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self was surprised at the treacherous a deep interest in commercial affairs, refusal to fulfil this condition. Prus- and naturally love to cultivate a friend. sia, long after the peace of Tilsit, re. ly intercourse with England, which, of mained in the military occupation of all other countries, is best calculated the French ; and this flagrant breach to supply their wants, and relieve them of treaty formed another ground of of their surplus produce. The cessacomplaint on the part of Russia. The tion of intercourse with Great Brisophistry to which Buonaparte resort- tain threatened ruin to the nobility ed in defence of his conduct will be and landholders of Russia ; and they afterwards noticed ; but in this sum. are supposed to have resisted the conmary of the circumstances which pre. tinental system with firmness and vicipitated hostilities betwixt these great gour. The emperor could not have empires, it is important to remark, disregarded their remonstrances, even that the French ruler had been guilty if he had been insensible to the degraat all events of two very palpable vio- dation of his country; and he could lations of the treaty of Tilsit, which not, therefore, have continued the sus. were of themselves quite sufficient to pension of commercial intercourse with have justified the war for which Russia England, even although the renewal had been making silent preparation.

of it threatened him with the whole The chief ground of quarrel assign- vengeance of his new ally. ed by the French, was the infidelity It was a singular feature in the poof Russia to her engagements respect. licy of Buonaparte, that, although he ing the continental system. The Em- insisted on the most rigorous execution peror Alexander could not be long by his allies of the Berlin and Milan deceived on this subject; and even if decrees, he presumed himself to set he had been rash enough to attempt en

them at defiance. The pressure of forcing that absurd system through the continental system on France was out his dominions, he would have been intolerable; the sufferings of the peosoon awakened from his delusion by ple surpassed all endurance ; and, what the discontent and resistance of his was more likely to influence a despotic people. He who should attempt in government, the revenue sustained the the present state of society to destroy most serious defalcation. Still affecting trade, would undertake to oppose all an adherence to the principle of his the propensities and habits of man- decrees, Buonaparte in the meantime kind; and to sink them once more in ventured on very frequent relaxations barbarism and misery. There are in of them in practice; he granted licences all countries many degenerate persons under which considerable importations who care but little as to the nature from England took place, and he thus of the government under which they relieved the growing embarrassments live, but all can feel and will avenge of his treasury. Surely the Emperor any attempt to deprive them of their of Russia was entitled to follow his comforts and luxuries. The most example, and to abate in some measure barbarous nations cannot, in the pre- the sufferings of his people ; nor could sent state of the world, be indifferent Buonaparte with any semblance of justo regulations of trade ; for there is tice have objected

to this course, even none so rude and barbarous, as not to if the treaty of Tilsit had bound the have some share in the benefits which Russian emperor to go hand in hand it bestows. The Russians, although with him to accomplish the humilianot perhaps a very refined people, lave tion of England. His wants were greater ; the condition of his empire a formidable army, which, had she been more imperiously demanded the sacri. hurried into the contest, might haveena. fice of his strange policy; and on no bled her to meet

it without very great principle could he be called upon to apprehension. Her whole force in intake the lead in the execution of the fantry consisted of more than 300,000 frantic project which the French ruler men; her cavalry amounted to 40,000, had conceived, or submit to greater in addition to which there were 50,000 hardships than the author of this novel cossacks, and a numerous militia rapid. scheme of warfare. When the Rus- ly organising. But one hundred thou. : sian government, therefore, prohibited sand of her best soldiers would at the importation of British goods, ex- this period have been unavailing in any cept under special licences, and in neu- contesť with France ; they were emtral ships, it did all that it was bound ployed against the Turks and Persians, to do towards executing the treaty of and in watching the movements of Tilsit ; for this very obvious reason, Sweden. Delay was, therefore, of that it did all which the author of this great importance to Russia ; and it very compact had been able to per- was, perhaps, of no less importance to form even within the confines of his her enemies. own dominions.

