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Attalus (king of Pergamus), bequest of his

kingdom to the Romans, ii. 91, 280, 550
Attalus accepted by the Senate as emperor,

iii. 733
Attic drama, i. 473; orators, ten, ii, 128
Attica a bandoned before Xerxes, i. 419
Atticus (T. Pomponius), his intimacy with

Cicero, iii. 137 ; employment of slaves
in copying manuscripts, 138 ; philoso-

phical death, ib.
Attila, his style and titles, iii, 740; hideous

visage, ib. ; not of the vulgar herd of
barbaric conquerors, 741 ; his habit of
relying on negociation as well as war, ib.;
his proper kingdom, ib. ; advance in
three bodies, 742 ; defeat and death,

743 ; his power exaggerated, 739
Attus Navius, legend of, ii. 190
Augsburg, foundation of, iii. 331
Augurs, college of, ii. 165
Augusta Prætoria, colony of, iii. 312
Augustal prefect, iii. 708
Augustan harbour at the mouth of the

Tiber, iii. 400
Augusti, first instance of two, iii. 516
Augustine, bishop of Hippo, 736
Augustine's mission to England not the

first introduction of Christianity there,

iii. 600
Augustulus (Romulus), last emperor of the

West, iii. 746
Augustus, Octavian receives the title

of, iii. 311; invested with the tribu-
nitian power, 313; his three mar-
riages, 324; chief pontiff, 332; Pater
Patriæ, 345; affliction on the loss of
Varus and his legions, 353; his record
of his career, 354; death at Nola, 357;
injunction not to extend the empire (see

Octavius and Octavian), 360
Aurasio (Orange), the Cimbri defeat the

Romans at, iii. 72
Aurelian, restorer of the state, iii. 624;

designated by Claudius as his successor,
631 ; his exploits, 632 ; discipline the
secret of his military success, 633 ; con-
cludes peace with the Goths, 634 ; de.
stroys the Alemanni, ib. ; builds a new
wall about Rome, 635; massacres the
Palmyrenes, 638 ; triumph, 639; his

native cruelty, 640; murdered, ib.
Aurelius, Marcus, associated in the empire

by Antoninus Pius, iii. 511 ; sole em-
peror, 514 ; his ancestry, 515; “Medi-
iations," 516 ; his epithet of Verissimus,
ib. ; his reign marks the beginning of
Rome's decline, 517; column of, 620;

his death hastened by Commodus, 522
Autochthopes of Attica, i. 343
Autonomy, Greek, i. 544
Avidius Cassius's success against the Par-

tbians, iii, 517; conspiracy and death,

521
Avitus, the emperor, iii. 744

Baar, human sacrifices to, ii. 381 ; wor-

shipped at Carthige, ib. ; astronomical
character of his worship, 383; identified
by the Greeks with Cronus, ib. ; temple

at Carthage, ib.
Babel, site of the tower of, i. 32
Babrius's Æsop, i. 372
Babylon, description of, i. 231 ; dimensions

of the walls, ib. ; writers on its topo-
graphy, ib.; hanging gardens, 232 ;
taken by Cyrus, 237 ; description of its
ruins, 241; key to the symbolic use of

the name, 243
Babylonian system of notation, i. 195;

chronology, 196
Babylonians distinct from the Assyrians, i.

193
Bacchus at Rome, worship of, ii, 567
Bactria, great kingdom of, ii. 91
Bagaudæ in Gaul, insurrection of, iii. 650.
Balbinus and Maximus, emperors, iii. 615
Ballot manipulated in Rome, iii. 199;

Cicero on the, ii. 562 ; and bribery,

Roman laws of, 563
Barca, meaning of the name, ii. 412
Barcine kingdom in Spain, ii. 425
Base coin at Rome, proposal to circulate,

iii. 88
Basilica, reason of the term applied to

churches, iii. 316
Basilica, Christian, described, iii. 689
Basque or Biscayan language, ii. 451; its

relationship to Finnish, 452
Basques, descendants of the ancient Ibe-

rians, ii. 451
Bassianus (father of Severus), table of em-

perors descended from, iii. 608.
Battering-ram and testudo, Egyptian, i.

