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long survive their destruction. The assuredly have been visited by some conviction that their losses would be feelings of horror, and have dreaded deprivations to the enemy also; that that the hour should come, when he in the flames perished his most impor- must account for the scene before tant resources, was their sincere con

him to the Being, by whom himself sol New fires broke forth where and all the creatures now perishing in ever the French soldiers directed their his sight were alike created. If ever ruthless steps. Women cast themselves his conscience has spoken if ever it into the flames to escape insult ; and has made itself heard, it was in one of no sacrifice to patriotism was left un- these dreadful nights. The flames of performed. On the morning of the Moscow must have been to him the third day after the entrance of the torch of the furies !"-This scene of enemy a violent wind arose, and then horrors had indeed some effect on the indeed the conflagration became gene- mind of Buonaparte; but the impulse ral. In less than an hour the whole which directed him was of a nature extent of the capital for many versts entirely selfish. He foresaw that he seemed a sheet of flame. The im would have need of Moscow entire, to mense tract of land above the river, shelter his followers during the winwhich was formerly covered with ter ; and he therefore exerted himself, houses, was one sea of fire; and the although without effect, to arrest the sky was hidden from our eyes by the progress of the flames, and to restore tremendous volumes of smoke which order in the city by the semblance of rolled over the city. Dreadful as was civil authority. By threats and pro. the calamity, though it even menaced mises, he at last prevailed on a few the lives of our destroyers, yet they wretches, at the head of whom was felt no pity; not a touch of remorse M. Lesseps, the ci-devant French concame near their obdurate hearts. Still sul at St Petersburgh, to assume the they proceeded in search of plunder ; functions of civil magistracy; but still they heaped crime upon crime, their authority was disregarded, and and aggravated, by every act of cruel. their persons insulted even in the streets ty, the tremendous horrors of the of Moscow. -The French ruler had

Surely the Almighty Judge, already committed himself too far with in his utmost wrath, never before pre- his soldiers to venture on the prompt sented so awful a spectacle to man- chastisement of the enormities which kind. Where was there an asylum, they were now perpetrating; he had at this awful moment, for suffering promised them the plunder of Moscow, humanity ?—where for feeble age, and they determined that he should shrinking from the impending ruin - keep his word. When he came with. where for the bleeding limbs of the in sight of the capital, he said to his young patriot !--where for the frantic soldiers, “ Behold the end of your maid, flying from the grasp of the law, campaign ; its gold and its plenty are less ruffian? There was no refuge on yours ;” and after all the disappointearth; and guilt, for a time, had its ments which they had already expetriumph. Napoleon, from the win- rienced in this luckless campaign, it dows of the Kremlin, must have con- might have been dangerous for their templated the progress of this deluge chief had he dared to restrain them. of destruction. While he shuddered, Examples were at last made of one or for his own sake, at the stormy ocean two of the most atrocious delinquents; of fire swelling on all sides, and ur. but even these were without effect on ging its waves towards him, he must the army: the invaders still advanced in their career of guilt ; their discipline honourable to the Russian chiefs than and activity relaxed apace, until their discreditable to their enemies, to whom excesses became so great as to con- they remained so long unknown. The tribute in no small degree to the aw. French, however, when they heard of ful catastrophe which was approach the advance of the Russians, dispatching.

scene.

ed from Moscow strong divisions to The Russian army, after various occupy all the adjoining roads by maneuvres which deceived the ene.

which a surprise might have been atimy, took up the position which tempted. had been selected by the counsels of But the French ruler was now awatheir chief. Their right stretched kened from his vision of conquest, and across the Toula road, their centre all the horrors of his situation at once occupied the old, and their left the opened to his view. His soldiers benew Kalouga road; and by this dis- came turbulent and clamorous ; they position the most fertile provinces of demanded from their leader that

peace the empire were placed beyond the which he had promised to dictate in the cnemy's grasp. General Dochtoroff Russian capital. The blood through was sent towards Monjaisk to act in which they had waded to Moscow, the rear of the French; and Cossacks had never for a moment inspired them were employed in all directions to in- with one sentiment of pity or remorse ; terrupt their supplies. Thus was the but the awful retribution which they French army in a great measure sur- now saw inevitable, and of which they rounded without any hope but in re- were to become the victims, speedily treat, and that a retreat which threa. changed their resolution. Buopatened the most serious difficulties. parte saw at once the perils of his si. The whole Russian empire was in a state tuation ; he perceived that peace could of activity; and reinforcements of regu- now afford the only hope to him and lar and irregular troops were arriving his followers ; but he was yet unwil