Buonaparte had been more urgent This imperfect obedience, however, and imperious in his demands than acdid not satisfy the French ruler; and tive in his preparations. In 1811, he the Russian government must have had about 60,000 men in Germany, known from the beginning that it including the garrisons of Stettin, would not.-Preparations had accord-: Custrin,

and Glogau ; from the duchy ingly been made so early as the spring of Warsaw he might have drawn about of 1811, to meet the crisis which was the same number ; while the confede. fast approaching. Two hundred thou-' ration of the Rhine, whose contingent sand troops were concentrated in the was 100,000 men, could not at this western provinces of the Russian em-' time have supplied more than the half pire ; 500,000 muskets and 2000 pieces of that number. By the spring of the of ordnance were manufactured with following year, however, the French unexampled rapidity; the cannon from armies had been greatly augmented ; the arsenals in the interior were se. the troops of the confederation had cretly dispatched towards the frontier, been raised to the stipulated quota, and the fortifications on the Dwina and the kings of Saxony and Naples were strengthened and improved.

had been compelled to prepare for The open violation of the treaty of embarking in the great enterprise aTilsit by the seizure of the duchy of gainst Russia. The armies which Oldenburgh, might have been follow. Buonaparte had thus assembled on ed by an immediate declaration of war the frontiers of Russian Poland, a. from Russia ; but her preparations mounted, by the most moderate comwere yet far from being completed, putation, to upwards of 400,000 men, and she was still engaged in hostilities and by other accounts to upwards of with Turkey. Even at this period, 600,000,* in a state of the highest however, it thus appears that she had discipline and equipment, accustomed

**The following statement is presumed to be the most accurate, as it is taken from the French official documents of last year. The French official details have again and again informed us, that the 9th and ilth corps, acting as reserves under Belluno (Victor) and Castiglione (Augereau), were 30,000 strong each at the beginning of the cam.

VOL. V. PART I.

Y

to victory, and commanded by the first all were animated by the lively enthu. military talents of the age.

siasm so characteristic of that people, Such were the mighty preparations and so natural to the circumstances in made on each side. They correspond. which the army was now placed. ed to the greatness of the interests Their courage, the result of this enwhich were at issue ; the Russians thusiasm, prompted by vague aspirings were about to contend for their very after military glory, and sustained by existence as an independent nation ; feelings of devotion to their country, the French, on the other hand, were promised great enterprise and temerity now to aim a blow which should bring in the outset of the campaigo ; an enthe whole continent of Europe under terprise which had often triumphed their dominion. In numbers the com- over the supineness of their enemies, batants were not at first on a footing and a temerity which had more than of equality; and in discipline, in science, once given the imposing aspect of suin the organisation of the army, the perior genius and power to frantic da. French had a marked superiority. The ring and extravagance. The fatal in. whole resources of a mighty empire, fluence of that intrigue which had purpre-eminent in civilization, yet devoted chased so many conquests to France, to war, had been exhausted ; every formed an important item in the cal. aid which experience and skill could culation of her present fortunes ; and give in the application of these re. all these circumstances, thus combined, sources had been contributed ; the seemed to bestow upon her councils accumulated means and varied talents and armies many important advantawhich twenty years of successful war ges over those of the enemy. had created, were concentrated in this The Russians possessed other ad. formidable host. It was composed of vantages for the approaching contest, soldiers grown old in victory, or of which may seem almost to have overthe successors of those who had pe balanced those of the enemy. They had rished in the midst of triumphs ; and been driven into a state of warfare by

paign, though afterwards increased ; and we may fairly conclude, that those which were to be engaged in immediate service were at least equally complete, if not more so. The total force would therefore stand thus, and the subsequent losses shew that this statement must be tolerably correct ;

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Vide " Statement of the Population of Russia," &c. by James M'Queen, Glasgow, 1812.

the necessity of defending their country commands of his superiors, or to disre. from a foreign yoke ; they had made gard the calls of religion and patriotism every concession which justice and poli. inthe hour of danger. The fear of death cy demanded, and it was almost certain, never invaded his breast; the wretched therefore, that the people would be sophis ry which would have made him animated by the most furious and des- indifferent to the fate of his country, perate courage. They had few distin. was too subtle for his honest mind; guished generals, but they had many the impiety, which in the more civilimen of bold and vigorous minds, who zed states of Europe has threatened required only the strange combination to unhinge society, had never penetra. of circumstances, which Buonaparte ted the remote regions which he dewas hastening, to draw forth their lighted to call his home. The Rusnatural talents. The military art, it sian government thus possessed the has been often remarked, requires most powerful resources of defence in not the highest gifts, either of the the genius, condition, and character of head or heart ; and barbarous nations the people in their native braveryin general possess a great deal more of their passive obedience-their devoted that species of talent which qualifies a patriotism, and their amiable superstiman for the conduct of a fierce and tion. Had a general and decisive battle obstinate contest, than their more po- been risked at the beginning, the sci. lished neighbours. The Russian ge- ence and discipline of the enemy might nerals might be defective in science, indeed have prevailed, but the triumph but they possessed, in great perfec. would have been achieved only after tion, all the characteristics of patient, the most severe loss, and the

