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Brahmin, was preordained to a blessed | rective power. It is not often that people life here and hereafter. The institution sufficiently realize the value to the comof civil society in India is a vast web of munity of those individuals who disfate which overshadows the individual, cover new avenues of employment. How and prevents the mobility which is many cities, like Manchester and Lowell. thought essential to humanity in Europe. have been made almost entirely by the Yet this mobility is not realized any invention of the power loom? Where where in Europe to the degree that it is would be the wealth of this Mississippi in America.
Valley, had no adventurous Fulton inWhereas, in Europe generally, the
vented the steamboat? Or where the ruling class is hereditary to a greater or wealth of the South, had no Whitney inless extent, there is also a separation of
vented the cotton gin? The resources of other classes – the proletary below, and this state are untold, if we can find the the property-holding middle classes above
men to utilize them by mechanic inven. them. The tendency is to prepare the tion! Wealth is not merely exchanged, it people by early education to remain in is created by means of commerce and the the same class — the proletarian's chil
arts of transportation. What vegetable dren to be proletarians still — the land. productions are left ungathered! what holder's children to be landholders again. minerals are undisturbed in their native Mobility of classes is not encouraged to beds! what animals live and die in the any great extent; but far more now than wilderness! These are not wealth to anyformerly. Since the French Revolution body. They must be utilized, and this this has especially increased in France,
cannot be done by mere mechanical and all over Europe to a less degree. The labor. It is the directive intelligence that accident of birth shall not count against is required. This alone will impress self-determination, in America, at least. into its service the elements, and force Here we approach an absolute mobility, them to lift, and tear, and draw for it particularly in "the West,” and every whenever and wherever it lists. The one man is waited upon by the totality of educated directive man of the commusurrounding conditions soon after his ad. nity creates wealth enough to pay all the vent upon this part of the planet, and tuition in all the schools of bis town or pressingly requested to show what power city. When a great industry is created, of will there is in him. The circum- laboring people flock near, seeking the stances all invite him to do the greatest best way to gain a livelihood. This causes deed in his power and receive his wages real estate to double and treble in value; therefor. In a new country — not yet de. this brings commerce, and imerchants veloped — he may serve at any work, thrive on the profits of the goods bought from splitting rails in the woods to hair. and consumed. The whole wealth of the splitting in the court or legislature, or community arises from the application he may try a hand at“ running the of directive intelligence, and the corol. machine" of civil government.
lary deduced is this: No other invest. Finally, the function of education, as re- ment pays so well as a good system of gards the wealth of the community, may schools, kept up to foster the growth of easily be told. The trained and disci. this directive intelligence. The rugged plined mind will not prove a servile imi. soil of Massachusetts, unfitted for agri. tator - an educated boy will not grow culture, and furnishing in quantity only up the mere drudge. It will not require cheap granite as its mineral resource, yet two heads to direct one pair of hands. has a population trained for seven gene.
The most profitable investment a com- rations in public and private schools. munity can make is in men who have di. This population is the most productive
community of its size in the world. Its Here is all fullness,
Ye brave, to reward you ; productive industry amounted, in 1860,
Work, and despair not. to more than the entire staples of the West and South - cotton, tobacco, sugar
The Utility of Classical Studies as a Means of Men
tal Discipline. and rice included; estimating these latter
[A p per read before Wisconsin Teicher's Associat $350,000,000. Natural resources are ation, Dec. 30, 1873, by Prof. W. F. ALLEN, of
the State University.) nothing without the disciplined skill to
By this topic I understand to be intend. use them. Education is productive of wealth to
ed not a general defence of the disciplin. the community, but this is not the most ary value of classical studies, but rather convincing ground to urge in its favor. a definition and analysis of this value; It is the production of civilized men that of benefit derived from them, and the
that is to say, an examination of the kind we aim at. Mere wealth is only an instrument useful in the production of culture. class of students to whom they are best If we care for the education and refine adapted. With this view, I will lay down ment of the boys and girls of the present, the primary object of which is discipline,
the proposition that in a course of study if we see to their spiritual culture, they will grow up strong men and women, cient classics from the very best basis of
there is a certain stage at which the an. and material means will be at their dis. posal. What is the material world to the that in any course of study, so far as the
instruction; and as a corollary to this, presence of the immortal soul! As Carlyle says: “Sweep away the illusion of object is discipline, the ancient classics
are likely to prove the best feature to intime; glance from the near moving cause
troduce at a certain stage. to its far distant mover; compress the
This definition excludes, in the first three-score years into three minutes
place, all purely professional courses of we not spirits that are shaped into a body, into an appearance, and that fade away
study. If the classical languages find a again into air and invisibility? We start place in these, as e. g., Latin in a medical
course and Greek in a theological course, out of nothingness, take figure, and are
it is for their practical usefulness, not for apparations; round us, as round the veri. est spectre, is eternity; and to eternity the second place, all the lower grades of
their disciplinary power. It excludes, in minutes are as years and æons. Thus, like a God-created, fire-breathing spirit.
