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avert their minds from these delusive dead weight. But if they struck off phantoms of imaginary happiness and from the list all who were in possesunattainable perfection, I am as yet sion of places on the one side, he ho. unable to foresee; I am willing to ped they would not object to strike hope for the best ; but there are symp- off all who were in expectation of toms in the public mind and in the places on the other. And they would conduct of some of our most eminent give him leave to couple with this public men, that make me tremble for consideration a request that it might the worst."

be Allusions were made in the course possessed but by one, but it could be of the debate to the number of place expected by more than one. Let men and pensioners in the house, to them then take away whose votes the triumphs of ministers sessed places on the one side, and who over their opponents were of course expected them on the other, and he ascribed. These reflections drew a would be perfectly willing to go to a short reply from Mr Perceval, of division with the rest." Besides its which the following passage places intrinsic merit, this passage will not this famous topic of declamation in a be without interest to many readers ; very luminous point of view. " He the words were among the last which had no objection to the lists of the were spoken by Mr Perceval in the majority and minority being dissect- House of Commons. The speech, af ed. If this were done in order to leave which this forms a part, was pronounnone who were biassed by interest in ced on Friday the 8th May, 1812, and favour of government, all the place on Monday the 11th this great and men would be at once struck off as a virtuous man was assassinated.

those who pos

be remembered, that a place could

CHAP. III.

Returns under the Population Act laid before Parliament. Barrack Estimates.

Debates on some recent Appointments. Mr Creevey's Motion respecting the Tellership of the Exchequer. Sinecure Office Bill. The Budget. Finance Resolutions.

The increase of population has, in of protracted warfare have not been general, been considered by statesmen felt, but that the energies of the coun. as a great advantage in itself

, and an try have risen superior to the difficul. unequivocal symptom of the prosperi. ties with which it has been surround. ty and happiness of the state. The ed, the advantages of an increased poresearches of an able and original wri. pulation are at once unquestionable ter of the present day have thrown new and unmixed; and the reasons for con. lights on the subject'; they have shewn gratulating the country on such a state that a proposition which was once al- of things may be deduced from the most universally received, must be ta. most enlarged and liberal principles of ken under important limitations; that political, philosophy. Such was, in the increase of population is not in it. fact, the state of England, after twenself a positive good, but may in some ty years of general warfare, in which cases be a very strong symptom of mis. she took so great a part and made so government, and that it is only when conspicuous a figure. the means of subsistence are increased A comparative statement of the poin the same ratio with the numbers of “pulation of the several counties of the people, that the rapid growth of Great Britain in the years 1801 and population ought to be desired. The 1811, together with the returns under general principle which pervades the the act passed in the last session of Essay on Population must command parliament, were laid before the House the assent of all who are capable of un- of Commons. It may

