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INDEX.

Abdication, Diocletian's and Maximum's,
unprecedented under the empire, iii.
665

Abgarus's letter to Jesus Christ, iii. 151

Abraham's wanderings traced, i. 61;
repulse of the four confederate kings,
207

Ab-ratn and Ab-raham, significations of,
i. 64

Abrutum, battle of, iii. 622

Academic school of philosophy, ii. 128

Acarnanis, i. 357

Achaean league, rise of, ii. 113; the first
development of federalism, i. 328

Achsemenidse, dynasty of, i. 267

Achaia, Roman province of, ii. 518

Actium, plan of, iii. 293 ; description of
the battle, 295; effects of the victory on
the laws, languages, manners, and in-
stitutions of Europe, 2'j6 ; the epoch of
the Ml of the Republic, ib.

Mg\n:\, war with Athens, i. 40; sea- fi. lit
off, 461

.ffginetan standard of weights and mea-
sures, i. 331

JE,'inetans, Med ism of the, i. 384

.aimiliuij Paulus Macedonicus (L.\ cha-
racter of, ii. 507; triumph and death,
515

.fineas's landing place near Carthage, ii.
367; and Evander, source of the legends
of, 169

.Squians finally subdued, ii. 299; and
Volscians, wars of Home with, 259

Machines, character of, ii. 23

.Sschylus at Marathon, i. 387 ; the real
founder of tragedy, 475 ; a combatant at
Salamis, ib.; defeated by Sophocles,
476

Aetius, general of Valentinian III., iii.
73*5; kills Bonifacius in a duel, t'6.;
protects Italy from the Vandals, Bur-
gundians, and Goths, 742; commands
the Roman army in the victory of Cha-
lons, 743 ; sole defender of the empire,
744; victim of the jealousy of Valen-
tinian, ib.

.Etolia, i. 357

.Xb.lian league, ii. 115

Afranius (L.), successor of Terence, ii. 568

Africa, circumnavigation of, i. 133; mar>,
illustrating Koman campaigns in, ii.
359; (central), ancient knowledge of,
399; Roman province of, 533; the name
unknown to the early Greeks, ib.

Africa, Vicar of, iii. 708 ; conquered by
the Vandals, 736; Vandal kiugdora. of,
737

Agathocler, autocrat of Syracuse, ii. 119;
war with the Carthaginians, 120; mas-
sacre of the citizens of Gela, ib. ; in-
vades Africa, 121

Ager publicus explained, ii. 187, iii. .10

Ager Romanns, the original, ii. 187

Agesilaus, expeditious of, i. 533

Agglutination in the formation of lan-
guages, i. 54

Agis declares war against Antipater, ii. 91;
his defeat and death, 95

Agis IV., reforms of, ii. 116

Agrarian laws, misapprehension concerning,
ii. 236; law of FUminius, 419

Agricola's conquest of Britain, iii. 470; lis
seven campaigns, 473 ; erect* fort* from
the Tyne to Sol way Firth, i'6.; between
the Firths of Clyde and Forth, ib.;
recalled by Domitian, 474

Agrippa Postumus murdered, iii. 825

Agrippa (M. Vipsanius), character of, iii.
268; ledileship, 289

Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, iii. 870

Agrippina (mother of Nero), murder of, iii.
415 ; her last words, t'6.

Ahasuerus identified with Xerxes, i. 431,
iii. 164

Akiba (Rabbi), legends concerning, iii. 5S5

Alani, Scythian mountaineers, iii. 518,
738; with the Vandals in Spain, 734

Alaric, accession of, iii. 723; wastes the
whole of Greece, 730; appointed Duke
of Illyricnm by Arcadius, ib. ; lays siego
to Rome, 733 ; accepts a ransom, t'6.;
made master-general of tho westeni
armies, ib.; his death, 734; buried
beneath the bed of the Basentius, t'6.