common school studies. The great mahost, we emerge from the inane, haste jority of persons leave school at so early stormfully across the astonished earth;
an age, that their studies must necessarily
be such as will be of immediately practhen plunge again into the inane. Earth's
tical use for them—the common English mountains are leveled, and her seas filled up, in our passage; can the earth, which and which are well enough adapted to be
branches, which every person must have, is but dead, and a vision, resist spirits
mental discipline required in their case. which have reality and are alive!" To us in our pioneer life, on the verge to what we may call the High School
Our consideration is therefore confined of civilization, these considerations of the supremacy of spirit and of the om- of these courses discipline is the main
Course and the College Course ; in both nipotence of education in elevating man to the position of lord over matter and thing, and practical utility a secondary
The proportion of persons who into the possession of his spiritual birth. right, are peculiarly inspiring. From
have at once the opportunity and the taste the lofty and serene heights of the world's community; but the experience of our
to pursue such a course is small in any history comes to us the still small voice: “ Here eyes do regard you.
seats of learning shows that to make this In eternity's st'llness :
“opportunity," money is far from being
the essential; our most brilliant and suc- many times already. It will be enough cessful scholars are often those whose to say that there is probably no person “opportunities” were simply “brains” who has a fair knowledge of Latin, who and “wit."
is not glad of it; and few persons of culI think that the discussions of the last ture who are devoid of it, who would not few years have resulted in two important be glad to have it. conclusions in regard to College courses; My proposition is, then, that at a cerand I think I shall be supported in bring- tain stage in the High School and College ing High School courses under the same course, the ancient classics form the best category. These are: first, that their pri- means of discipline, and therefore may mary object is discipline, as I have just be pronounced an essential part of such assumed; second, that discipline is only course. To define further what this stage the primary, and not the sole object, and is, it will be necessary to enter into one must be combined with practical useful or two preliminary inquiries, which will ness. That is to say, the problem is to at once show their usefulness as a means decide what studies combine the highest of discipline; and at the same time define degree of mental discipline with some the point in question, the age, or grade, degree at least of practical usefulness in at which they will be found most advanthe work of life. It may very well be tageous. that there are, for example, some develop
Leaving out of view the moral and ments of theoretical mathematics, some aesthetic nature, education must be mainly complicated applications of the rules of directed to the development and training logic, some details of natural history, of three faculties, Observation, Memory which have no conceivable use except in and Reason. This is their natural order: training the reasoning faculties, or exhib
we first observe, then remember, then iting the principles of classification; but reflect. The first two are devoted to the that their serviceableness in these respects acquisition of knowledge, the third to its is so great as to warrant their introduc
application. Following out this divistion into a course of study. There may ion,we come again to a proposition which very well be a certain proportion of mere has been generally agreed to by educamental gymnastics such as these;
tors, and which, therefore, I will not stop course made up exclusively, or in any to argue—that the education of the child large proportion of such studies, can find ought to follow this natural order; that no place is our present schemes of edu observation and memory should come cation. Life is too short, and there is too first, and reasoning afterwards. Not that much hard work to be done in it, to allow the three can or should at any time be much of it to be spent in mere prepara. entirely separated. The weak and imtion; especially since it may be maintain.
mature reasoning powers of the child can ed that in general the studies that give us receive a healthy exercise and developthe best training, the same time give ment at every step in the acquisition of us the best tools.
facts; and it is in this that the skill of I should not be justified, therefore, in the teacher mainly consists. Those teacharguing for the introduction of the clas- ers are equally at fault who make the ensical languages into a course which is tire instruction of the child a matter essentially disciplinary, if it could not purely of memory, and those who on the be proved that the knowledge of these other hand task their reasoning powers languages will be serviceable in after life. too severely by lessons above their comThis point I will not stop to prove, partly prehension. These views are supported because it is not a part of my subject, by the almost unanimous judgment of partly because it has been proved a great experienced writers and thinkers upon education, who are constantly urging the full early enough, if they are placed in introduction of Natural History into the the senior year, at the very end of a long lower grades of schools, and the relega- course of study. The same thing is true tion of the technicalities of English in a degree of scientific and moral subGrammar to the upper classes, where they jects as a whole; in proportion as they belong.