120
Battus, founder of Cyrene, i. 365
Bede's account of the martyrdom of Chris-

tians under Constantius, exaggerated,

iii. 677
Bedriacum, battle of, iii. 436
Behistun inscription described, i. 298
Bel, symbols of the god, i, 199
Belgæ reduced by Caesar, iii. 219
Belisarius, victories of, iii. 737
Belshazzar's feast, i. 236
Beneventum, Pyrrhus defeated at, ii. 321
Berosus's mythical history of Babylon or

Chaldæa, i. 194; mythical dynasties,
195 ; historical truth in his annals, i.

197
Bessus murders Darius, ii. 69 ; mutilated

by order of Alexander, 71
Bibulus (M. Calpurnius), his consulship

with Cæsar, iii. 201 ; commands the

Pompeian fleet, bis savage cruelties, 228
Birs-Nimrud, at Borsippa, i. 200
Bissextilis (annus), iji. 249.
Blasius, Julius, commands against Tac-

farinas, iii. 370.
Black-letter (German), introduced by Ul.
philas, iii. 724

30

VOL. III.

Byzantium chosen by Constantine as the

seat of empire, üi. 686 ; resemblance of
its site to Carthage, 701

Blemmyes, Æthiopian tribe of, iii. 644
Boadicea, revolt of, iii. 471
Bocchoris the Wise, i. 126
Bocchus's (King) relations with Jugurtha

and the Romans, iii. 63; betrays Jugur-

tha to the Romans, 65
Boeotia, Phænician colonization of, i. 311;

a common battle-field of the states of
Greece, 463
Baotian league, i. 356; confederacy, ii, 505
Bæotians, conjecture respecting their stolid

obstinacy, i. 311
Boii, subjugation of the, ii. 536; their name

retained in Bohemia, iii. 347
Bomilcar, conspiracy of, iii. 359
Bona Dea, mysteries of the, iii. 196
Bonaparte and Hannibal, parallel between,

ii. 474
Bonaparte, Charles Louis, declining the title

of emperur, iii. 256
Bonifacius, last Roman general in Africa,

iii. 736, killed in a duel by Aëtius, ib.
Borderers, troops stationed on the frontiers,

iii. 709
Boriæ and Thoriæ (leges), iii, 42
Borsippa, remains of Birs-Nimrud at, i. 200
Bosphorus, a corruption of Bosporus, iii.

700
Bosporus, kingdom of, iii. 104
Bosporus, topography of the, iii. 700
Brasidas, campaigns of, i. 510
Breaking the line, Roman example of, ii.

407
Brennus not a proper name, ii. 267
Bricks and brickmakers, Egyptian, i. 104
Britain, Cæsar's invasions of, iii. 217; ear-

liest history of, 393; final conquest
of, 469; few Romans in the Roman
legions in, 732; absolved from its alle-

giance by Honorius, 734
Britanniarum Vicarius, iii, 709
Britannicus poisoned by Nero, iii. 412
British Islands, early names of the, ii. 357;

coins, ancient gold, iii. 394
Britons, massacre of, iii. 472
Brundisium, treaty of, the end of the Ro.

man civil wars, iii. 281
Brutus (L. Junius), story of his fulfilling an

oracle, ii. 211"
Brutus (M. Junius), appointed proconsul of

Gaul by Cæsar, iii. 243; pardoned by
Cæsar, 235; character of, 257 ; legend
of his evil genius at Philippi, 277 ; sui-

cide, 278
Brutus (Decimus), named in Cæsar's will,

iii. 264 ; governor of Cisalpine Gaul,
268 ; besieged in Mutina, 271 ; death,
273; the most able general of the Re-

publican party, 274
Bucephalus, the horse of Alexander, ii, 33
Bull, legend of the Samnite, ii. 282
Burgundians first appear as a formidable

people, iii. 720
Burrus's freedom of speech with Nero, iii.

