Within the space of two years from the announcement of the plan of the "History of the World," the Author has been permitted, by the help which he desires devoutly to acknowledge, to complete the First Division of the work. In a design of such magnitude, experience must of necessity have a large place; and the redemption of the two-fold pledge,—to avoid the dry baldness of an epitome, and to give to each nation of the Ancient World a space proportioned to its importance,—has increased this section to Three Volumes. Within that moderate compass the Reader has now offered to him, for the first time in English Literature, a complete Ancient History, from the Creation of the World to the Fall of the Western Empire, treated as a continuous narrative and with unity of purpose. Besides its place in the whole scheme of the History of the World, this division may be regarded as forming a complete and independent work, which may occupy the place once filled by the Ancient History of Rollin. That work, however deservedly popular in its time, not only regarded the despotisms of the Ancient World from a point of view inconsistent with those doctrines of well-regulated freedom which Englishmen of all parties cherish for themselves and desire to teach their children, but it omitted the important sections of Sacred History and Roman History, which are included in this work. Of the progress made, since the time of Rollin, in the researches on which the value of any historical work must mainly depend, it is superfluous to speak: of the use made of such researches in the present work, the reader may judge in part by the authorities quoted or referred to, though the author has carefully refrained from a parade of learned references.

The execution of such a work has, like the History of the World itself, epochs, at which a pause may be made to review the past and to survey the future; and the accomplishment of the History of the Ancient World seems a fit breathing-place both for the author and his readers. The publication in Parts has not been attended with sufficient advantages to compensate for its obvious drawbacks. This form of publication will therefore be discontinued. Meanwhile the present work is offered as supplying the want so long felt, of a complete Ancient History. In like manner the second and third divisions are intended to form complete Medieval and Modern Histories; each History being an independent work, without detriment to the unity of the whole.

In gratefully acknowledging the efforts of the Publishers to give every possible effect to the design of the work, the Author would refer especially to the important aid derived from the Maps and Plans which have been •added, without any increase of price.

P. S.

August IWh, 1865.





From Tub Triumvirate Of Tiberius Gracchus To The Battle Of Actium.

B.c. 133—30.


The Begdtntso Of Civil War At RomeTiberius And Caius Gracchus,

B.c. 133 To B.c. 111.


Revolution impending at Rome—Family of tho Gracchi—Cornelia and her sons—

Marriages of Tiberius and Caius—Tiberius in Spain—His view of the state

of Italy—He is elected Tribune—His Agrarian law—Its real character and

object—Its defects of principle—Growth of the abuses in the possession of

public land—Their effects on Italy—Remedy proposed by Gracchus—Diffi-

culties from both parties—Objection to the form of the proposal—Opposition

of Uctavius—He is deposed from the Tribunate—Passage of the law—Begin-

ning of revolution—New proposals of Tiberius—He is attacked by the nobles

—His defence in the Senate—He is charged with aiming at the crown—

Attempt to re-elect Gracchus — Tumult on the Capitol—The Senate, Scaevola,

and ScipioNasica—Death of Tiberius Gracchus—Beginning ol the Civil Wars

—Persecution of the Seiupronian party—Banishment of Nasica Scipio

jEiuilianus and the moderate party — Censorship of Metellus—The new Iri-

umvirs—Execution of the law -Its practical failure—Complaints of the

Italians -Scipio suspends the distribution—Alien law of Junius Pennus, and

failure of the proposal to enfranchise the Italians—Revolt and destruction of

FrrgelUe—Cams Gracchus devotes himself to follow his brother—His quaes-

torship in Sardinia and return to Rome—His election to the tribunate -His

eloquence and character—Banishment of Popillius—The Seinpronian laws—

The corn-law and its effects—Military burthens lessened—Remodelling of

the jury-lists—The Equestrian order—The provinces and their revenues—

Re-election of C. Gracchus—His plans of colonization and enfranchisement

—The tribune Drasus outbids Caius—Absence of Caius in Africa—His de-

clining influence—Consulship of Opimius—Deaths of Gracchus and his par-

tisans—Heroism of Cornelia—Aristocratic re-action—Trials of Papirius and

Carbo—C. Marius tribune—The province of Gaul—Settlement of the Agra-

rian question—Human sacrifices at Rome 1—43


Rule Of The Restored Oligarchy.

The 'wars With Juourtha And The Cimbri—B.c. 121 To B.c. 100.

