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CONTENTS. xv

PAOIC

man as his colleague—The two Augusti—Revolt of the peasants in Gaul,

put down by Maximian—Usurpation of Cara.usius in Uritaiu—He defeats

Maximian, and is acknowledged by Diocbtun—Appointment of two Csssars,

GaUrius and Constantius—Quadrup.j division of the empire—I. Diocletian

in the East—His court at Nico.ueuia—Its Oriental character—II. Italy and

Africa under Maximian—degradation of Rome and the Senate—New Im-

perial guards—The capital fixed at Milan—III. Galerius in Illyricum—IV.

Constantius in tlie West—He recovers Britain and defeats the Germans —Wars

of Galsnus and Maximian on the Danube and in Africa—Rebellion of Egypt

under Achilleus, suppressed by Diocletian—His measures against alchemy

—War with Narses, King of Persia—A glimpse of China: Prince Mamgo in

Armenia—Defeat of Galerius—His second campaign and decisive victory—

Peace granted to Narses—Extension of the empire—Triumph of the emperors

—Great persecution of the Christians—Abdication of Diocletian and Maximian

—Parallel of Diocletian and Charles V. 647—668

CHAPTER XLIV.

RxnnoN Of The Empire And Establishment Of Christianity. From Con-

8TANTINE TO JOVIAN.—A.D. 306 to A.D. 364.

CtmMantiut and GaUrius become Augusti—Galerius makes Maximin and

Sevens Caesars- in the East and Italy—Constantine the Great—His birth

and early career —His flight from Nicomedia to Boulogne—Death of Con-

stantius at York—Constantine proclaimed in Britain—His German victories

and cruelties—Maxentius proclaimed at Rome—Maximian reassumes the

purple—Defeat and death of Severus—Galerius enters Italy and retreats

—He makes Licinius Augustus—Six Roman emperors at once—Maximian

expelled from Italy : rebels in Gaul : is defeated and put to death by Con-

stantine'-Death of Galerius—War of Constantine against Maxentius—

Victories of Turin and Saxa Rubra, near Rome, and death of Maxentius—

Constantine at Rome—The Praetorians abolished, and Rome left defence-

less—Close alliance of Constantine and Licinius—Defeat and death of

Maximin—Tyranny of Licinius in the East—Edict Of Milan—Review

of the Diocletian persecution—In the West: martyrs of Spain and Britain:

St Alban—In Italy and Africa: the persecution stopped by Maximian—

In the East: severe persecution : Galerius, dying, issues an edict of tolera-

tion—Conduct of Maximin—Conversion of Constantine—Story of his vision

of the Cross—Question of his Christianity—He proclaims universal tolera-

tion—First war with Licinius—Crispus, Constantine II., and Licinius II.

made Caesars—Victories of Crispus and Constantine on the Rhine and

Danube—Final war with Licinius—Battle of Hadrianople—Naval victory

of Crispus—Battle of Chrysopolis—Submission and death of Licinius—Choice

of Byzantium for a new capital—The Council of Nicsea: Arian controversy

—-Family of Constantine—Deaths of Crispus, the younger Licinius, and

Faosta—Dedication of Constantinople—Organization of the empire—Gothic

and Sarmatian war—Death of Constantine—^Constantinus II., Constantius 11.,

and Constans—Persian war—Death of Constantine II.—Wars of Constans in

the West—His death—Usurpation and defeat of Magnentius—Athanasius and

the Arians—Rise of Julian : his wars with the Germans : and proclamation

at Paris—Persian war—Death of Coustau tins — Julian the Apostate—His acts

in favour of the Pagans—His Persian expedition and death—Reign and death

of Jovian—Election of Valentinian 669—718

CHAPTER XLV.

TMn Division Of The East And West: And The Fall Of The Roman Empire.
A.d. 864 to A.d. 476.

••rtition of the empire between Valentinian- I. and Valens—Campaigns of
"alentinian in the West—He is succeeded by Oration and Valentinian II.
-"Valens in the East, puts down Procopius—His tyranny and Arian fana-
nrism—The Goths, expelled by the Huns, are received into Mcesia—Their
rebellion, and victory over Valens at Hadrianople—Theodosius I. the Great,
fnperor of the East—Peace with the Goths—Ulphilas—Revolt of Maximus
m Britain—Death of Gratian—Fall of Maximus—Theodosius at Milan—

PAGE

Massacre of Thessalonica—Ambrose, bishop of Milan—Penance of Theodo-

sius—Suppression of Pagan worship—Murder of Valentinian II. by Arbo-

gastes, who proclaims Eugenius—Their defeat and death—Theodosius sole

emperor—His death at Milan—Final division of the empire between

Arcadius in the East, and Honorius in the West—Rufinus and Stilicho—

Rise and fall of Rufinns, Eutropius, and Gainas—The Empress Eudoxia

—Death of Arcadius—Theodosius II.—The Eastern Empire—Alaric devas-

tates Greece, and invades Italy—The court removed from Milan to Ravenna

—Stilicho defeats the Goths—Honorius at Rome—Gladiatorial shows

abolished—Great Slavonian invasion under Radagaisus—His defeat by

Stilicho and passage of the barbarians into Gaul—Settlement of the Burgun-

Dians—The Vandals, Alans, and Sueves in Spain—Constantine revolts in

Britain: is acknowledged as emperor of the West, and overthrown, with his

rival Gerontius, by Constantius—Death of Stilicho—Siege and sack of

Rome by the Goths—Elevation and fall of A Italus—Death of Alaric—

The Goths conquer Spain—Kingdom of the Visigoths—Final loss of

Britain—Death of Honorius—The usurper John put down by Theodosius—

Valentinian III. emperor of the West—The empress-mother Placidia—

Rivalry of Aetius and Boniface—Revolt of Boniface, who invites Genseric

to Africa—Death of Augustin, Bishop of Hippo—Vandal kingdom of

Africa—Appearance of the Huns—The Scythian races in Europe and

Asia—The Huns of the Turkish race—Attila, king of the Huns—Extent of

his dominions: exaggerations of his poweT—His invasion of the East—

His character—Treaty with the Eastern empire—Death of Theodosius II.