Alban lake drained, ii. 256

Alban (St.), a pagan of Verularaium, tra-
dition respecting, iii. 678 ; the prutu-
martyr of Kngland, t'6.
Albinus vL.), piety of, ii. 2C7

Albums (A.), capitulation of, iii. 55
Albinus, governor of Judaea, iii. 559
Alcreus, the poet, i. 342 ; and Sappho, 371
Alchemy, hiBtory of, iii, 658
Alcibiades, character of, i. 512; relation-
ship to Pericles, 513; "a lion's whelp
in the city," ib.; intercourse with
Socrates, ib.; twice crowned at the
Olympic games, 515; condemned to
death, 520; goes to Lacedsmon, ib.;
short-lived popularity at Sparta, 525;
recalled to Athens, 527 ; triumphant re-
turn, 523; second exile of, 530; death,
532
AlcmasDnida) (the), accursed, i. 489 ; and

Cylon, i. 345
Alemanni, origin of the name, iii. 624;
advance to Ravenna, ib. ; defeated by
Aurelian, to., 634
Alexander -Xgus, son of Alexander and
Roxana, ii. 84 ; Alexander .ffigus and
Roxana murdered by Cassander, ii. 83
Alexander the Great, his birth on the day
of the burning of the temple of Diana at
Ephesus, ii. 10; fiery courage at Chse-
ronea, 29 ; his character thoroughly bar-
barian, 33; fondness for the Iliad, ib.;
distinguished from Pisistratus and Csesar,
34; oriental character of his despotism,
ib. ; probably implicated in the murder
of his father, 35 ; recognised as the head
of the Greek nation, 36; appointed
generalissimo for the Persian war, ii>.;
estimate of his force for invading Asia,
45; hurls his spear to the Asiatic shore,
47; his personal prowess, 49; confi-
dence in his physician Philip, 54 ; de-
struction of the Persian army, 56 ; treat-
ment of the mother aud wife of Darius,
67 ; takes Damascus, ib. ; letter from
Darius and answer, 58; cruelty, in
imitation of Achilles, 60; conquest of
Egypt, 81 ; visits Jerusalem, ib.; son of
Jupiter Ammon, 62 ; founds Alexandria,
ib.; passage of the Euphrates and Tigris,
63; consummate generalship, 65; cap-
tures Persepolis, 67 ; policy of treating
the orientals as subjects, ib. ; never re-
visits the countries west of the Eu-
phrates, 68 ; pursuit of Bessus, 69;
barbarian elements in his character de-
veloped, 70 ; passes the Indian Cauca-
sus, 71 ; cruelty to Bessus, ib. ; murders
Clitus, 73 ; hatred of citizenship and
free speech, 74 ; march through Cabul,
ib. ; at the Uyphasis, 75; conquest of
Porus, ib. ; refusal of his troops to pro-
ceed further, ib.; erects altars at the
Hyphasis, 76; instance of his daring
courage, ib; voyage down the Indus, ib.;
march through the desert of Gedrosia,
77; self-denial, ib. ; assumes the state
of the Great King, 78; return to Baby-
lon, 79; warning of the Chaldean sooth-
sayers, ib.; vast projects, ib. brought

Alexander the Great—continued.

the East within the sphere of civilisation,
81 ; his dying words and death, 82, and
i. 240; funeral obsequies, ii. 83; divi-
sion of the provinces among his generals,
to.; his surviving relations murdered,
88.
Alexander of Epirus, Roman alliance with,

ii. 289 ; defeated at Pandosia, 290
Alexander Severus, character of, iii. 610;

death, 614
Alexandra, queen of Jndsca, iii. 174
Alexandria, founded by Alexander, ii.

62; decrease of its population, iii. 629
Alexandrine war of Gaasar, iii. 241
Allectus assumes the purple in Britain, iii.
657; defeated by Asclepiodotus, ib.;
killed in a battle near London, ii.
Allia, battle of the, ii. 265
Allied states, their relation to Rome, ii.

330
Allies (Roman), revolt of the, iii. 89; en-
franchised, 93
Alp, meaning of the word, ii. 133
Alphabets, Attic and Ionic, i. 533
Alva's cruelties in the Netherlands, iii.

677
Alyattes, King of Lydia, i. 257; description

of his tomb, ib.
Amasis, reign of, i. 135; details of his

private lire, 136 ; and Polyeratest, 137
Amazig dialects, ii. 389
Ambition, origin of the word, ii. 563
Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, iii. 725; bis
struggle with the Ariana, 726; his
"pious fraud," ib.; imposes public
penance on Tbeodosius, 727
American race, its chief existing type, i.