be derstanding the subject; but, like many mention here, that no regular census other excellent principles, it is often had been taken of the population of forgotten amid the complication of de- England, Scotland, and Wales, until tails, and the variety of aspects which the year 1801, when Mr Abbot’s bill every great political question presents was passed, which was followed up in in its application to practice. But the last session by Mr Rose's act, unwhen we find that population has been der which the late enumeration was increasing, while the comforts of the completed. When the accounts were great body of the people have, at the presented, Mr Rose made some excel. same time, been improved; that the leột remarks on this important sublosses inevitably sustained in a course ject. From the papers on the table, it appeared, that, in the course of the the people with food. The high price last ten years, viz. since the census of of provisions at home, and the uncer1801, an increase of population, to the tainty of a supply of grain from other amount of more than one million and countries, called upon the legislature a half, had taken place. In England to devise means to enable the country that increase appeared to be in a ra- to sustain its population independent. tio of fourteen per centum, in Wales ly of foreign aid.—The amount of twelve, and in Scotland thirteen. This the importations of grain was placed increase of population exhibited an in a clear point of view by an account extent and duration unexampled in the produced about the same time with history of the country, and what was the returns of the population. By that still more surprising the increase of account it appeared, that during ele. the males had been as great as that ven years, from 1775 to 1786, the of the females. The total popula- average quantity of grain imported an. tion of England, Scotland, and Wales, nually was 564,413 quarters; from in 180 was 10,472,048 ; it now 1787 to 1798, 1,136,101 quarters ; amounted to 11,911,644, making an and from 1799 to 1810, including three increase of 1,439,596 persons actually years of scarcity, 1,471,003 quarters. resident in the country ; which, add. The average prices were 30s. per quar. ed to 170,000 serving in the army and ter, in the first period, 40s. in the senavy abroad, made a total amount of cond, and 60s. in the third. During 1,609,498. It is a singular proof of the last year not less than 4,271,0001. the energies of the country, that the went out of the country for the sustepopulation should have increased so nance of the inhabitants-a matter of fast, when the drain of men for the most serious importance to the public army, navy, and mercantile service is interest. By another account, it apconsidered. It might be said, that at peared that the consumption of wheat a period when the country exhibited and four imported from foreign counsuch an increased population, employ. tries, had been progressively increament for the lower orders had dimi. sing from 1775 to the present time. nished; but in the manufacturing coun- In 1810, the quantity imported was ties, and there only, had a temporary 693,000 quarters, which clearly profailure occurred. Every where else, ved that the increase in the consumpthe demand for labour kept pace with tion of wheat was greater than that the increase of the population. But which had taken place in all the other taking the whole circumstances of the kinds of grain ; and that those who country into 'consideration, it was of did not formerly consume wheat, now great importance to the empire that the made it a principal part of their population exhibited this progressive food. To meet the growing wants of increase. Some persons wereof opinion, the population, without having rethạt the apparent increase in the pre- course to foreign countries, formed sent census arose, in some measure, one of the great objects of an enfrom the imperfect execution of the lightened legislation. The inclosure former act; but the census of 1801, of commons and waste lands had been which was entrusted to the same per- carried to a great extent ; but had not sons who were employed on the pre- kept pace with the necessities of the sent cccasion, was very nearly correct. country. All the lands fit for the A subject of very grave importance growth of barley, cats, &c. Mr Rose stood connected with this increase of observed, should be continued under population--the facility of supplying that species of tillage ; and every en

proper to

be some

couragement should be given to the of this eminent man formed a fine planting of potatoes, which would contrast to the violence of him who grow in soils unfit for the cultivation aspired to be his antagonist.In anof grain. The fisheries constitute ano. swer to some objections which had ther important source of supply; al- been started by preceding speakers, though it is a singular circumstance the Chancellor of the Exchequer said, that in a maritime country, such as “ that there was a real necessity for this, fish is rarely to be seen, except at erecting new barracks for the Life the tables of the rich, the poor recei. Guards. Government had been acving little or no benefit from so nutri- tually ejected from the possession tious an aliment. There may

of the present ones, and was obliged prejudices against it ; but the exertions to make a new agreement with the of gentlemen in the different districts lessor, paying an annual addition of of the country, if rightly directed, 9501. for the convenience of remainmight remove them. Mr Rose conclu- ing in them two or three years longer ded, by remarking, that every encou- till others were built. The system ragement was due to any plan which of having the men diffused over the promised to introduce a variety of nu- metropolis, away from their horses and tritious food amongst the lower orders, accoutrements, he thought a very reto save a sum of 3,500,0001. annually prehensible one. What might have to the country, increase its agricul- been the consequences, had such a ture, and, by extending its fisheries, system been in practice during the late employ 100,000 persons in that way, disturbances ? Might not the men have which, more than any other, tended to been intercepted by the mob from uphold the naval greatness of the em- reaching their stables, and the peace pire.