How the nobles used their victory—Optimates and Populares—The conflict
tending to despotism—Government of the restored Optimates—The Metelli
—Dalmatian and other wars—Cato and the Scordisci—The Cimbri and
Teutones—Affairs of Numidia — Origin and character of Juguvtha—He
serves at Numantia—Deathbed of king Micipsa—Murder of Hiempsal—Ro-
man commissioners bribed by Jugurtha—Capture of Cirta and death of
Adherbal—The Jugurthine War—Corruption of Bestia and Scaurus—The
tribune Memmius—Jugurtha at Rome—Murder of Massiva—Spurius Albinus


in Africa—Capitulation of A. Albinus—Indignation at Rome—Prosecutions

of the Optimates—Metellus sent to Afriea, with Mariusas legate—Overtures

of Jugurtha—Battle of the river Muthul—Successes of Metellus—He is

repulsed from Zama—Conspiracy of Bomilcar—Rise of Caius Marius—His

marriage with Julia—The soothsayer at Utica—Jlarins aspires to the con-

sulship—Scorn of Metellus—Election of Marius—Metellus takes Thala—

Bocchus and Jugurtha—Negotiations with Metellus—Marius arrives in Africa

—His first campaign—Takmg of Capsa—Expedition to the Molochath—The

last battle of Jugurtha—Treachery of king Bocchus—Mission of Sulla and

capture of Jugurtha—Triumph of Marius—His jealousy of Sulla—The coming

conflict—The Cimbri and Teutones—Defeats of Carbo, Silanus, Longinus,

and of Mailing and Ccepio—Successive consulships of Marius—His victory

over the Teutones at Aix—Victory over the Cimbri—Condition of Rome and

Italy—Insurrections of slaves—Sufferings of the provinces—Piracy—Second

Servilo War in Sicily—Sixth consulship of Marius—Births of Cicero, Pompey,

and Caesar 44—80


First Period Of Civil Wars.Marius And Sulla—B.C. 100 To B.c. 78.

Marius is honoured as a second Camillus—His defeats—He creates a standing

army—His league with Glaucia and Saturninus—The Appuleian laws—Ban-

ishment of Metellus—Sedition and death of Saturninus—Triumph of the

Optimates—Retirement of Marius—Foreign affairs: Spain and Cyrene—Lex

Concilia—Judicial abuses by the Equites—Q. Scajvola in Asia—Condemnation

of Rutilius Rufus—Prosecution of Scaurus—Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus

—His measures of reform—Their passage and repeal—Assassination of

Drusus—Revolt of the Allies—The Social or Marsic War—The Italian con-

federation, and its new capital—The States faithful to Rome—The two

scenes of the war—Successes of the insurgents in Campania—L. Julius Csesar

—Defeat and death of Rutilius Lupus—Successes of Marius, Sulla, and Pom-

pcius Strabo—The Romans grant the citizenship to the Allies —The Lex Julia

and Lex Plautia Papiria—The franchise in Cisalpine Gaul—Second year of

tho war—Successes of Pompeius Strabo and Sulla—Resistance of the Sam-

nites—War with Mithridates—Consulship of Sulla—Jealousy of Marius—Tri-

bunate and laws of Sulpicius Rufus—Marius appointed to the command

against Mithridates—Sulla marches upon Rome—Flight and adventures of

Marius— Proceedings of Sulla—Cinna elected consul—Sulla departs for Asia

—Attempt at a counter-revolution—Cinna driven out of Rome— He collects

an army—Return of Marius to Italy—Siege and capitulation of Rome—

Massacre of the Optimates—Seventh consulship of Marius—The first

Mithridatic War—Character of Mithridates VI.—Affairs of Cappadocia

and Bithynia—Invasion of Asia, and massacre of the Italians—Insurrection

of Greece—Sulla lands in Epirus, takes Athens, and defeats Archclaus—

Peace with Mithridates— The Civil War extends to Asia—Deaths of Flaccus

and Fimbria—Sulla returns to Italy—Government and death of Cinna—Pre-

parations for war—Sulla defeats Norbanus—Is joined by Pompey and other

leaders of the Optimates—Marius the younger and Papirius Carbo—Defeat

of Marius—Massacre at Rome—Sulla defeats the Samnites before the Colline

Gate—Death of Marius—Autocracy of Sulla—The first great proscription—

Triumph—Dictatorship, and legislation of Sulla—His retirement, death, and

funeral 81—125


The Age Of Posit-ey, Cjesar, And Cicero—From The Death Of Sulla To The

First Triumvirate.B.c. 78 To B.c. 60.