57
Ammianus Marcellinus, the historian, iii.

717
Amphictyonic council, i. 328; its constitu-
tion, ii. 11
Amphictyonies of Greece, i. 328
Amphipolis, war of, i. 510
Amyclas, "more taciturn than," i. 336
Anacreon of Teos, i. 371
Ananel, high-priest of the Jews, iii. 532
Ananus, high-priest in the war with the

Romans, iii. 565
Anaxagoras prosecuted for atheism, i. 484
Anaximander, one of the earliest Greek

prose writers, i. 373
Anaximenes refers the origin of the universe

to air, i. 373
Ancient history, deposition of the last
Augustus at Rome the close of, iii. 720
A urns Martins, ii. 182
Ancyra, monument of, iii. 855
Andalusia = Yandalusia, derives its name

from the Vandals, iii. 734
Andes, the native place of Virgil, iii. 280
Andronicus, Livius, ii. 568
Andro-sphinxes, i. 135
Angles, wide diffusion of the, iii. 339

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Annalis (lex), ii. 5S4

Annus confusionis, iii. 250

Antalcidas, digraceful peace of, i. 549

Anthemius, emperor of the West, iii. 745

Anticatones of Cassar, iii. 247

Antigonus, Alexander's ablest general, ii.
88 and 86; anecdote o{, 87

Antigonus Gonatas, ii. Ill

Antigonus, ruler of Judaea, iii. 180 ; exe-
cuted by order of Antony, 181

Antioch founded, ii. 90; earthquake at, iii.
497 ; Christian church of, 552

Antiochus Soter, ii. 90

Antiochus the Great, ii. 91; war of Rome
with, 489; bis exploits, 491 ; prepara-
tions for war, 493; defeated at Thermo-
pylae, 495

Antiochus IV. Epiphanes, his persecution
of the Jews, ii. 91; curbed by the
Romans, 510; called "Epimanes," iii.
150; character by Dr. Milraan, 159;
pollution of the temple, 161 ; horrible
death, 166

Antipater left by Alexander as regent of
Macedonia, ii. 45

Antipater, son of Antipas, iii. 175 ; procu-
rator of Jerusalem, 179

Antium reduced by the Romans, ii. 323

Antoninc Itinerary, iii. 253

Antoninus Pius, bis faultless character, iii.

510 ; vows to put no senator to death,

511 ; character drawn by Marcos Aure-
lius, 512; declines to extend the boun-
daries of the empire, 513

Antony (Mark), master of the horse to
Ciesar, iii. 243 ; conduct on the assassi-
nation of Ciesar, 263 ; master of Rome,
265; marries Octavia, 281 ; defeated in
Farthia, 287 ; assumes the state of an.
oriental monarch, 288; orgies with
Cleopatra at Samoa, 290; his will, 291;
divorces Octavia, ib.; description of his
fleet at Actium, 295 ; suicide and cha-
racter, 299

Apicius, gourmands of the name, iii. 373

Apis (the Egyptian), i. 287

Apollo, weeping statue of the Cumeean, ii.
551

Apologists, early Christian, iii. 597

Appius Claudius Ciecus compared to Chat-
ham, ii. 315

Applause in churches, custom of, iii. 689

Appuleian laws, iii. 84

Aqua Marcia, the great aqueduct, ii. 556

Aqueducts, stupendous ancient, ii. 376;
Roman, 557

Aquillius l.M') defeats the slaves in the
servile war, iii. 80 ; gold poured down
bis throat by Mithridates, 107 and
213

Aquitani, the, iii. 74

Arab government a relic of the patriarchal
system, i. 29

Arabia Petnoa first acquires historical im-
portance, iii. 152

Aramaean dialects, eastern and western, i.
51

Aratus, general of the Achtean league, ii.
115

Arbela, battle of, described, it 65 ; enor-
mous number of the slain, 66

Arbogastes, the Frank, usurpation and
suicide of, iii. 729

Arcadia, constitution of, i. 559

Arcadius and Honorius, division of the
empire between, iii. 729

Archdeacon, original meaning of the term,
iii. 693

Arohelaus, othnarch of Judaea, bis cruelties,
iii. 640

Archias, Cicero's oration for, iii. 136

Archilochus of Paros, i. 372

Archimedes, ship built by, ii. 403; defends
Syracuse, 457 ; mathematical discoveries,
ii.; treatise 'O ^ap/urns, ib.; discovers
the method of determining specific
gravities, 458 ; ignition by a concave
system of mirrors, ib.; Archimedean
screw, 459; killed at Acbradina, 460;
discovery of his tomb by Cicero, to.