CABALA and Masora of the Jews, iii. 583
Cadiz, Phænician origin of the name, i. 357
Cæcilia Didia, lex, iii. 86
Cæcilius (Q.), predecessor of Terence, ii. 563
Cæpio defeated by the Cimbri, iii. 73
Cesar (C. Julius), quality distinguishing

him from Alexander, ii. 34 ; his birth,
iii. 80, 134 ; proscribed by Sulla, 134;
“many Mariuses in him," ib. ; captured
by pirates and ransomed, ib. ; vengeance
on them, 135; restores the statues of
Marius, ib. ; announcement of his victory
at Zela, “veni, vidi, vici,” 150; cha-
racter by Niebuhr, 182 ; probability op-
posed to his participation in the Catilina-
rian conspiracy, 191; speech on the con-
spiracy in Sallust, ib. ; suspended from
the prætorship, 195 ; obtains the pro-
vince of Further Spain, 196; elected
consul, 201 ; remark on writing the life
of Cæsar, 203; first of his five consul-
ships, 204 ; his agrarian law, ib. ; Com.
mentaries, 205 ; seven brilliant cam-
paigns beyond the Alps, 216; sails from
Portus Itius, 217; second invasion of
Britain, ib. ; expression on crossing the
Rubicon, 223; proposal of an accommo-
dation with Pompey, 224 ; master of
Italy, 226 ; clemency, ib. ; first dictator.
ship, 227; pursuit of Pompey, 228 ;
proposals for peace, 229; clemency after
the battle of Pbarsalia, 235; pardons
Brutus, ib. ; pursues Pompey to Egypt,
239; escapes by swimming from Pharos,
240; injurious effects on his character
of his connection with Cleopatra, 241;
damed dictator for a whole year, 243 ;
invested with the tribunitian power for
life, ib. ; four-fold triumph, 248; die-
tator for ten years and Præfectus Morum,
ib. ; reformation of the calendar, 249;
master of the world, 251 ; invested with
the title of Imperator for life, and Parens
Patriæ, ib. ; his vast reforms and pro-
jects, 252 ; judicial reforms, 253; as-
pires to the crown, 255; refusal of the
diadem, 256; the Ides of March, 258;
assassinated, 259; his transcendent
practical genius, ib.; the most perfect
specimen of human ability, ib. ; unrar.
alleled intellectual energy, ib. ; character
drawn by Cicero and Pliny, ib. ; moral
qualities, 200; his real greatness used
to cast a halo over political crimes, ib. ;
his will, 262 ; legacy of 300 sesterces to
every citizen, 264 ; obsequies, ib.; fuue-
ral oration by Antony, ib. ; the Julian
star, 268; Divus Julius, ib. ; estinctiva

of his family, 431
Cæsars (the Six), genealogy of, ii. 327.

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71

Cæsarea, the Roman capital of Judæa, iii., Caracalla-continued.

Edessa by Martialis, 608; extended the
Cæsarea Philippi, site of, iii. 541

Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants
Cæsarion recognised as Cæsar's son, iii. 254; of the empire, ib.
killed by order of Octavian, 301

Caractacus's war with the Romans, iii.
Caius Cæsar, the emperor (see Caligula), 396 ; brought to Rome in cbains, 397
iii. 382

Carausius, Count of the Saxon coast, iii.
Caledonians overthrown hy Agricola, jii. 651; Roman emperor in Britain, ib.;

474 ; repulsed by Ulpius Marcellus, 524 acknowledged by Diocletian and Maxi-
Calendar, Numa's regulation of the, ii. 166; mian, ib. ; murdered by Allectus, 657

Julius Cæsar's reform of, 168, i. 249 Carbo, the consul, defeated at Noreia, iii.
Caligula (Caius Cæsar), origin of the nick

Dame, iii. 382; profusion on his acces Carian princes, dynasty of, ii. 9
sion, 383; mental and moral weakness, Caricature, essential spirit of, i. 505
ib. ; puts the younger Tiberius to death, Carinus and Numerian, emperors, üi. 645 ;
384 ; wishes the Roman people had but death of Carinus, 646
one neck, ib. ; incest with Drusilla, 385; / Carmen Sæculare, iii. 328
claim to divinity, ib. ; public works, 386; 1 Carneades, his declamations for and against
mock German triumph, 387; assassinated, justice, ii. 515
389; his mad reception of the envoys of Carrhæ, battle of, iii. 211