. every day to secure the annihilation of ling to stoop from the attitude of conthe invaders. It is a remarkable circum- quest, and to implore the forbearance stance, that the enemy remained for of those whom he had so deeply in. some time in perfect ignorance as to jured. His dignity seemed still to the numbers and position of the Rus- require that he should be addressed sian armies, and seem to have enjoyed as a conqueror; and he was perhaps the fallacious security of a moment. afraid, that, if he had talked of peace, He may have thought that the Rus. the weakness of his situation, and sians had for ever abandoned the cause the extent of his fears, must have of the empire ; and that, overwhelmed been exposed to his enemy. He wait. with despondency by the fall of Mos. ed, therefore, in anxious expectation, cow, they had lost all their spirit, and that proposals of some kind might had begun to despair. From this vain come from Russia; he' trusted to his dream, however, he was roused by erroneous impressions of the character the appearance of Russian forces in of the Russian government and peohis rear ; for Winzengerode, who ple; but all his expectations were dis. had been stationed at Twer, had al. appointed. The fatal delay which he ready sent forward parties of his troops required as a sacrifice to his pride, was to Monjaisk, and got into communica. increasing his difficulties every motion with detachments from the grand ment ; his stores were exhausted, his army. These movements were no less supplies intercepted, and already his

troops had become the victims of fa. this singularity. Buonaparte has never mine and disease. They were impa- desired peace, except when he had eitient from suffering, and despised all ther obtained the ultimate objects of the rules of discipline ; the efforts of war, or had at all events made a great their leaders to restrain their discon. progress towards them as circum. tent were unavailing. Famine forced stances at the time would permit; and them to the most dreadful extremities; as soon as this point was gained, surely they sallied forth into the adjoining no man had so much reason to wish country in quest of sustenance, and for peace, as the person to whom a fell a sacrifice to the peasantry, who general pacification promised to se. watched their movements with vindic- cure the grand points of his ambitive ferocity. It was obvious, there. tion. Some persons have very

much fore, that to keep them longer in the admired the magnanimity of the man, position which they occupied, would be who, in the moment of victory, so freto expose them to lingering but inevit. quently offered terms of peace to his able destruction. The pride of Buo. enemy; but they should recollect, that naparte was humbled; he was at last as soon as victory had conducted him compelled to give way to circumstan. to his immediate end, it became his ces, and to sue for peace to those, manifest interest to secure, by treaty, over whom, but a few short weeks be. what he held but on a precarious foota fore, he had pretended to exercise the ing-what he owed to the chance of rights of conquest.

war, and could never, from the nature The effort which the French ruler of his authority, claim in virtue of any was compelled to make was humilia- title hitherto recognized in moderný ting in the extreme ; and he endea. Europe. Buonaparte was a mere. sol. voured to disguise its real character dier; he recollected that the acquisi. by affecting, as usual, a sincere desire tions of a soldier and an usurper are for the repose of nations. It is a sin. held by a precarious tenure, and he gular circumstance, that this disturber wished, on all occasions; to superadd of the peace of Europe, whose life be to the right of conquest the solid tigan amid scenes of bloodshed and mi. tle which is conferred by the princisery, has on all occasions been the ples of political and international law. first to profess an ardent desire of With a wise deference to the preju. peace, and to affect the greatest sym. dices of human nature, he preferred the pathy with the sufferings of humanity. acquisition of a territory by treaty to It is easy to account for this in the the occupation of it by force, and provulgar way, by saying that such dently endeavoured to sink the soldier professions were the result of mere in the politician, artifice on the part of this personage,

General Lauriston, a favourite diwhose conviction of the great share plomatist of Buonaparte, was sent which he has had in all the commotions with a flag of truce to the Russian of the last fifteen years, and of the head-quarters. After an idle preface odium which such a course must have about the anxiety of his master to prebrought upon his name, may have vent the farther effusion of blood, he led him to hope to counteract it by announced the readiness of Buonaparte professions of more than ordinary still to treat with the Russian court. warmth for the happiness of his fellow The answer of Prince Kutusoff was

There is another view of resolute; he said, that, as to the effu. his character, however, which may sion of blood, there was no Russian perhaps afford a better explanation of who would not sacrifice bis life in this contest, and that nó terms could be negociation, he should forward a let. entered into while an enemy remained ter from Buonaparte to the Emperor within the Russian territory.--Buona- Alexander. “ I will do that,” (re. parte was incensed by this refusal ; but plied Kutusoff) “ provided the word as the discontent of his army became peace is not expressed in that letter. more alarming than ever, he affected I would not be a party in such an into believe that Kutusoff had exceeded sult to my sovereign, nor have a hand his powers in this peremptory rejection in forwarding to him, what he would of the French proposals, and that as instantly order to be destroyed in his soon as they should reach the Empe- presence. You already know on what ror Alexander, negociations would be terms alone offers of peace will be atopened. The most extravagant re,

creatures.