of the capital have been most seriously In a committee of supply, Mr endangered !--The honourable gentleWharton 'moved that a sum, not ex- man imagined, that it would be a work ceeding 554,4411. be granted for the of bad taste, but he could assure him, expenses of the barrack department for that he was not conscious of any unthe current year.-In the proposed necessary expense. With respect to grant, a sum of 138,000l. was inclu- the barracks at Bristol, it would be ded as the estimated expense of a new hard to ascertain what sort of building barrack to be built in the. Regent's it should be which was to last during Park, for the second regiment of Life the war, if that was a principle of liGuards ; and various smaller sums for mitation which the house would be innew buildings of the same kind to clined to adopt. If a barrack was to be erected at Liverpool, Bristol, and be built there, considering the extent Brighton. Strong objections were and population of the town, considermade to some of these grants : in con- ing also the accommodation it would sequence of which, a debate of a very afford to the military passing to and singular character arose, of which it from Ireland, he thought it should not would beimpossible to offer an abridge- be built upon any parsimonious scale. ment without doing injustice to all the The money that was thrown away unspeakers. Mr Whitbread seized the der this denomination of expenditure, opportunity for attacking the govern- was chiefly applied to the purchase of ment; and with the ebullitions of his temporary barracks, which were now: patriotism, mixed some personal re. in want of repair. As to Liverpool, Rections on the character of the chief it was considered to be a great inconminister. The mildness and dignity, venience that there should be no bar.

rack there, and with regard to the cient controul.-But did the right ho. expedient of hiring the warehouses for nourable the Chancellor of the Exche, that purpose, he hardly thought that quer think that he wanted military government would be justified in ta- controul over the people of this counking advantage, as it were, of the try? Even at the end of the war, which temporary suspension of trade in that the right honourable gentleman seemplace.”

ed to think would last long, and which Mr Whitbread said, “ that the right he was sure would last as long as the honourable gentleman appeared to him career of the right honourable gentleto have adopted erroneous views upon man, would it be necessary for us to the subject, when he thought it of look forward to the prospect of oversuch little consequence to separate the awing them? Was this a principle to soldiers from the people, as to be sur. be maintained ? Did any one ever hear prised at any objection to a grant for a minister coolly assert it? But the that purpose. The right honourable right honourable gentleman disapprogentleman had not argued that general ved of the idea of applying any of the question ; the time was gone by; but warehouses of Liverpool to the půrhe would declare it as his sentiment, pose of accommodating the military. that he was extremely jealous, and he He who had made the loom useless, was sure the country at large was and the warehouse idle, who had spread jealous, of the separating system. - It starvation and discontent, had disaphad been said, that great advantage proved of that which to him appeared was likely to be derived from the fa- a natural course of proceeding-that bours of the commissioners appointed of filling the warehouses with soldiers to audit General Delancey's accounts. for the purpose of controuling the Perhaps at the end of four or five people under the inflictions he had years, if the country should exist so brought on them and on the counlong under such financiers, that advan- try. But even although the right ho. tage would greatly increase with the nourable gentleman had been endeapractices that rendered it necessary. vouring to make the revenue come up But whence did the advantage arise ? to an hundred millions did he think, What was the necessity under which or could he think, that for three years this boasted saving was made ? The more the country could go on as it want of care in the controuling power; was now going? 'If things proceeded the negligence and mismanagement of as they were now proceeding, if ex. those who, by proper application, penses continued to accumulate, and ought to have prevented the occur. means to diminish, they must look for rence of evils instead of leaving us to relief to a peace with the enemy, a be obliged to the commissioners for peace which his measures had renderthe ascertainment of their extent. It ed unavoidable. In the transactione was expected that if the commission. of past years he saw many great and ers proceeded, many other defalcations glorious opportunities of ending this would appear.

To him this was not war neglected and lost, while, at preconsoling. An honourable gentleman sent, the system of the right honourahad stated once, that the Chancellor ble gentleman was calculated to proof the Exchequer was the victim of duce the necessity of peace by subthe departments, and the public were mission. But why was it necessary given to understand that the honoura. that the horse and the soldier should ble gentleman had left the treasury be more together now than at any through disgust at the want of a suffi- other time? Did any reason exist now,

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