Alexandrian Jews and Greeks, 550 Carthage, treaty with, made in the first
Callias, convention of, i. 453 ; peace of, year of the Roman Republic, ii. 209;
557

key to the history of, 363; foundation
Callicrates, treason of, ii. 513

of, ib.; etymology of the name, ib. ; why
Callimachus the polemarch's decision to en called the new city, ib. ; present state

gage the Persians at Marathon, i. 3J2 of its site, 364 ; Virgil's description of
Callisthenes, the philosopher, ii. 73

the approach to, 365 ; landing place of
Calpe (Gibraltar), etymology of, ii. 356 Æneas, 367.; topography of, ib. ; Ro-
Calpurnia, dream of Cæsar's wife, iii. 258 man Carthage, 368, 370 ; measurements
Calpurnius Piso's plot against Nero, iii. 422 of fortifications, 369 ; harbours, ib. ;
Calvinus defeated by Pharnaces, iii. 241 political constitution, 371, 379; the
Cambyses, extent of his empire, i. 284; his Roman city destroyed by the Arabs,

cruelty, 285; loss of his army in the 372; locality of the Byrsa, 373 ; great
desert, 286; slaughters the Apis, 287; aqueduct and cisterns, 374 ; population,
murder of his brother Smerdis, ib. ; re 378; excavations at, ib. ; Carthaginian
markable death, 288

art, 379; human sacrifices, 382 ; tra-
Camillus (M. Furius), undermines Veii, ii. ditions of the foundation of the city,
256 ; victory over the Gauls, 267

388; early Roman treaties with, 392 ;
Campagna of Rome described, ü. 151

Phænician cities subjected to, ib. ; great
Camulodunum, Roman colony of, iii. 394 ; epoch of Carthaginian advancement, 393;

the military base of the Romans in Bri wars in Sicily, 395; the best example of
tain, 397

a Semitic state, 396 ; council of elders,
Canaan, the native name of Phænicia, ii. ib. ; an oligarchy, 398 ; power of capi-
344

tal conspicuous at, 399; immense wealth,
Canal between the Mediterranean and Red ib. ; fatal error of the Carthaginians,
Sea, Neko's, i. 134

400 ; constitution of the army, 401;
Candaules and Gyges, story of, i. 253

terids of peace with, 414 ; aggrandise-
Candidate, origin of the word, ii. 563

ment, its only self-defence, 426 ; terms
Canne, remark on the rings of the knights of peace granted to, 477 ; recovery of

at, ii. 401; the battle, 439; engraved prosperity after the second Punic war,
plan of it, ii. 440

520 ; war declared against, 523; man-
Canon of the New Testament adopted, iii. date of the Roman senate that Carthage
600

should be destroyed, 524; frenzy of the
Capital charge (Roman), import of the inhabitants, ib.; siege, 525; Scipio
term, iii. 28

builds a wall across the isthmus, 528;
Capitol founded, ii. 192; burnt, iii. 114, 443 port blocked up by a mole of stone, ib. ;
Capreæ described, iii. 375

destruction of its last navy, 529; famine
Capsa taken by Marius, iü. 65

and disease, 530; Hasdrubal's submis-
Capua, debasement of, ii. 283 ; exaggera sion, 531 ; conflagration for fourteen

tion by rhetorical historians respecting days, ib. ; Cæsar's plan for colonising,
Hannibal, at, 446 ; reduced by the Ro- | ii. 252
mans, 462

Carthage (New), founded, ii. 395 ; cap-
Caracalla, a nickname given to Bassianus, tured, 467

iii. 606 ; bis tyranny, 607; the common Carthaginians, their human sacrifices, ii.
enemy of mankind, ib. ; murdered at 123; renewed treaty of peace with, 324
" Carthago, delenda est," ii. 522

| Central fact in the history of the world,
Carus, the emperor, iii. 644 ; Persian em. great, iii. 537

bassy to, 665; mysterious death, ib. Centuriata, Comitia, ii. 201
Casca strikes the first blow at Cæsar, iii. Centuries and classes, table of the Roman,
258

ii. 200
Cassander, master of Macedonia, ii. 87 ; | Cerealis (Petilias), harangue of, iï. 419.
death of, 103

Cerinthus, the Jewish heretic, iii. 592
Cassianus, conqueror of the Germans and Cestius Gallus, governor of Syria, his ad.
saviour of Gaul, iii. 624

vance to Jerusalem, iii. 563; flight, 564
Cassids or foot messengers, Persian, i. 386 Cethegus (C. Cornelius), custom in his
Cassiterides or tin-islands, ii. 352

family, iii. 186
Cassius, prime mover of the plot against Chaldæa, northern and southern tetrapolis,

