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sulate of Caesar—Position of Cicero—Clodius elected Tribune—Cicero's

banishment and recal—Clodius quarrels with Pompey—Biots of Milo and

Clodius—Meeting of the Triumvirs at Lucca—Partition of the Provinces

—Second Consulship of Pompey and Crassus—Dedication of Pompey's

Theatre—Pompey remains at Rome—Crassus departs for Syria—Omens of

disaster—He crosses the Euphrates and retires—Embassy from the Par-

thians—Crassus enters Mesopotamia—Tactics of the Parthians—The battle

of Charrae—Death of the younger Crassus—Retreat to Charrae—Death of

Crassus—Sequel of the Parthiau war—Anarchy at Rome—Murder of Clo-

dius—Pompey sole Consul—Trial of Milo: Speech of Cicero—Pompey

joins the Optimates, and aims to strengthen himself against Csesar—

Prorogation of his command—Caesar's Gallic War—First Campaign: The

Helvetii and Germans—Second campaign : the Belgic tribes—Third cam-

paign: the Armoric nations—Fourth campaign: Caesar crosses the Rhine,

and invades Britain—Fifth campaign : second invasion of Britain : attacks

on the winter quarters of the Romans—Sixth campaign : second passage

of the Rhine—Seventh campaign: revolt of Gaul under Vercingetorix:

Siege and capture of Alesia—Eighth campaign: complete subjection of

Gaul—Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul—Cicero's proconsulate in Cilicia—Mea-

sures of the Senate against Csesar—He is declared a public enemy—Antony

and Cassius fly to Ca-sar's camp—Csesar crosses the Rubicon —The great

Civil War begins—Flight of the Pompcians to Brundisiuni and Greece—

Caesar master of Italy—War in Spain : Defeat of Afranius and Petreius—

Capture of Massilia—Csesar dictator for eleven days—Csesar in Greece:

battle of Pharsalia—Flight of Pompey to Egypt—His death—Caesar in

Egypt—Cleopatra—The Alexandrine war—Cassar in Pontus: Vciii, Vidi,

Vici—His return to Rome—Pardon of Cicero—African war: battle of

Thapsus: siege of Utica: death of Cato—Triumph of Caesar—Reformation

of the Calendar—Insurrection in Spain—Caesar defeats the Pompeians at

Munda—His return to Rome as master of the empire—Dictatorship

for life, and other honours — His gigantic projects — The Conspiracy

against his life—Character of Brutus—The Ides of March—Character

of Caesar—His admirers and imitators. 202—260

CHAPTER XXXVL

The Last Civil War: And The Foundation Of The Empire.From The

Death Of Caesar To The Battle Of Actium—B.c. 44toB.u. 81.

