of Heroes) and the Icelandic Sagas. Hostilities were resumed upon the Danube in the reign of Valens, and, after three campaigns, the Visigoths appear to have obtained peace upon their own terms (a.d. 370). But about the r>ame time they began to suffer, in their turn, from the attacks of a race of barbarians, who now appear for the first time in history, at least under the name which has become the symbol for the
VOL. III. s A
wildest and moat repulsive agents of destruction. Of the race and origin of the Hra we shall presently have a fitter opportunity to speak. It is enough now to say that, pressing westward from the hanks of the Don, they drove the Visigoths to seek a shelter in the Roman territory. Sound policy would have counselled such a league with the Goths as should have made their country the field of battle against the new invaders; but instead of this, they were allowed to cross the Danube en masse, and the precautions dictated by fear became worse than fruitless through negligence and meanness. The hostages, taken from the flower of the Gothic youth, were dispersed through the cities of Asia Minor; but 200,000 men, under the "judges" Fritigern and Alavivus, were allowed to settle in one band in Mcesia, retaining, by the connivance of the imperial officers, the arms they had promised to deliver up(A.D. 376). The corrupt governors of Thrace went on to provoke by their avarice the armed men whom they had thus admitted within the frontier. Their markets were supplied with the flesh of dogs and diseased animals at enormous prices, while they were tantalized with seeing around them the resources of a wealthy province. They resolved to use their power to help themselves. After defeating Lupicinus near llareianopolis, they overran the whole of Jioesia and Thrace; their numbers being continually swollen by the new hordes that crossed the Danube, while the Ostrogoths pressed forward to fill their vacant room. Swarms of Sarmatians, Alans, and Huns united with the invaders. After three indecisive campaigns, the whole force of the Eastern Empire, led by Valens in person, attacked them in their camp near Hadrianople. The 9th of August, 378, witnessed the most bloody defeat yet inflicted by the barbarians since the black day of the Allia. Two-thirds of the army were destroyed, with the flower of the officers; and the emperor perished in the burning of the hut where he lay wounded. The Battle Of Hakrusoplk marks the epoch from which the Goths established their superiority over the falling empire.
Gratian. summoned to the aid of his colleague, had been delayed in repelling an invasion of the Alemanni; but he was far upoD his march when the impatience of Yalens precipitated the catastrophe. Feeling his inability to cope at once with the Germans on the Danube, and with the Goths, who had overspread the whole open country of Thrace and Dlyricum. as far as the walls of Constantinople and the frontiers of Italy, he called forth the son of the murdered Theodosius from his retirement in Spain, and invested him at Sirmium with the empire of the East, adding- the dioceses A.D. 379] ACCESSION OF THEODOSIUS I. 723
of Dacia and Macedonia, which were now severed from the Illyrian prefecture (Jan. 19, A.d. 379).
Theodosius L, justly named the Great, was sprung from the same province which had given Trajan and Hadrian to the empire, and his features bore a resemblance to the former prince. Trained to arms in his father's campaigns against the Scots, the Saxons, and the Moors, he had himself, as Duke of Mcesia, rescued the province from an invasion of the Sarmatians (a.d. 374). He was still only in his thirty-third year, when the emperor's generous confidence in his unrivalled merit called him to forgive his father's death and to uphold a falling empire. He fixed his head-quarters at Tbessalonica. "The task which Theodosius had before him," says Niebuhr, "was so vast that it makes one shudder to think of it. With the remaining forces of the Eastern Empire (for the West would give him no support), he was to repel the Goths; and he succeededed not only in putting a stop to their progress, but in disarming them by treaties of which we know nothing. In a series of campaigns he separated one tribe from the others, and split them up into so many parts, that they submitted to the supremacy of Rome." He was favoured by the death of the warlike Fritigern, whose aged successor, Athanaric, was disposed to peace; and Theodosius fully adopted the policy of giving the Goths permanent settlements within the Danube, and receiving their warriors into Roman pay. Peace was finally concluded by Theodosius with the Goths on the 3rd of October, A.d. 382, and the same year is memorable for the death of Athanaric, and the accession of the famed Alaric. Four years later, the Gruthungi, a tribe of the Ostrogoths, were defeated by Theodosius upon the Danube, and the survivors received settlements in Asia Minor and Phrygia, contributing a perpetual force of 40,000 men for the service of the Eastern Empire (a.d. 386).
The measures begun by Valens, and followed up by Theodosius, produced permanent results of deep interest for the modern enquirer. The Goths of Mcesia furnished one of the earliest examples of the reception of Christianity by a whole nation, even before it became the prevalent religion of the Roman empire; and one of the earliest examples too of the service often since rendered by Christian missionaries to barbarian peoples, of giving form and order to a language as yet irregular, as the vehicle of their teaching, and laying the foundation of a literature by a translation of the Scriptures. How early Christianity had found acceptance among the Goths, is proved by the presence of a Gothic bishop at the