Cæsar, iii. 257 ; "last of the Romans," i. 199; four races of, 207
277

Chaldæan race, the, i. 193; its original
Cassius Chærea's conspiracy against Cali seats, 197; astronomical observations,
gula, iii. 389

196; towers (the great), were temples,
Cassivelaunus, the British chief, iii. 218

199; cities sacred to the heavenly bodies,
Castes, an infallible sign of a mixed popu ib.; temple-towers, 201; art and science,
lation, i. 72

209; week, 211
Catacombs of Rome, secret worship of Chaldaeans, three senses of the name, as a

Christians in, iii. 598; inscription re tribe, a nation, and a caste, i. 193 ; skill
lating to the persecution of Marcus Au in pottery and textile fabrics, 210 ;
relius, ib.

arithmetic and astronomy, b.; decimal
Catacombs of Carthage, ii. 377

and sexagesimal scales, 211; astronomi-
Catholic doctrine, standard of, how fixed, cal science, ib.; calculation of a lunar
iii. 692

eclipse, ib.
Catilina (L. Sergius), conspiracy of, iii. Châlons, Attila defeated at, iii, 743; great

182; character, 184; cruelty and pro question decided at, ib.
fligacy, 185 ; appearance in the senate, Chalybes, tradition respecting the, iii. 101
189; speeches of Cæsar and Cato on the Charidemus's advice to Darius, who orders
punishment of the conspirators, 191; his death, iii. 53
death, 193; illegality of the execution Charitable foundations of antiquity, few, iii.
of the conspirators, 194

522
Cato's (Major or the Censor) mission to Charles V. and Diocletian, parallel between,

Carthage, ii. 521; stern Roman virtues, iii. 667
538; saying on official plunder, 556 ; Chatham compared to Appius Claudius
his “three great enemies of the Repub Cæcus, ii. 315
Jic," 560; private life, 561; avarice, ib.; Chatti, their name preserved in Hesse, iii.

"Origines” and “De Re Rustica," ib. 338
Cato's (Uticensis) speech in Sallust on Ca Chedorlaomer, expedition of, i. 63

tiline's conspiracy, iii. 191 ; march China, a glimpse of, iii. 659; wall of
across the desert, 245; in command at (Aggeros Serium), ib. ; history of, ib.
Utica, ib. ; reflections on his suicide, Chios, revolt of, i. 525
246 ; his death the end of the Republic, Chæronea, battle of, the extinction of Gre-
247

cian liberty, ii. 29
Caucasian race, the, i. 52

Choliambic verse, i. 372
Caucasus, Indian, ii. 71

Christ's nativity rather about the Passover
Caudine Forks, victory over the Samnites than Christmas, iii, 537; ministry, 545;
at, ii. 284 ; Roman disaster at, 293

testimony of Tacitus to the historic truth
“Cauneas," an omen to Crassus, iii. 209 of his death, 420
Celtiberian war, ii. 539

Christian era three years later than the
Celtiberians, the, 450

birth of Christ, iii. 345; church, its
Celtic names of places in Britain, ii. 110 foundations laid in the Mosaic law,
Celts (or Gauls), migrations of, ii, 110; 546; religion established by Constan-

land of the, according to Herodotus, tine, 688
260 ; a branch of the Aryan or Indo Christianity, rise of, iii. 529
German race, 260; their characteristics, Christians accused of setting fire to Rome,
according to Thierry, 261 ; their part iii. 420
in the history of the ancient world, 262; Chronology, note on Scripture, i. 10; Ro-

their victories over the Etruscans, 264 man, system of, ii. 163
Censor, office of, ü. 252

Chrysopolis (Scutari), Licinius finally de-
Censorship of Cato, ii. 559

feated at, iji. 686
Census returns, Roman, iii. 11; of the Chrysostom's (Dion) Attic orations, iii. 528

empire under Augustus, 354 ; under Chrysostom (John), the great master of
Claudius, 401

Christian eloquence, iii, 730

[graphic]

tecture, explanation of terms Claudius (Tiberius) - continued.