progress daring, and intrepid soldiers. In their of the enemy would have been over natural and personal qualifications in the dead bodies of the Russians. With courage

and

perseverance, they ex- a population so brave and persevering, celled their antagonists; and it was that nothing could overcome its reto be hoped, that a protracted strug- sistance-a country so extended, that gle would bestow on them that ex. a million of soldiers would have been perience in which they might at first unable to retain even military possesbe deficient. The Russian soldiers sion of it, and an army, which in num. had long maintained a very high cha. bers was nearly equal, in courage suracter; if they were less active than perior, and in discipline alone inferior, the French, they were far more reso- to the enemy, there seemed to be but lute and steady ; if their onset might little chance that the French would be less hasty and vigorous, they could succeed in their enterprise. sustain the conflict with more firmness Before entering upon hostilities, to and determination ; if they had less which Buonaparte seemed in this indiscipline, they had more native cou- stance more than usually reluctant, he rage ; if they could not rally so fast, addressed, through his minister for fo. neither would they be so soon thrown reign relations, various remonstrances into disorder; if they had not, in the to the Russian government. Russia, present instance, the hopes of conquest he said, had violated the treaty of Til. to animate them, they had a sense of du- sit; that treaty, the principles of which ty, the feelings of patriotisin, and the she had solemnly espoused in her de. sanctions of religion to confirm their na- claration of war against England. So tive bravery. The Russian soldier was soon as the ukase of the Russian

gonever known to abandon the post com. vernment, permitting the importation mitted to his charge--to disobey the of British goods under neutral flags had been issued, the treaty of Tilsit rence of Russia in favour of the Duke was at an end. The Emperor of Ruse of Oldenburgh, who, as a member of sia had forgotten all that he owed to the confederation of the Rhine, was the clemency and magnanimity of the under the protection of France alone, French government. The seizure of and he would have acceded even to Oldenburgh was necessary to the con- such a modification of the continental tinental system ; but Russia, in con- system, as the necessary wants of Rus. tempt of her solemn obligations, had sia should seem to demand ; but the resisted this seizure, had remonstrated

course pursued by Russia indicated against it, and had even gone so far as clearly that she wished not to secure to dissuade the duke from accepting the independence of the duchy of the indemnity which France was will. Warsaw, but to seize upon it herself; ing to have bestowed on him. These that she cared not about the Duke of events occurred in 1810, but in 1811 Oldenburgh, except as she might make the real designs of Russia, said her his affairs a pretext for quarrelling enemy, became still more apparent. with France ; and that it was not her The Russian armies, raised and sup- own commerce she wished to cherish, ported at an enormous expence, now but the alliance of England, which threatened the army of the duchy of she was desirous of cultivating. Warsaw, which was compelled to re. To these groundless accusations pass the Vistula, although at this very Russia could have no difficulty in remoment all the French troops were plying. Some doubts, however, seem within the Rhine, excepting 40,000 still to have hung over the mind of the men stationed at Hamburgh to pre. Emperor Alexander ; and great as his serve the public tranquillity. These preparations had been, great as was preparations could have but one ob- the necessity for dissolving his omiject ; yet the French emperor, still nous alliance with France, he yet he. unwilling to believe that Russia would sitated to commit every thing to the again commit herself in a struggle decision of the sword. Buonaparte, with France, proposed an arrangement in the meantime, took care to strengthwhich should have been satisfactory. en the cause of his enemies by some The independence of the duchy of acts of unequivocal violence and perWarsaw, as stipulated by the treaty of fidy; for, instead of evacuating Prussia, Tilsit—the annexation of Oldenburgh, he occupied in greater force than be. which the war with England had ren- fore those parts of it from which Rus. dered indispensable, and which the spi- sian Poland could be most advantagerit, if not the letter, of the treaty of ously assailed, and then proceeded to Tilsit prescribed the recall of the seize Swedish Pomerania. - The Rusukase of 1810, and the enactment of sian ambassador, in his reply, availed clear and efficient laws against trade in himself of these circumstances ; he obEnglish goods, and with denationali- served, that the real, and not the nozed vessels, were the conditions on minal, neutrality of Prussia, was indiswhich Buonaparte was still desirous pensable to the security of the Russian of coming to a good understanding empire; that the sincerity of France with Russia. Had the independence in her pretended alliance with the latof the duchy of Warsaw been ac- power

was more than questionable, knowledged, Buonaparte would have while this important article of the bound himself to attempt nothing for treaty of Tilsit remained unperformed, the freedom of the Poles'; he would and while the Russian frontier was haye consented even to the interfea thus at all times exposed to the incur

ter

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