tended to. His imperial majesty, we ports were in the mean time circulated know, will keep firm to his resolves, throughout the French army ; Riga, as we shall stand stedfast in ours to it was pretended, had been taken by support the independence of the emassault ; Macdonald had entered Pe- pire.” This reply was noble, and al. tersburgh in triumph; a large convoy together worthy of the great general was on its way to the relief of the to whom it has been ascribed. It

may grand army ; and the sufferings of the be remarked, however, that he seems Russians were yet more severe than to have entertained the strongest

dis. those of their enemies. While these like to the interference of his master efforts were made to deceive the sols in these momentous negociations, and diers, famine and disease spread their was very unwilling that any

offers of ravages throughout the camp ; and peace from Buonaparte should be althe Russian armies were already begin- lowed to reach his ear. He assigns a ning to inflict that signal chastisement, reason for this, which is in the highest the account of which will afterwards degree flattering to the character of form so prominent a feature in the the emperor ;

but there are some history of this memorable campaign. who have put a different interpretation

The Russian Generals Dochtoroff, on this transaction, and have insinuaKorff, Milaradovitch, and Winzen: ted that the firmness of Alexander gerode, who, with their detached might have been shaken by the articorps, occupied all the roads which fices of his enemy. That the benefisurrounded Moscow, cut off the sup- cent feelings of this great monarch plies; dispersed the straggling parties might have been in some measure at of the enemy, and took many prison. variance with his policy, when the war ers. The sufferings and discontent of was first undertaken, is extremely prothe French increased ; and yet there bable ; but after the destruction of was no intelligence that the proposals Moscow, and the forlorn condition of of their ruler had been listened to at the invader, were known to him, it is St Petersburgh. They now saw be. difficult to discover what inducement fore them nothing but the prospect of he could have had to relax in his pothe most cruel and lingering death ; licy: The die was cast-the measure and their suspicions of their leader, by of Russian suffering had now been whom they had been betrayed, were filled up; retribution was ready to confirmed. He saw this, and once overtake the foe ; and in such circummore humbled himself so far, as to stances, could the mildest and most pasend Count Lauriston to the Russian ternal of sovereigns have interposed head-quarters, to demand, that if to arrest its, progress ? The prince Prince Kutusoff would not listen to might with all safety have trusted to

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the resolution of his master ; he must armistice and a negociation for peace, have known this ; and, at all events, the Russian general-in-chief replied would scarcely, without authority, with firmness, “ It is not time for us · have dared to become responsible in to grant

either the one or the other, circumstances so full of peril. The when the campaign on our part is just reasons which he assigned, therefore, opening.”—Thus were extinguished when he declined to consult the ca. all the bopes which had for a while binet of St Petersburgh, were doubt. sustained the sinking spirits of Buonaless those which really influenced him, parte and his army: His disappointwhatever may be said by the calum- ment on account of what was past, was niators of the Russian name.

equalled only by his apprehension of The contemptuous refusal of Buo. what was to come ; and in order to naparte's second offer for negociation withdraw from the scene of misery, exasperated him to madness, and he which was every day extending around would assuredly have attempted some. him, he abandoned Moscow, and rething decisive in this mom nt of frenzy, turned to the palace of Petrofsky, had his fears not whispered to him, where he had formerly expected the that his own soldiers had now become Russian authorities to welcome him almost as dangerous to him as the ene- to the capital. Here he was left to my. The foreigners in his service de meditate on his errors, and form unserted in thousands, and carried intel. availing plans for extricating his folligence of all kinds to the Russians; lowers from the difficulties which sureven the French were seized with de rounded them. spair. There was neither advance nor The desire of revenge was the first retreat for them ; no means of subsist. impulse of his mind. He determined ence for the present, no hope of de- that Moscow should bear lasting marks liverance for the future. It remained of his resentment, and that whatever for their leader but to make one fur- of its magnificence yet remained should ther effort at negociation. Lauriston fall a sacrifice to his disappointed was again ordered into his presence, hopes. He summoned his officers to and desired, for the third and last time, the place where he had now fixed his to repair

to the head-quarters of Prince residence ; he ordered them to intiKutusoff with new proposals for an mate to the soldiers that the barbaarmistice, and with an offer that the rous warfare of the Russians had reFrench should evacuate Moscow, and duced the capital so much, that he take up a position in the neighbour- could no longer avail himself of it as hood, where the terms of a treaty a military position, and that he had, might be afterwards arranged. -- therefore, determined on abandoning The Russians were not to be deceived it. The severity of a Russian winter by such overtures ; they had their ene- called upon him to provide for the my in their power; they had every comfort of his followers ; and he meant thing to gain by the continuance of therefore to lead them into other

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every thing to lose by its vinces of the empire, where all their abrupt and unseasonable termination ; wants would be supplied. When the and, above all

, they were perfectly return of spring should again open the sensible that the evacuation of Mos- field to their prowess, they would cow, which the French ruler seemed triumph in every quarter, and, advan. tu hold out as an inducement, would cing upon St Petersburgh, erase the have counteracted all their plans of name of Russia from the list of Eurovengeance. To the proposal for an pean nations.

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