Britain, 393; to extirpate I
byssinia, supposed founder of motive of it, 396; extends
t, iii. 548

rium, 397; marriage with
inius defeated by Constantine Agrippina, 403 ; murdered by

tolerant edict for the Jews, 55
ullius), birth of, iii. 80; family, Claudius Gothicus (M. Aurelius)
n at Arpinum, 136; stemma of iii. 630; anecdote of his eg
y, ib. ; instructed by Archias, Gothic war of, 631
s Athens, 137; characteristic Cleander, minister of Commodus,
trsuit of his art, 139 ; speech for Cleisthenes, founder of the Ati
Filian law, a fulsome panegyric on mocracy, i. 340; reforms of,

147 ; character and political Solon, their institutions compa
183; Delphic oracle given to him, Clemens personates Agrippa Post
nsulship, 188; corrected dates of

371
tilinarian orations, 189; saluted Clement's Epistles, remains of, ii

as Pater Patrize, 192 ; attacked Cleon, his character by Thucy
Metellus Nepos, 194 ; nicknamed Aristophanes, i. 504; as chief

Cicero, 199; exile and recal, 508; success at Sphacteria, 50
defence of Milo, 215; proconsul of 511
1, 219; joins the Pompeian party, Cleon, leader of the Servile War, i
his jests, 231; return to Italy, Cleonymus of Sparta, ii. 308

pardoned by Cæsar, 243; appro Cleopatra married to her brothe
on of his assassination, 262; wel XII. iii. 237; expelled from i
es Octavianus, 267; Philippics, 269; dom, ib.; captivates Cæsar, 24
nd Philippic his greatest work, 270; Rome at Cæsar's invitation, 2
sacrifice a stain on the memory of to Antony at Tarsus, 279;
gustus, 271.

projects, 290 ; war declared
ri, chief seats of the, iii, 69; their against, 291 ; her death, 301
feats of the Romans, 73; re-enter Italy, the asp, ib.
1; annihilated by Marius, 76

Clepsydra at Rome, ii, 556
bri and Teutones, invasion of the, iii. 48 Clients and patrons, relations of,
abric Chersonese, iii. 69

class of serfs, 172
merians, their geographical position, i. | Clitus saves Alexander's life at t
254; question of their identity with the cus, 49; murdered by him, 73
Cimbri and Cymry, 255

Cloaca maxima, ii. 147 ; its com
imon and Pericles, rivalry of, i. 450

and remains, 192
Simon's campaigns against Persia, i. 451 Clodius's (P.) suspected intrig
Cincinnatus (L. Quinctius), story of, ii. 240 Cæsar's wife, iii. 196 ; trial,
Cinctus Gabinus, ii. 287

complishes the exile of Cicero,
Cineas, minister of Pyrrhus, ii. 314; mis. Milo, factions of, 213; murder

sion to Rome, 315; impression made on Clodius Albinus defeated by Sev
him by Rome, ib.

605
Cinna (L. Cornelius), consulship of, iii. 98; Clovis, forms of the name, iii. 74

his government a despotism, 112 ; Clusium besieged by the Gauls, ii
death, 113

Cniva, king of the Goths, iii. 622
Cinna's conspiracy, Augustus's clemency Codrus, self-devotion of, i. 344
on, iii. 346

Coinage of silver and copper in
Circumcision, institution of, i. 64

331
Circus Maximus, the, ii. 193; games of the, Coins, values of Roman, ii. 327
335

as to their historic evidence, iii
Civilis (Claudius), insurrection of, iii. Coincidence, marvellous, at the

Mycale, i. 442
Civilization, modern, its existence decided Cologne, a Roman colony of Cla
at the battle of Châlons, iii. 743

332
Civitas, abstract and concrete senses of, ii. Colonies, Roman, ii. 323; the pro
161

imperii, 329; Mr. Long on, iii.
Clarissimi and Spectabiles, iii. 708

Colonists, Roman grants of conq
Classes and centuries, Roman, ii. 199

ritory to, üi. 9
Claudian, the poet, iii. 729

Colonization of conquered states,
Claudian aqueduct, iii. 399

system of, i. 356 ; principles
Claudii, family of the, ii. 463

359; great extent of Gree
Claudius (Tiberius) saluted as emperor by Roman system of, ii. 329

the Prætorian guards, iii. 390; character, Colosseum, so called from a colos
391 ; literary works, ib. ; expedition to of Nero, iii. 422

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