Sequel of Caesar's death—The conspirators and the people—The corpse of

Caesar—Proceedings of Antony—Decision of the Senate—Hollow reconcilia-

tion—Caesar's acts are confirmed and the provinces allotted—Caesar's testa-

ment—Funeral oration of Mark Antony—Fury of the people—Government

of Antony—His use of Caesar's papers — Octavius at Apollonia—His

decision on hearing of Caesar's death—M. Vipsanius Agrippa—Octavius

returns to Italy—Claims his inheritance as C. Julius Caesar Octavianus—

His interview with Cicero—He arrives at Rome—Omens of his greatness

— He courts the Senate and people—His interview with Antony—Octa-

vian discharges Caesar's bequests—His popularity—Apotheosis of Julius

—The Provinces — Cicero's 'Philippics'—Antony leaves Rome—War of

Mutina—Defeat of Antony—Octavian breaks with the Senate, returns to

Rome, and becomes Consul—His coalition with Antony and Lcpidus—

Second Triumvirate—Proscription—Murder of Cicero—Successes of Sextus

Pompeius—The Republicans in the East—Battles of Philippi—Deaths of

Brutus and Cassius—Partition of the Provinces—Antony and Cleopatra—

Confusion in Italy—War of Perusia—The Parthians in Syria—Antony

and Sextus before Brundisium—Reconciliation of the Triumvirs—Peace

with Sextus Pompey at Misenum—Ventidius defeats the Parthians—New

war with Sextus, and defeat of Octavian—Second reconciliation of Octa-

vian and Antony—Treaty of Tarentuui—Agrippa's victory over Sextua

Pompey—Deposition of Lepidus—Death of Sextus—Extinction of the

Senatorial party—Honours heaped upon Octavian—Agrippa and Maecenas

—Antony and Cleopatra in the East—Antony's delutit in Parthia—His

Armenian campaign and triumph at Alexandria—Roman provinces given

to Cleopatra—The Egyptian Court—Octaviau's successful wars in the

Alps—His growing popularity—Final breach with Antony—War declared

BOOK VIII.

THE KOMAN EMPIRE IN ITS GREATNESS ; OR, THE CESARS AND THE

ANTON1NES.

From Augustus To Commodus.B.c. 29 to A.d. 192.

CHAPTER XXXVIL

The Constitution Of The Empire, And The Reion Of Auoustus.

B.C. 29 to A.d. 14.

Octavian the sole ruler of the Roman world — Imperator and Censor for life—

Census of the empire—The dignity of Princeps—He accepts the Impe-

rium for ten years—The provinces of Caesar, and of the Senate and

people—The title of Augustas—The name of Casar—Augustus goes to

Spain—His dangerous illnesses—Question of a successor—He receives the

perpetual tribunitian and consular powers—His legislative and judicial

Junctions—The Emperor not above the laws—The popular assemblies—

State of the Roman people—The Senate and the Eijuites—The Imperial

consuls, praetors, aediles, and quaestors—The prefect of the city—Govern-

ment of the provinces—Military organization—The Praetorian cohorts and

Urban guards—The Legions—The fleet—Finances of the empire—Sum-

mary of the Imperial system—The family of Augustus—Iivia and her step-

sons—Octavia and Marcellus—Death of Marcellus—Marriage of Julia to

Agrippa—Caius and Lucius Caesar, and Agrippa Postumus—Descendants

of Octavia and Antony—Genealogy of the "Six Caesars"—Augustus in the

East—The standards of Crassus recovered—The great Secular games—

Agrippa goes to the East—Augustus in Gaul—Description of the Danubian

regions—Vindelicia and Rhaetia conquered by Tiberius and Drusus—Con-

sulship of Tiberius—Augustus Ponlifex Maximus—Death of Agrippa—

Marriage of Tiberius to Julia—Drusus in Gaul—Account of the Germans

and their land—The four campaigns of Drusus in Germany—His death

and funeral—Conquest of Mcesia—Tiberius in Germany—His retirement

to Rhodes—Banishment of Julia—Advancement and deaths of Caius and

Lucius Caesar—Adoption of Tiberius—His campaigns in Germany and

lllyricmn—Intrigues against Augustus—Exile of Ovid—Catastrophe of

Tarns—Tiberius and Germanicus in Germany—Last days and death of

Augustus 300—357

CHAPTER XXXVIIL

The Degeneracy Of The Cssars; And The Flavian Dynasty.

A.D. 14 to A.d. 96.