Marcian—The Franks in Gaul—Rise of the Merovingians—Attila invades

Gaul—Siege of Orleans and decisive battle of Chalons—Deaths of Theo-

doric I., Attila, and Aetius—Supremacy of the German race—Death of

Valentinian III.—Maximui and Avilus—Power of Count Ricimer—Leo I.

Majorian, Severus, Anthemius, and Olybrius— Death of Ricimer—Qlycerius

and Julius NeposRomulus Augvstulus deposed by Odoacer—END OF

THE WESTERN EMPIRE 719—746

MAPS, PLANS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

Jerusalem Frontispiece.

Actium Page 293

The Roman Empire „ 305

The Claudian Aqueduct

Trajan's Bridge Over The Danube

Trajan's Column At Rome .

Constantinople ....

400

493

494

699

CHAPTER XXXI.

THE BEGINNING OF CIVIL WAR AT ROME-TIBERIUS AND CAIUS GRACCHUS. B.C. 133 TO B.C. 111.

"Kt sane Gracchis capidine victoriie baud satis moderatus animus fuit: sed bono vinci aatius est qaam malo more injuriam vincere. Igitur ea victoria nobilitas ex lubidine sua us» maltos mortalis ferro aut fuga exstinxit, plusque in reliquum sibi timoris quam potential addidit. Qua; res plerumque magnas civitatis pessum dedit, dum alteri alteros vincere quovia modo et victos accrbius ulcisoi volunt."—Sallust.

REVOLUTION IMPENDING AT ROME—FAMILY OP THE GRACCHI— COBNELIA AND HER SONSMARRIAGES OP TIBERIUS AND CAICS—TIBERIUS IN SPAIN—HIS VIEW OP THE STATE OP 1TALT—HE IS ELECTED TRIBUNE—HIS AGRARIAN LAW—ITS REAL CHARACTER AND OBJECT—ITS DEFECTS OF PRINCIPLE—GROWTH OF THE ABUSES IN THE POSSESSION OF PUBLIC LAND—THEIR EFFECTS ON HALT—REMEDY PROPOSED BY GRACCHUS —DIFFICULTIES FROM BOTH PARTIES—OBJECTION TO THE FORM OF THE PROPOSAL— OPPOSITION OP OCTAVIUS—HE IS DEPOSED FROM THE TRIBUNATE—PASSAGE OP THE LAW—BEGINNING OF RKVOLCTION—NEW PROPOSALS OF TIBERIUS—HE IS ATTACKED BT THE NOBLES—HIS DEFENCE IN THE SENATE—HE IS CHARGED WITn AIMINO AT TUB CROWN—ATTEMPT TO RE-ELECT GRACCHUS—TUMULT ON THE CAPITOL—THE SENATE, BCiVOLA, AND SCIPIO NASICA—DEATH OP TIBERIUS GRACCHUS—BEGINNING OP THE CIVIL WARS—PERSECUTION OF THE SEMPRONIAN PARTY—BANISHMENT OF NASICA—SCIPIO .SMILIANUS AND THE MODERATE PARTY—CENSORSHIP OF METELLCS— THE NEW TRIUMVIRS—EXECUTION OF THE LAW—ITS PRACTICAL FAILURE—COMPLAINTS OP THE ITALIANS—SCIPIO SUSPENDS THE DISTRIBUTION—ALIEN LAW OF JCXIU3 PENNCS, AND FAILURE OF THE PROPOSAL TO ENFRANCHISE THE ITALIANS— REVOLT AND DESTRUCTION OF PREGELLJi—OAIUS GRACCHUS DEVOTES HIMSELF TO FOLLOW HIS BROTHER—HIS QUSSTORSHIP IN SARDINIA AND RETURN TO ROME —HIS ELECTION TO THE TRIBUNATE—HIS ELOQUENCE AND CHARACTER—BANISHMENT OP POPILLIUS— THE SEMPRONIAN LAWS—THE CORN-LAW AND ITS EFFECTS—MILITARY BURTHENS LESSENED—REMODELLING OF THE JURY-LISTS—THE EQUESTRIAN ORDER—THE PROVINCES AND THEIR REVENUES — RE-ELECTION OP 0. GRACCHUS —HIS PLANS OF COLONIZATION AND ENFRANCHISEMENT—THE TRIBUNE DRUSUS OUTBIDS CAICS — ABSENCE OF CAIUS IN AFRICA—HIS DECLINING INFLUENCE—CONSULSHIP OF OPIMIUS —DEATHS OF GRACCHUS AND HIS PARTISANS—HEROISM OF CORNELIA—ARISTOCRATIC RE-ACTION —TRIALS OF PAPIRIUS AND OARBO—0. MARIUS TRIBUNE—THE PROVINCE OP OAUL—SETTLEMENT OP THE AGRARIAN QUESTION—HUMAN SACRIFICES AT ROME.

The universal empire, into which it was the destiny of the civilized world to he consolidated, in preparation for the advent of the promised deliverer, was now virtually estahlished hy the conquests of Rome and her influence over the nations that were not yet conquered. But the process of the conquest itself had outgrown the constitution of the Republic. In the light of the event, we know that the only possible issue of the disorders of the state was in the supreme power of a single ruler. The men of that age could only look forward to a long and doubtful contest of the dominant oligarchy with the powers of patriotic devotion and personal ambition. Which of these was the ruling motive of the celebrated

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