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55. Six additional standing committees shall be appointed at the commencement of the first session in each Congress, whose duties shall continue until the first session of the ensuing Congress :
1. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Department of State;
2. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Treasury Department;
3. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Department of War;
4. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Department of the Navy;
5. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Post Office; and,
6. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Public Buildings;
of five members each.
56. It shall be the duty of said committees to examine into the state of the accounts and expenditures respectively submitted to them, and to inquire and report particularly
Whether the expenditures of the respective departments are justified by law;
Whether the claims from time to time satisfied and discharged by the respective departments are supported by sufficient vouchers, establishing their justness both as to their character and amount:
Whether such claims have been discharged out of funds appropriated therefor, and whether all moneys have been disbursed in conformity with appropriation laws; and
Whether any, and what, further legislation may be necessary to provide more perfectly for the proper application of the public moneys, and to secure the Government from demands unjust in their character, or extravagant in their amount.
And it shall be, moreover, the duty of said committees to report from time to time whether any, and what, retrenchment can be made in the expenditures of the several departments, without detriment to the public service; whether any, and what, abuses at any time exist in the failure to enforce the payment of moneys which may be due to the United States from public defaulters or others; and to report, from time to time, such measures as may be necessary to add to the economy of the several departments, and the accountability of their officers.
57. The several standing committees of the House shall have leave to report by bill or otherwise; and the committees on the various public expenditures and accounts shall make report within the first sixty days of each session, or, on failure so to do, their reasons for such failure.
58. It shall be in order for the Committee on Enrolled Bills to report at any time.
59. No committee shall sit during the sitting of the House, without special leave.
60. Any member may excuse himself from serving on any committee at the time of his appointment, if he is then a member of two other committees.
61. No committee shall be permitted to employ a clerk at the public expense, without first obtaining leave of the House for that purpose.
Of General Appropriation Bills.
62. General appropriation bills shall be in order, in preference to any other bills of a public nature, unless otherwise ordered by a majority of the House.
63. No appropriation shall be reported in such general appropriation bills, or be in order as an amendment thereto, for any expenditure not previously authorized by law, unless in continuation of appropriations for such public works and objects as are already in progress, and for the contingencies for carrying on the several departments of the Government.
64. All propositions to appropriate money shall be first discussed in a Committee of the Whole House.
Of propositions for a Tax.
65. No proposition for a tax or charge upon the people shall be discussed on the day of its being offered; and every such proposition shall receive its first discussion in a Committee of the Whole House.
66. No sum or quantum of tax or duty, voted by a Committee of the Whole House, shall be increased in the House until the proposition for such increase shall be first discussed and voted in a Committee of the Whole House; and so in respect to the time of its continuance.
67. Every bill shall be introduced on the report of a committee, or by motion for leave.
68. Every bill shall receive three several readings previous to its passage; and bills shall be despatched in order as they are introduced, unless where the House shall direct otherwise; but no bill shall be twice read on the same day, without special order.
69. The first reading of a bill shall be for information; and, if opposition be made to it, the question shall be," Shall this bill be rejected?" If no opposition be made, or if the question to reject be negatived, the bill shall go to its second reading without a question.
70. On the second reading of a bill, the Speaker shall state it as ready for commitment or engrossment; and, if committed, then the question shall be, whether to a select or standing committee, or to a Committee of the Whole House: if to a Committee of the Whole House, the House shall determine on what day; if no motion be made to commit, the question shall be stated on its engrossment; and if it be not ordered to be engrossed on the day of its being reported, it shall be placed in the general file on the Speaker's table, to be taken up in its order. But, if the bill be ordered to be engrossed, the House shall appoint the day when it shall be read the third time.
71. After commitment and report to the House, or at any time before its passage, a bill may be recommitted.
72. All bills ordered to be engrossed shall be executed in a fair round haud.
73. No amendment by way of rider shall be made to any bill on its third reading.
74. When a bill shall pass, it shall be certified by the Clerk, noting the day of its passage at the foot thereof.
75. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate shall be necessary, shall be read and laid on the table, on a day preceding that in which the same shall be moved, unless the House shall order otherwise.
Order of Business of the Session.
76. After six days from the commencement of a second or subsequent session of any Congress, all bills, resolutions, and reports which originated in the House, and at the close of the next preceding session remained undetermined, shall be resumed and acted on in the same manner as if an adjournment had not taken place.
Order of Business of the Day.
77. As soon as the journal is read, the Speaker shall call for petitious from the members of each State, and delegates from each Territory, beginning with Maine and the Territory of Iowa, alternately; and if, on any day, the whole of the States and Territories shall not be called, the Speaker shall begin on the next day where he left off the previous day; provided that, after the first thirty days of the session, petitions shall not be received, except on the first day of the meeting of the House in each week.
78. On petitions, memorials, and other papers, being presented, a brief statement of the contents shal: be made verbally before they are committed or otherwise disposed of; they shall not be debated on any day assign ed for the receiving of petitions, unless the House shall so direct, but shall lie on the table, to be taken up for debate in the order of their being presented.
79. Petitions having been disposed of, the Speaker shall call upon the standing committees, in their order, for reports, and then upon select committees; if the Speaker shall not get through the call upon the committees before the House passes to other business, he shall resume the next call where he left off. Reports being disposed of, resolutions shall then be called for and disposed of by the same rules which apply to petitions; provided that no member shall offer more than one resolution, or one series of resolutions, all relating to the same subject, until all the States and Territories shall have been called.