Architects of Athens, chief, i. 471

Architectural terms explained, i. 469

Architecture, its style a test of race, i. 48;
of the Greek heroic ages, 321 ; compari-
son of classic and romantic, 376; ex-
amples of the perfection of Greek, 378;
orders, ib.; Byxantine and Gothic,
iii. 620 ; Roman modifications of Greek,
ib.

Arclions, Eponymua, Basileus, and then-
motbetas, i. 344

Archytas, the philosopher, ii. 307

Ardshir (Artaxerxes), founder of the Sas-
sanid dynasty, iii. 517 and 612; Alex-
ander Severus's victory over, 613

Areius's parody of Homer's praise of
monarchy, iii. 301

Areopagus, senate of the, i. 345

Aretas's war against Herod Antipas, iii.
549; seizes Damascus, ib.

Arginusie, Athenian victory at, i. 530

Argonautic expedition, i. 315

Argos under Pheidon, i. 331

Arian controversy, iii. 690; reduced to the
addition of one letter to a word, 695

Arion, story of, i. 341

Aristagoras, revolt of, i. 382

Aristides, ostracism of, i. 355 ; character,
402; death, 450; and Themistocles
contrasted, 448

Aristobulus I., atrocities of, iii. 173

Aristoliulus II., king of Judioa, iii. 175

Aristocracy, Roman, ii. 555

Aristodemus devotes his daughter to death,
i. 336

Aristodemus, the one snrvivor of Thermo-
pylae his disgrace and glorious death, i.
418

Aristomenes, leader of the Messenians, i.
Aristonicus, war with, ii. 551

Aristophanes, i. 476; masterly criticism
of the tragedians in the *' Frogs," 530;
his influence and value misunderstood,
505; beauties of, to. ; the "Knights,"
506

Aristotle's tuition of Alexander, ii. 33

Alius, heresy of, iii. 690 ; embodied his
doctrines in songs, ib. ; his condemna-
tion, 695; anathematised by the Coun-
cil of Nice, ib. ; banished to Illyricum,
ib.

Ark's (the), adaptation to its use explained,
i. 24

Armada (Spanish), effects of its destruction
on the liberties of the world, i. 429

Armenia, distribution of the human race
from, i. 37; religion and government,
iii. 144; Proper and Minor, ib.; its
acme under Tigranes, 145; becomes a
Roman province, 498

Arminius, a Latin form of Hermann, iii.
350; organises a conspiracy against
Rome, to. ; interview with his brother,
3*55 ; murdered, 368; the liberator of
Germany, to.; divine honours paid to
him for centuries, ib.; traces of his
worship among the Angles, ib.

Armoric, meaning of, iii. 216

Arnold's (Dr.) observation on Sp. Cassins,
ii. 234

Arpinum, birthplace of Marius and Cicero,
iii. 60

Arretium, Romans defeated at, ii. 305

Arsaees, founder of the Parthian empire
on the Tigris, ii. 412

Art, perfect works of Greek, i. 376;
(Grecian), origin and growth of, 377

Artaxata, Lucullus's victory at, i. 146

Artemis at Ephesus, burning of ber temple,
ii. 10

Artemisia, queen of Carta, i. 277; her
advice to Xerxes, i. 422

Asculum, victory of Pyrrhus at, ii. 317

Arya = noble, i. 259

Aryan family of languages, table of, i.
43

Aryans, seat of the, i. 37 ; meaning of the
appellation, ib.; the name given4o the
Medes by Herodotus, 246; their first
appearance in history, 259