Tacitus and the history of the Caesars—Accession, character, and first acts of

Tiberius— Oath of allegiance taken by the Senate—Testament, funeral and

apotheosis of Augustus—Scene between Tiberius and the Senate—Asinius

Gallus—Election of magistrates transferred from the Comitia to the Senate

—Mutinies of the legions in Pannonia and on the Rhine—Noble conduct

of Germanicus—His campaigns in Germany—Burial of the remains of the

legions of Varus—Retreat of Ceecina and Germanicus—Arminius and his

brother—Victory of the Romans—Their final retreat beyond the Rhine

—Recal of Germanicus—Drusus in Illyricum—War between the Cherusci

and Marcoraanni—Fate of Maroboduus and Arminius—Arminius worshipped

as a hero—Germanicus in the East—Intrigues of Piso and Plancina—Death

of Germanicus—Trial and death of Piso—Tacfarinas in Africa, and other

ware—Government of Tiberius—Law of treason, informers and executions

—Various internal measures—Earlier promise of Tiberius—Marked change

in his character — Rise and influence of Sejanus — Drusus designated

FAOI

as heir, and murdered by Sejanus — The Praetorian camp formed at

Home—New victims of the informers—Tiberius quarrels with Agrippina

—Withdraws to Capreae—His occupations and alleged orgies — Death

of Livia — Condemnation of Agrippina and her sons—Elevation and

fall of Sejanus—Starvation of Drusus and Agrippina—Death of Tiberius

—Accession of Cains Cassar (Caligula)—His tyranny, madness, and death

—Reign of Claudius—Mauretania and Britain—iSencca—Reign of Nero—His

character, tyranny and death—The Jewish war—Qalba, Otho, and Vitel-

lius—Victory of Vespasian—The Flavian dynasty—Capture of Jerusalem

—Civilis and the Batavians—Affairs of the East—Reign of Titus

Eruption of Vesuvius — Fire at Rome — The Colosseum—Reign and

tyranny of Domilian—Dacian and Sarmatian wars—Campaigns of Agri-

cola in Britain—Persecution of the Christians—Death of Domitian

358—480

CHAPTER XXXIX.

Climax Of The Empire.Nerva, Trajan, And The Antonines.

A.D. 96 TO A.D. 192.

The new empire has a constitutional character—Happiness of the new era—

Union of monarchy and liberty—Accession of Nerva—His character and

origin—Clemency and government of Nerva—Discontent of the Pnetorians

—Nerva adopts Trajan—His death—Accession of Trajan—His extraction

and character—His settlement of the German frontier—His entry into

Rome—His magnanimity and firmness—Title of "Optiinus"—First Dacian

war, and submission of Decebalus—Second Dacian war—Trajan's bridge

over the Danube—Death of Decebalus and conquest of Dacia—The forum

and column of Trajan—Dacia a Roman province—Conquests in Arabia—

Government of Trajan—Dignity and freedom of the Senate—Condition

of the people—Trajan's economy and magnificence—Natural disasters at

Rome—Parthian aggressions in Armenia—Trajan goes to the East—Earth-

quake at Antioch—Conquest of Armenia and Assyria—Capture of Ctesiphon

•—Trajan on the Persian gulf—His retreat to Antioch, and death in

Cilicia—Epoch from which the empire began to recede—Accession and

origin of Hadrian—His education and early career—His alleged adoption

by Trajan—His system of policy—The conquests of Trajan abandoned—

Hadrian's return to Rome—Dangers of the frontiers—Hadrian in Muesia

—His first progress: Gaul: the Rhine: Britain: the "Vallum Roma-

num": Mauretania: Asia: Athens: Sicily: Rome: Carthage—Hadrian's

second progress—His residence at Athens, and buildings there—Hadrian at

Alexandria and Antioch—His works at Rome—The "Edictum Perpetuum"

