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Orders were given by Buonaparte sufficient natural strength to be deto his generals, and by them announ- fended by a garrison of less than 20,000 ced to the army, to complete the de- men ; that so many could not be spastruction of Moscow. These orders red without forfeiting advantages of were obeyed with ferocious alacrity; greater moment; and that Moscow, and scenes occurred of which it is im. now a heap of ruins, was not worth so possible to give even a faint impres- great a sacrifice.-The enemy's official sion. The soldiers indulged all their reports gave an exulting account of vile passions with confidence, for their the success of this grand enterprise. atrocities had the sanction of their “ All the adjoining buildings having leader. For eight days every species been emptied with great care, and the of crime was committed with impuni. Kremlin being judiciously mined, at ty; nor did this memorable tragedy two o'clock in the morning of the 23d conclude until Moscow was no more. of October it was blown into the air On this subject it is impossible to ex. by the Duke of Treviso (Mortier.) aggerate ; for every description must The arsenal, the barracks, the maga. fall beneath the dreadful reality. Let zines, all have been destroyed. This him who doubts this, recollect to what ancient citadel, from which is dated a state of desperation the minds of the the foundation of the empire, this first French soldiers had been wrought up palace of the czars, exists no more!" by disasters and calamities of all kinds This is, however, a very erroneous ac•
-- let him recollect what a ruffian solo count of the enemy's success, for he diery is even in their calmest moments was fortunately prevented from exe. and then let him reflect also how cuting his plans to their full extent by much their audacious violence must the activity of the Russian corps in have been inflamed under the sanction the neighbourhood, which arrived in of that power which they were accus- time to save the greater part of this tomed to obey. When he takes these venerable edifice. circumstances into account, he
be Early in the month of October the able to form some faint idea of these French sent out strong detachments disgraceful scenes; but he will yet have from Moscow, that they might dedifficulty in believing, that in the nine- ceive Winzengerode and the other teenth century the most unparalleled Russian generals as to the real more. atrocities should have been committed ments of their army. It was at first by the armies of a nation, which pre- supposed by the Russians that these tends to greater refinement and huma. detachments had been sent out merely nity than the other states of Europe. to plunder the surrounding country;
It was the intention of Buonaparte but they were soon undeceived by the to have placed a garrison in the Krem- reports of deserters and prisoners. lin, and to have retained military pos. Winzengerode received intelligence session of Moscow. With this view, he also, that the enemy's force still re. employed his troops in fortifying the maining in Moscow was very much repalace; but when he discovered the full duced, and on the 19th of October extent of the perils to which he was he observed that the corps under Mor. exposed, he abandoned this project ; tier, stationed on the Monjaisk road, he had the palace undermined, and had fallen back towards the capital. gave orders that it should be destroy. He sent a small party to reconnoitre ed. He thought proper to assign his the new positions which the enemy reasons for taking this step. He told had taken up; and the Russians were his followers that the Kremlin had not enabled gradually to approach even to
the city without opposition. They authorities contributed to the restora. were at last assailed, however, by a tion of order ; and, above all, the restrong body of French infantry and appearance of the magnanimous Roscavalry, and must have been cut to topschin filled every heart with confi. pieces but for the opportune arrival of dence and joy. General Iliovaskoy, with the whole Those who recollect, that to the force under his command, by whom councils and example of this nobleman the French were repulsed.-- Winzen- the abandonment of Moscow has been gerode was thus enabled to draw his chiefly ascribed, and whose hearts are forces round Moscow ; and on the 22d too cold to sympathize with the feel. he passed the barriers of the city, ings which at this moment inspired overthrew the enemy, and drove them the people of Russia, may, wonder under the guns of the citadel. At that the apparent author of so many this moment the Russian general, ac- calamities should have excited any companied by his aid.de-camp, rode other sentiments than those of horror forward to the French lines, carrying and indignation. To such persons he a flag of truce, to intimate that fure will appear in the light only of a dese ther resistance by the enemy must be perate and unrelenting barbarian, fillvain, and to propose a capitulation. ed with vulgar antipathies towards the The French answered by making the more civilized enemies of his country, general and his aid-de-camp prisoners. and altogether regardless of the sufferThis singular violation of the usages ings of his fellow creatures -A very of war animated the Russians with re- different view of his character was ta. sistless fury; and on the morning of the ken by his more generous country23d of October, when the first mine men, who attributed to his wise coun. was about to be sprung, which was to cils, and heroic resolution, the deliverlevel the Kremlin to the ground, they ance of their country from a foreign marched forward under their general, yoke. He was not one of those selfIliovaskoy, and seized the incendiaries ish patriots, who advise others to with the torches in their hands. Thus submit to sacrifices frơm which they was the Kremlin saved, and what re. themselves would shrink; for as he mained of Moscow recovered to the was among the most resolute of his Russian empire. Although Buona- countrymen in recommending eternal parte, in his report, had remarked, resistance to the enemy, so was he
that the Kremlin exists no more,' among the foremost in setting an scarcely any part of it had been inju- example of the virtues which he so red; and the Russians, besides reco- strenuously inculcated. Besides his vering their ancient capital, had the houses in Moscow, he had a fine villa satisfaction of saving from the flames in the neighbourhood, to which he thousands of sick and wounded French, set fire with his own hands, having with whom the palace, as well as the first affixed to one of the gates the neighbouring churches, was crowded. following singular notification : “ For The inhabitants of Moscow returned eight years I found my pleasure in to their desolated city; their wants embellishing this country retreat. I were supplied as well as circumstances lived here in perfect happiness within would permit ; and every effort was the bosom of my family; and those made to mitigate as much as possible around me largely partook of my fethe severity of suffering, which no hu- licity. But you approach, and the man power could altogether relieve. peasantry of this domain, to the num. The return of the civil and military ber of 1720 human beings, fly for