80. All the States and Territories shall be called for resolutions on each alternate Monday during each session of Congress; and, if necessary to secure this object on said days, all resolutions which shall give rise to debate shall lie over for discussion; and the whole of said days shall be appropriated to resolutions, until all the States and Territories are called.
81. After one hour shall have been devoted to reports and resolutions. it shall be in order, pending the consideration thereof, to entertain a motion that the House do now proceed to dispose of the business on the Speaker's table, and to the orders of the day; which being decided in the affirmative, the Speaker shall dispose of the business on his table in the following order, viz :
1st. Messages and other Executive communications.
2d. Messages from the Senate, and amendments proposed by the Senate to bills of the House.
3d. Bills and resolutions from the Senate on their first and second reading, that they be referred to committees, and put under way; but if, on being read a second time, no motion be made to commit, they are to be ordered
to their third reading, unless objection be made; in which case, if not otherwise ordered by a majority of the House, they are to be laid on the table in the general file of bills on the Speaker's table, to be taken up in their turn.
4th. Bills of the House and from the Senate on their engrossment, or on being ordered to a third reading, to be taken up in the order of time in which they passed to a second reading.
5th. Engrossed bills and bills from the Senate on their third reading. The messages, communications, and bills on the table, having been disposed of, the Speaker shall then proceed to call the orders of the day.
82. The unfinished business in which the House was engaged at the last preceding adjournment shall have the preference in the orders of the day; and no motion on any other business shall be received, without special leave, until the former is disposed of.
83. It shall be the duty of the Speaker rigidly to adhere to the course of business specified in the " Order of Business."
Local or Private Business.
84. Friday and Saturday in each week shall be set apart for the consideration of private bills and private business, in preference to any other, unless otherwise determined by the House.
85. On the first and fourth Friday of each month the calendar of private bills shall be called over, and the bills to the passage of which no obJection shall then be made shall be first considered and disposed of.
Of Committees of the Whole House.
86. It shall be a standing order of the day, throughout the session, that the House resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union.
87. In forming a Committee of the Whole House, the Speaker shall leave the chair, and a chairman, to preside in committee, shall be appointed by the Speaker.
88. Not more than three bills, originating in the House, shall be committed to the same Committee of the Whole; and such bills shall be analogous in their nature, which analogy shall be determined by the Speaker.
89. In Committee of the Whole House, the bill taken up shall be first read throughout by the Clerk, and then again read and debated by clauses; the body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined; but all amendments, noting the page and line, shall be duly entered by the Clerk on a separate paper, as the same shall be agreed to by the committee, and so reported to the House. After report, the bill may again be debated and amended by clauses, before the question to engross it be taken.
90. All amendments made to an original motion in committee shall be. incorporated with the motion, and so reported.
91. All amendments made to a report committed to a Committee of the Whole House shall be noted and reported, as in the case of bills.
92. All questions, whether in committee or in the House, shall be propounded in the order in which they are moved, except that, in filling up blanks, the largest sum and longest time shall be first put.
93. The rules of proceedings in the House shall be observed in Committee of the Whole, so far as they may be applicable, except the rule lim
iting the number of times a member may speak; but no member shall speak twice on any question, until every member wishing to speak stall have spoken.
94. When any motion or proposition is made, the question "Will the House now consider it?" shall not be put, unless demanded by a member, or deemed necessary by the Speaker.
95. When a motion is made and seconded, it shall be stated by the Speaker; or, being in writing, it shall be handed to the Chair, and read aloud by the Clerk, before being debated.
96. Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the Speaker or any member desire it.
97. After a motion is stated by the Speaker, or read by the Clerk, it shall be deemed to be in the possession of the House, but may be withdrawn at any time before a decision or amendment.
Of the Order of Motions, or Privileged Questions.
98. When a question is under debate, no motion shall be received but to adjourn, to lie on the table, for the previous question, to postpone to a day certain, to commit, to amend, to postpone indefinitely; which several motions shall have precedence in the order in which they are arranged; and no motion to postpone to a day certain, to commit, or to postpone indefinitely, being decided, shall again be allowed on the same day, and at the same stage of the bill or proposition. A motion to strike out the enacting words of a bill shall have precedence over a motion to amend, except in Committee of the Whole; and, if carried, shall be considered as equivalent to its rejection.
99. When a resolution shall be offered, or a motion be made, to refer a subject, and different committees shall be proposed, the question shall be taken in the following order:
The Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union; the Committee of the Whole House; a Standing Committee; a Select Committee.
Of Motions to Adjourn.
100. A motion to adjourn, and a motion to fix the day to which the House shall adjourn, shall be always in order: these motions, together with the motion to lie on the table, and all questions relating to priority of business, shall be decided without debate.
101. The hour at which every motion to adjourn is made, shall be entered on the journal.
Of the Previous Question.
102. The previous question shall be in this form: "Shall the main question be now put ?" It shall only be admitted when demanded by a majority of the members present, and its effect shall be to put an end to all debate, and bring the House to a direct vote on amendments, if any, reported by a committee, on pending amendments, and then on the main question. On a motion for the previous question, and prior to the seconding of the same, a call of the House shall be in order; but, after a majori