—Adoption and death of Ceionius Commodus Verus—Aurelius Antoninus is

adopted by Hadrian, and himself adopts M. Annius Verus and L. Aure-

lius Verus—Death and character of Hadrian—Great merits of his govern-

ment—Accession of Antoninus Pius—His origin and family-1-Association of

M. Aurelius in the empire—Character of the two Antonines—The basis of

their power was not despotic—State of the frontiers—The "Vallum

Antonini" in Britain—Excesses of Faustina—Happy life and death of

Antoninus—Accession of Marcus Aurelius, the Philosopher—His "Medita-

tions "—His association of Lucius Verus in the empire—Tho Parthian war

—Victories of Avidius Cassius—Government of Aurelius—The barbarians

on the Danube—Pestilence brought from the East—The Emperors at

Aquileia—Death of Verus—War upon the Danubo—Victory over the

Quadi—The Thundering Legion—Vices of Commodus and Faustina—Rebel-

lion and death of Avidius Cassius—Aurelius at Antioch, Alexandria, and

Athens—His triumph shared with Commodus—Persecution of the Chris-

tians—New war upon the Danube—Death of Aurelius — Accession of

Cmnmodus—Ho purchases peace from the barbarians—Plot of Lucilla

against his life—Rage of Commodus against the Senate—State of the pro-

vinces and frontiers—Revolt of Matcrnus—The minibters Pereunis and

Cleander—Profligacy of Commodus—His performances in the amphitheatre

—His assumption of divinity—His monstrous arrogance—Death of Commo-

dus—Epoch of the decisive decline of the Empire—Roman and Greek litera-

ture in the second century . . - 481—528

CHAPTER Xil

The Rise And Spbkad Of Christianity, And The Fall Of Judaism.From

The Accession Of Herod The Grsat To The End eF The Antonine Period.

A.D. 37 to A. D. 192.

FADE

The general desire for the Union of the World, prepared for, but not satisfied

by the Empire—Epoch of Christianity—State of the Holy Land—Reign of

Her^i tiie Great—Massacre of his opponents—Plot and condemnation of

Antipater—Last illness of Herod—Sedition at Jerusalem—Birth Of

Jesus Christ—Arrival of the Magi—Alarm of Herod—Massacre of the

innocents—Execution of Antipater—Death of Herod—Division of his

kingdom—Arclielaus, king of Judasa—Deposed and banished —Antipas,

tetrarch of Galilee — The tetrarch Philip—Herod Agrippa I. — Herod

Agrippa II.—State of Judaea under the empire—The Procurator Pontius

Pilate—His tyrannical government — Mission of John the Baptist, and

ministry of Jesus Christ—Origin of the Christian Church, and failure of the

Jewish—The two streams of Jewish history—The Day of Pentecost—The

first Christian Church—The apostles and the Sanhedrin—Philip and Simon

Magos at Samaria—Martyrdom of Stephen, and conversion of St. Paul—

Death of Tiberius—Banishment of Pontius Pilate—Arabian War—Aretas

takes Damascus—Paul escapes to Jerusalem, and returns to Tarsus—

Caligula and Agrippa—Tumult at Alexandria—Claim of Caligula to divine

honours resisted by the Jews —His reception of the embassy of Philo

Judseus—The Jews of Babylonia—Death of Caligula—Tolerant edicts of

Claudius—Peace of the Jewish churches — Conversion of Cornelius—The

church at Antioch—Barnabas and Paul at Jerusalem—Journeys of St.

Paul—His voyage to Rome, first imprisonment, and acquittal—Doubtful

journey to the West—His final imprisonment and martyrdom—Judaea again

under procurators—Cuspius Fadus—Tiberius Alexandor—Ventidius Cuma-

nus—Antonius Felix—Porcius Festus—Albinus—Gessius Floras—Omens

of disaster—Disturbances at Csesarea—Massacre at Jerusalem—Outbreak

of the rebellion—Eleazar and the zealots—Rise and death of Manahem

—Massacre of Roman troops—And of Jews at Ceesarea, in Syria, and at

Alexandria—Advance of Cestius Gallus—Siege of Jerusalem—Retreat and

complete overthrow of Cestius—Vespasian takes the command—Prepara-

tions of the Jews—The moderate and zealot parties —The historian

Josephus—John of Gischala—Capture of Jotapata, and surrender of Jose-

phus—His character as an historian—Reflections on the resistance of the

Jews—Slaughter of the Samaritans—Devastation of Galilee, Persea, and

Idunuea—Death of Nero—Condition of Jerusalem—The zealots and assas-

sins—The Idumaean bandits—Fate of Antipas, Ananus, and Zacharias the

son of Barnch—Titus sent against Jerusalem—Secession of the Christians—

Three factions in the city—Titus forms the siege—His narrow escape—

Vigour of the defence—Horrors of the Siege—Capture of Bezetha and

Antonia—Burning of the Temple and destruction of Jerusalem—Final

Jewish war under Hadrian—Building of JElia Capitolina—The Christians

under the Flavian emperors—The seven churches of Asia—St. John and

the other apostles—Trajan: Letter of Pliny: Martyrdom of Ignatius—

The Christian Apologists—Persecution of Aurelius— Justin Martyr and

Polycarp—Martyrs of Lyon and Vienne—I rente us—Christianity at the

death of Commodus 529—600

BOOK IX.

DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE AND OF PAGANISM.

FROM THE DEATH OF COMMODUS TO THE FALL OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE.

A.D. 193 TO A.D. 476.

CHAPTER XLL

The Millennium Of Home. From The Death Of Commodtts To The Sect/lar

Games Of Philip.A.d. 193 To A.d. 248.

PAOK

Accession and death of Pertinax—The Praetorians sell the empire to Didius Juli-

anus— Proclamation of Clodius Albinns, Pescennius Niger, and Septimius

Severus—Severus marches on Rome—Julianus deserted and slain—Clodius

Albinus named Ctesar—Defeat and death of Niger and Albinus—Parthian

expedition of Severus—His new praetorian guard, and relaxation of discipline

—Death of Plautianus—Expedition to Caledonia—Death of Severus—C'ara-

calla and Geta—Their mutual hatred—Murder of Geta—Tyranny and

murder of Caracalla— Universal citizenship—Reign of Macrinus—The grand-

sons of Julia Msesa—Accession and abominable tyranny of Elagabalus

Reign and virtues of Alexander Severus—His council of state—Military inso-

lence—Murder of the jurist Ulpian—Career of the historian Dion Cassius—

Ardshir, or Artaxerxes, overthrows the Parthian empire, and founds the

Persian dynasty of the Sassanidce—War between Rome and Persia—Alex-

ander Severus on the Rhine—Origin and accession of Maximin—His brutal

tyranny—The two Gordians proclaimed and killed in Africa—Maximus and

Balbinus proclaimed at Rome—Deaths of Maximin, Maximus, and Balbinus

—Reign of Oordian III.—His Persian War and murder—Reign of Philip I.

—Question of his Christianity—His Secular games—Retrospect of Rome's

one thousand years—Her present condition, and approaching fall 603—618

CHAPTER XLII.

Irruptions Of The Barbarians. From Decius To Diocletian.

A.d. 249 To A.d. 284.

Reign of Decius—Misery of the Roman world—Persecution of the Christians—

Origin of the Goths—Their migration to South-eastern Europe—Ostro-

foths and Visigoths—Their connection with other tribes—They cross the
)anube—Gothic campaign and death of Decius—Gallus Trebonianus

jEmilianusValerian and Gallienus—Origin of the Franks—They in-

vade Gaul, Spain, and Africa — The Alemanni invade Italy and are

defeated by Aurelian—Persian successes on the Euphrates— Valerian made

prisoner by Sapor—An imperial horse-block and stuffed skin—Sapor

sacks Antioch and Cuesarea— The Saracen kingdom of Palmyra—Oden-

athus defeats Sapor—Naval incursions of the Goths—They take Trebizond,

ravage Bithynia, sack Cyzicus, pass the Hellespont, and ravage Greece— Their

retreat—Burning of the temple of Ephesus—Conduct of the Goths at Athens

—The Thirty Tyrants—Odenatlms and Zenobia in the East—Postumus and

Tetricus in the West—Macrianus and Aureolus—Death of Gallienus—

Public calamities—Claudius II. Gothicus defeats the Alemanni and Goths

—Aurelian emperor—Defeats the Marcomanni and Alemanni—New walls

of Rome—Aurelian defeats Zenobia—Death of Longinus—Aurelian puts

down Tetricus in Gaul—His triumph and death —TacitusProbus defeats

the barbarians—Cams, Carinus, and Numerianus—Sarmatian and Persian

Wars—Accession of Diocletian 619—646

CHAPTER XLIIL

Period Of Revival. Diocletian And His Colleagues, A.d. 285 to A.d. 305.

Epoch formed by Diocletian's accession—The revived empire becomes an Oriental

monarchy—Origin and character of Diocletian—His association of Maxi-

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