DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE AND OF PAGANISM.
FROM THE DEATH OF COMMODUS TO THE FALL OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE.
A.D. 193 TO A.D. 476.
The Millennium Of Home. From The Death Of Commodtts To The Sect/lar
Games Of Philip.—A.d. 193 To A.d. 248.
Accession and death of Pertinax—The Praetorians sell the empire to Didius Juli-
anus— Proclamation of Clodius Albinns, Pescennius Niger, and Septimius
Severus—Severus marches on Rome—Julianus deserted and slain—Clodius
Albinus named Ctesar—Defeat and death of Niger and Albinus—Parthian
expedition of Severus—His new praetorian guard, and relaxation of discipline
—Death of Plautianus—Expedition to Caledonia—Death of Severus—C'ara-
calla and Geta—Their mutual hatred—Murder of Geta—Tyranny and
murder of Caracalla— Universal citizenship—Reign of Macrinus—The grand-
sons of Julia Msesa—Accession and abominable tyranny of Elagabalus—
Reign and virtues of Alexander Severus—His council of state—Military inso-
lence—Murder of the jurist Ulpian—Career of the historian Dion Cassius—
Ardshir, or Artaxerxes, overthrows the Parthian empire, and founds the
Persian dynasty of the Sassanidce—War between Rome and Persia—Alex-
ander Severus on the Rhine—Origin and accession of Maximin—His brutal
tyranny—The two Gordians proclaimed and killed in Africa—Maximus and
Balbinus proclaimed at Rome—Deaths of Maximin, Maximus, and Balbinus
—Reign of Oordian III.—His Persian War and murder—Reign of Philip I.
—Question of his Christianity—His Secular games—Retrospect of Rome's
one thousand years—Her present condition, and approaching fall 603—618
Irruptions Of The Barbarians. From Decius To Diocletian.—
A.d. 249 To A.d. 284.
Reign of Decius—Misery of the Roman world—Persecution of the Christians—
Origin of the Goths—Their migration to South-eastern Europe—Ostro-
foths and Visigoths—Their connection with other tribes—They cross the
)anube—Gothic campaign and death of Decius—Gallus Trebonianus—
jEmilianus—Valerian and Gallienus—Origin of the Franks—They in-
vade Gaul, Spain, and Africa — The Alemanni invade Italy and are
defeated by Aurelian—Persian successes on the Euphrates— Valerian made
prisoner by Sapor—An imperial horse-block and stuffed skin—Sapor
sacks Antioch and Cuesarea— The Saracen kingdom of Palmyra—Oden-
athus defeats Sapor—Naval incursions of the Goths—They take Trebizond,
ravage Bithynia, sack Cyzicus, pass the Hellespont, and ravage Greece— Their
retreat—Burning of the temple of Ephesus—Conduct of the Goths at Athens
—The Thirty Tyrants—Odenatlms and Zenobia in the East—Postumus and
Tetricus in the West—Macrianus and Aureolus—Death of Gallienus—
Public calamities—Claudius II. Gothicus defeats the Alemanni and Goths
—Aurelian emperor—Defeats the Marcomanni and Alemanni—New walls
of Rome—Aurelian defeats Zenobia—Death of Longinus—Aurelian puts
down Tetricus in Gaul—His triumph and death —Tacitus—Probus defeats
the barbarians—Cams, Carinus, and Numerianus—Sarmatian and Persian
Wars—Accession of Diocletian 619—646
Period Of Revival. Diocletian And His Colleagues, A.d. 285 to A.d. 305.
Epoch formed by Diocletian's accession—The revived empire becomes an Oriental
monarchy—Origin and character of Diocletian—His association of Maxi-