Instability of the Sullan restoration—The opposition party—Its want of leaders
—Revolutionary attempt of the consul Lepidus—His defeat and death—
Quiutns Sertorius holds out in Spain—Metellus Pius opposed to him—
Pompey associated with Metellus—His defeats—Decline of the influence of
Sertorius—His murder by Perperna—Defeat and execution of Perperna—
Outbreak of Spartacus and the Gladiators—They overrun Italy—Crassus
defeats and kills Spartacus—Pompey claims a share in the victory—Consul-



ship of Pompey and Crassus—Reversal of Sulla's acts—Restoration of the

triboneship and reform of the jury lists—Rise of Cains Julias Caesar—His

resistance to Sulla—He serves in Asia—Prosecution of Dolabella—Caesar

again leaves Home—Adventure with the Pirates—He studies rhetoric at

Rhodes—Supports Pompey—Restores the images of Marius—Rise of Marcus

Tullius Cicero—His family and education—His one campaign—Speeches for

Quintiusand Roscius—He withdraws to Athens—His friendship with Atticus

—He studies in Asia and at Rhodes—Returns to Rome and devotes himself

to pleading causes—HU quaestorship in Sicily—Prosecution of Verres—

Rivalry with Hortensius and triumph of Cicero—Dedication of the Capitol

—The Equestrian order—The war with the Pirates—Command conferred on

Pompey by the Gabinian law—His brilliant success—Second Mithridatic

War, and restoration of peace—Vast preparations of Mithridates—The

death of Jficomedes III. brings on the third Mithridatic war—Mith-

ridates defeats Cotta and besieges Cyzicus—Lucullus raises the siege,

and defeats Mithridates in Pontus—Mithridates flies to Armenia—History

of the country—The kingdom of Tigranes—Lucullus settles the affairs

of Asia—He defeats Tigranes, takes Tigranocerta, and besieges Nisibis

—Irruption of Mithridates into Pontus—Roman disasters—Mutiny in the

army of Lucullus—Glabrio sent to supersede him—Pompey made general-

issimo in the East—Cicero praetor—His speech for the Manilian law—Retire-

ment of Lucullus—Pompey advances into Pontus—Flight of Mithridates to

Bosporus—Pompey in Armenia—Submission of Tigranes—Pompey in the

Caucasian lands—He marches into Syria—Death of Mithridates—Review

of Syrian history—Syria made a Roman province—The kingdoms of C'om-

magene and Edessa—Damascus and Arabia—Phoenicia and Ccele-Syria—

Palestine—Review Of Jewish History—Religious and moral state of the

restored people—Hostility of the Samaritans—Their origin—Schismatic

temple on Mount Gerizim—Hatred of the Jews and Samaritans—Bloodshed

in the Jewish temple—Jaddua and Alexander the Great—Judaea under the

Ptolemies—Simon the Just and Eleazar—The Septuagint version—Onias II.

and Joseph the son of Tobias—Ptolemy Philopator at Jerusalem—Hyrcanus

the son of. Joseph—Palestine under Antiochus the Great—Story of Heliodorus

—Reign of Antiochus Epiphanes—Hellenism in Judeea—Jason and Mene-

laus—Murder of Onias III.—Sack of Jerusalem by Antiochus—Massacre by

Apollonius—Great persecution under Athenseus—Martyrdom of Eleazar—

Revolt of Mattathias—Judas Maccabaeus—His victories, dedication of the

temple, treaty with Rome, and death—Jonathan Apphus secures peace—

His murder by Tryphon—Prosperous government of Simon Thassi—His

murder—John Hyrcanus I.—Independence and extension of Judeea—De-

struction of the temple on Gerizim and of Samaria—Quarrel with the Phari-

sees— Reign of Aristobul us I.—AlexanderJannaeus—Warwith Ptolemy Lathy-

ros—Rebellion of the Pharisees—Their ascendancy under Alexandra—Aris-

tobulus II. and Hyrcanus II.—Rise of Antipater—Civil War—Interference

of the Romans—Pompey takes Jerusalem and profanes the temple—Its sub-

sequent plunder by Crassus—Hyrcanus II. and Antipater—Escape and

rebellions of Aristobulus and his sons—Deaths of Aristobulus and Alexander

—Ctesar restores Hyrcanus, with Antipater as procurator—Rise of Herod—

Murder of Antipater—Hyrcanus in the hands of Herod—The Parthians

restore Antigonus—Herod at Rome—Returns as king of Judaea—Capture of

Jerusalem—End of the Asmonaean dynasty—Accession of Herod the Great—

Deaths of Antigonus, Aristobulus, and Hyrcanus—Events at Rome during

Pompey'sabsence—Consulship of Cicero and conspiracy of Catiline—Pompey

returns to Rome—His political attitude and his triumph—State of parties—

Trial of Clodius—Opposition of the Senate to Pompey—Caesar in Spain—

His return to Rome—The first triumvirate 126—201


The Fust Triumvirate And The Gkeat Civil War.—From The First Con-
Sulship To The Death Ok Cesar.—B.C. 59 to B.C. 44.
Origin of the Civil War from the Consulship of Metellus—Its causes and
character—First Consulship of Caesar—Measures of the Triumvirs—Procon-

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