mercy, and I set fire to my house! will find nothing but ashes."--So long We abandon all, we consume all, that as this memorable campaign shall be neither ourselves nor our habitations remembered, the name of Rostopschin may be polluted with your presence. will be pronounced with exultation Frenchmen, I left to your rapacity and delight by all those who have any two of my houses in Moscow, full of sympathy with the noblest virtues of furniture and valuables, to the amount human nature. of half a million of rubles. Here you
Russian Affairs continueda The French prepare to retreat. They are sura
rounded by Difficulties. Account of the numerous Engagements which occur. red during the Retreat-of the Sufferings of the French-Of the Dispersion of their Armies, and their Expulsion from the Russian Empire. Buonaparte returns to Paris, and the Russians
The reoccupation of the capital by provincial detachments, and no prosthe Russian troops, was an event of pect before him but the vengeance such importance, that the general-in- of an armed nation, threatening anchief immediately availed himself of nihilation to the whole of his army. the opportunity now offered him for In every Russian he beheld a hero developing his plains, and explaining disdainful of his fallacious promises ; to his soldiers the condition to which in every state of the empire he met their enemies had been reduced, and an insurmountable rampart of pe. the glorious prospects which began to ril to his efforts. After sustaining unfold themselves. The address, which incalculable losses by the attacks of he circulated throughout the army, our brave troops, he recognized at contained many just remarks and noble last the frenzy of his expectations, sentiments; and at the same time gave that the foundation of the empire so faithful a description of the state of would be shaken by his possession of Russian feelings at this great crisis, Moscow. Nothing remained for him that it shall be inserted. It is dated but a precipitate flight ; the resolution the 31st of October, and declared to was no sooner taken than it was exebe for the instruction of the troops: cuted; and he fled, abandoning nearly “! At the moment in which the enemy the whole of his sick to the mercy of entered Moscow," says the general. an outraged people, and leaving Mosin-chief, “ he beheld the destruction cow on the 23d of the month comof those vain hopes by which he had pletely evacuated.
The horrible exbeen flattered ; he expected to find cesses which he committed while in there plenty and peace ; on the con- that city are already well known, and trary, he saw himself deprived of every have left an unconquerable desire of necessary of life ; harassed by long vengeance in the bottom of every Rusmarches'; exhausted for want of pro- sian heart ; but I have to add, that visions ; wearied by our parties inter- his impotent rage exercised itself in cepting his slender resources ; losing, blowing up part of the Kremlin, without the honour of battle, thou- where, by a signal interference of Disands of his troops, cut off by our vine Providence, the sacred temples and cathedral have been saved. Let Wittgenstein, which the enemy scarceus then hasten to pursue this impious ly attempted to interrupt. The French, enemy, while other Russian armies, however, for a moment weakened their once more occupying Lithuania, act force, and withdrew from Mittau ; in concert with us for his destruction. and Essen, knowing the importance Already do we behold him in full of this station, hastened to occupy fight, abandoning his baggage, burn. it, and succeeded almost without ing his war carriages, and reluctantly resistance -General D’Yorck, who separating himself
from those treasures commanded the Prussians in this which his profane hands had torn from quarter, advanced to retake the posithe very altars of God. Already de. tion. Essen, aware of the great supestruction and famine spread confusion riority of the assailants, deemed it pru. before Napoleon, and behind him arise dent to retire in the direction of Riga, the murmurs of his troops, like the where he endeavoured to unite his ar. sound of threatening waves. While my to that of General Steingel, who these appalling sounds attend the re- was acting in front of this place.treat of the French, in the ears of the Steingel's position was at this time Russians resounds the name of their threatened by the French, who had magnanimous monarch. Listen, sol. assembled in considerable numbers in diers, while he thus addresses you, the vicinity of Petergoff, and occupied • Extinguish the flames of Moscow in a station which gave them many ad. the blood of our invaders.' Russians, vantages. The Russian general advan. let us obey this solemn command; our ced to the neighbourhood of a small injured country, appeased by this great village called Garossen, where, on the vengeance, will then retire satisfied morning of the 31st of September, a from the field of war, and behind the severe engagement took place, in which line of her extensive frontier will take the French succeeded at first in dri. her august station, between peace and ving the Russians from their position, glory. Russian warriors, God is our but were afterwards repulsed.--A leader!”- This address had great ef. similar attempt was made by the fect throughout the army, and redou- enemy four several times during the bled the zeal of the soldiers to avenge day, and the same result regularly fol. the cause of their country.
lowed. These affairs, and the intelliWhile these great events occurred gence that the Russians had received in the neighbourhood of Moscow, considerable reinforcements at Riga, some affairs of considerable moment induced Macdonald to form a closer took place in other quarters. A short junction with the Prussians ; and this summary of these events, which may movement had the effect of liberating fix attention on the state of the de. the corps which Wittgenstein had sta. tached corps during the intermediate tioned to observe the French marshal period, will be necessary to a right at Dinaburg. The Prussian auxiliaunderstanding of their movements and ries did not exert themselves on this operations, when they came to act un- occasion with very great zeal ; the der one great system against the re- French already began to abandon the treating enemy.-The army of Gene- shores of the Dwina ; and the Russian ral Essen, in the neighbourhood of generals, unable to comprehend the Riga, for some time maintained the object of these singular movements, position which it had taken up with thought that the enemy prepared to out molestation, and preserved its unite the whole of his tenth division, communication with the corps of Count and fall at once upon Riga with big