Assidieans, sect of the, iii. 164; the parents
of the Pharisaic sect, 172

Ashmon, the Punic JEsculapius, ii. 884

Ashtoreth, the Phoenician queen of heaven,
ii. 383

Asia, Greek colonies in, i. 325; its gains
from Alexander's conquest, ii. 43;
Roman province of, 552

Asia Minor in a physical and ethnical point
of view, i. 251

Asiatic despotisms, reflections on the great,
i. 297

Asinius Gallus, Tiberius's vengeance on,
iii. 861

Asmonsean (princes), origin of the

iii. 164; kingdom, 173; end of the
dynasty, 181

Aspasia's constancy to Pericles, i. 491

Assyria, extension of the name, L 21'2;
two great periods in its history, 214;
its relation to the Holy Land, 21S;
Egyptian influence on the arts of, 221;
rapid decline of, 223

Assyrian monarchy, the great, i. 212;
sculptures, their characteristics, 217;
civilization, 227

Astarte or Ashtoreth, worship of, ii. 354;
abominations of her worship, 384

Astrologers and soothsayers banished from
Rome, iii. 289

Astyages, reign of, i. 259

Atellanse fabulas, ii. 334

Athanasian creed, not found among Atha-
nasius's writings, iii. 714; probably a
production of the fifth century, ib.

Atbanasins, anecdote of his boyhood, iii.
693; succeeds Alexander as Bishop of
Alexandria, ib. ; a Copt, or pure Egyp-
tian, ib. ; an archdeacon, at the Council
of Nice, ib. ; banished by Constants,
713 ; driven from his see by force, ii.;
successive depositions and restorations,
ib. ; Athanasius contra mundum, 714

Athaulf (or Adolphus), the Goth, a Bo-
man general, iii. 734

Athena contends with Poseidon, i. 343

Athenagoras the apologist, iii. 597

Athenion, leader in the servile war, iii. 79

Athens, intellectual supremacy of, i. 343;
legislation of Solon, 345 ; compelled to
become a maritime power, 401 ; aban-
donment of, before Xerxes, 409; de-
stroyed by him, 421; fortification ■ t,
445; its maritime empire, 457 ; great-
ness at the most brilliant period of its
history, 464; the centre of the intel-
lectual life of Greece, 466; map ef its
environs, 46S; its condition in tbe aje
of Pericles, 484; surrendered to the
Spartans, 531 ; demolition of the forni-
cations, ib. ; the university of the world,
532; restoration of the democracy, 534;
revolts to Mithridates, iii. 10S; capture
anil massacre by Sulla, 109; renovated
by Hadrian, 506; named Hadrianopolis,
ib.

Athens, harbours of, i. 423

Athens and Sparta, commencement of their
rivalry, i. 355 ; defiance of Darius, S;3

Atheuian classes according to wealth, the
four, i. 348; taxation, ib. ; monuments
modern misplaced copies of, 469; sculp-
tures in the British Museum, 476

Athenians at Marathon the champions of
tbe world, i. 896; their personal vd
political profligacy, 4S5; th< ir disas-
trous retreat from Syracuse, 523

Athos cut through by Xerxes, i. 404

Atlantis, Plato's legend of, ii. 35S

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Attains (king of Pergamus), bequest of his
kingdom to the Romans, ii. 91, 280, 550

Attalus accepted by the Senate as emperor,
iii. 733

Attic drama, i. 473 ; orators, ten, ii. 128

Attica abandoned before Xerxes, i. 419

Atticus (T. Pompouius), his intimacy with
Cicero, iii. 137; employment of slaves
in copying manuscripts, 138; philoso-
phical ib uili, iii.

Attila, his style and titles, iii. 710; hideous
visage, ib. ; not of the vulvar herd of
barbaric conquerors, 741 ; bis habit of
relying on negociation as well as war, ib.;
his proper kingdom, ib.; advance in
three bodies, 742 : defeat and death,
743 ; his power exaggerated, 739

Attus Navius, legend of, ii. 190

Augsburg, foundation of, iii. 331

Augurs, college of, ii. 165

Augusta Pretoria, colony of, iii. 312

Augustal prefect, iii. 708

Augustan harbour at the mouth of the
Tiber, iii. 400

Augusti, first instance of two, iii. 516

Augustine, bishop of Hippo, 736

Augustine's mission to England not the
first introduction of Christianity there,
iii. 600

Augustulus (Romulus), last emperor of the
West, iii. <46

Augustus, Octavian receives the title
of, iii. 311; invested with the tribu-
nitian power, 313; his three mar-
riages, 324: chief pontiff, 332; Pater
Patriae, 345; affliction on the loss of
Varus and his legions, 353 ; his record
of bis career, 354; death at Nola, 357;
injunction not to extend the empire [see
Octavius and Octavian], 3'JO

Aurasio (Orange), the Ciuibri defeat the
Romans at, iii. 72

Aurelian, restorer of the state, iii. 624;
designated by Claudius as his successor,
631; his exploits, 632; discipline the
secret of his military success, 633; con-
cludes peace with the Goths, 634; de-
stroys the Alemanni, ib. ; builds a new
wall about Rome, 635; massacres the
Palmyrenes, 638; triumph, ti'S'J; his
native cruelty, 640; murdered, ii.

Aurelius, Marcus, associated in the empire
by Antoniuus Pius, iii. 511 ; sole em-
peror, 514 ; his ancestry, 515; "Medi-
tatious," 516 ; his epithet of Verissimus,
Hi ; bis reign marks the beginuing of
Rome's decline, 517 ; column of, ;>20;
his death hastened by Commodus, 522

Autochthones of Attica, i. 343

Autonomy. Greek, i. 544

Avidius Cassius's success against the Par-
tbians, iii. 517; conspiracy and death,
521

Avitus, the emperor, iii. 744

Baal, human sacrifices to, ii. 381 ; wor-
shipped at Carth ige, ib. ; astronomical
character of his worship, 383 ; identified
by the Greeks with Cronus, ib.; temple
at Carthage, ib.

Babel, site of the tower of, i. 32

Babrius's iEsop, i. 372

Babylon, description of, i. 231 ; dimensions
of the walls, ib.; writers on its topo-
graphy, ib.; hanging gardens, 232;
taken by Cyrus, 237 ; description of its
ruins, 241; key to the symbolic use of
the name, 243

Babylonian system of notation, i. 195;
chronology, 196

Babylonians distinct from the Assyrians, i.
193

Bacchus at Rome, worship of, ii. 567

Bactria, great kingdom of, ii. 91

Baga.udaj in Gaul, insurrection of, iii. 650.

Balbinus and Maximus, emperors, iii. 615

Bullot manipulated in Rome, iii. 199;
Cicero on the, ii. 562; and bribery,
Roman laws of, 563

Barca, meaning of the name, ii. 412

Barcine kingdom in Spain, ii. 425

Base coin at Rome, proposal to circulate,
iii. 88

Basilica, reason of the term applied to
churches, iii. 316

Basilica;, Christian, described, iii. 689

Basque or Biscayiin language, ii. 451; its
relationship to Finnish, 452

Basques, descendants of the anoient Ibe-
rians, ii. 451

Bassianus (father of Severus), table of em-
perors descended from, iii. 608.

Battering-ram and testudo, Egyptian, i.
120

Battus, founder of Cyrene, i. 365

Bede's account of tho martyrdom of Chris-
tians under Constantius, exaggerated,
iii. 677

Bediiacum, battle of, iii. 436

Behistun inscription described, i. 298

Bel, symbols of the god, i. 199

Belgoe reduced by Ctesar, iii. 219

Helisarius, victories of, iii. 737

Belshazzar's feast, i. 236

Beneventum, Pyrrhus defeated at, ii. 321

Berosns's mythical history of Babylon or
Chaldaaa, i. 194; mythical dynasties,
195; historical truth in his annals, i.
197

Bessus murders Darius, ii. 69 ; mutilated
by order of Alexander, 71

Bibulus (M. Calpurnius), his consulship
with C&sar, iii. 201; commands the
Pompeian fleet, his savage cruelties, 228

Birs-Nimrud, at Borsippa, i. 200

Bissextilis (annus), iii. 249.

Blsosius, Julius, commands against Tac-
farinas, iii. 3 TO.

Black-letter (German), introduced by UU
philas, iii. 724

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