are highly educational, they are difficult At the age, say of ten years, when the and complicated; in proportion as they reasoning faculties should begin to re- are simple and easy, they are unsuited to ceive a moderate exercise on their own this, the main end of education, for the account, no longer incidentally as in the reason that they appeal chiefly to the eye earlier stages of education, probably the and memory, rather than the reasoning best selection of a study that could be faculties. The question is, what branch made for this purpose, is that which has of studies will best fill the gap? will best been made in practice-Mental Arithme develop in the youthful mind the capacity tic. Arithmetic, and the other branches of reasoning upon doubtful and conflict. of mathematics, continued steadily and ing evidence? will form the best intro. moderately,—not in the exorbitant degree duction to those higher sciences,physiwhich is common in our schools-should cal and moral—which task the highest form the staple of inte'lectual education powers of the mind ? for some time after this period.
For this object there is nothing so good The lower mathematics, however, de as the concrete study of language; that Felop the reasoning faculties only on one is, not the abstractions of grammar, but side, that of exact-proof; for this they are the practical dealing with words and indispensable, and this is one indispensa- sentences. The abstract study of lan. ble side of education. But most demon-guage, whether in the philosophy of stration is not exact, but only probable, grammar, or the details of linguistic and to train the reasoning faculties in the science, belong further on, with the highdirection of probable proof, another class er range of subjects which come in best of studies is required. That is to say, to at a more advanced stage. At the period train the mind for its principal work, in question, say from twelve to sixteen that of judging of evidence, when the years of age, the work of translating evidence is conflicting or incomplete, from one language into another when it is possible to come to only a pro- handling its concrete forms-calls into visional and uncertain decision, a mathe active and healthy exercise all the intelmatical training is inadequate. And as lectual powers which need to be exercised this is the character of most of the labor at this stage. The memory plays a large which the intellect has to perform in part, especially in learning words and life, it follows that the main object of a forms; but the translating itself is essendisciplinary education should be to pre- tially a process of reasoning. The rules pare the student to form judgments upon of inflection, indeed, may be so largely uncertain and conflicting evidence.
generalized as to make the learning of For this end a large number of studies paradigms principally a matter of classi. are well adapted, none better than, for fication; and the study of the derivation example, Geology, Physics and Political and relationship of words takes away its Economy, which are studies of the high- purely mnemonic character from the ac. est educational order. But these are quisition of a vocabulary. But when it studies which require as a foundation an comes to constructions, the memory has amount of previous acquirement, in the very little to do with it; the pupil is way of subsidiary sciences, or of obser- obliged from the very first to work logi. vation of facts, which make them come cally—the forms must be determined ac
curately, and the power of each form / ample, is as deserving of minute study must be understood, so that each step in and as favorable to mental discipline as translating shall be not a hap-hazard effort any; but this study must consist in a con. to make the words mean something, but siderable degree of abstractions, or of an intelligent analysis of the elements recondite points of scholarship, for the present, so as to ascertain what they must reason that the work that first engages and actually do mean.
the student of a foreign language, and It is not necessary to enter more mi. which give him the mental exertion I nutely into this argument, because this, have described, is impossible here. The too, is a point well agreed to by educa- boy knows what the sentence means, to tors. Every disciplinary course of study start with; and if he is told to study its intended for the classes in question-High meaning more intently, he is set to a work School pupils and the lower College of subtle and delicate order, unsuited to classes,-is as a matter of fact made to his rough style of mental labor. For consist very largely of the two branches, this reason English affords material for Mathematics and Language. The only only a term or two of severe study adaptpoint with regard to which there is any ed to this stage. And what is true of difference of opinion, is what languages English, is true in a degree of the modare best suited to this end. The old sys- ern languages cognate to English. The tem made use of the ancient languages;; pupil tinds nearly the same order of the present tendency is to institute the words and rules of construction as in his modern languages, and I will admit own language, so that he makes use very frankly that if there is room but for one much more of mere memory, and less language, in a course which while mainly of the reasoning powers. disciplinary, is still intended to finish
This brings us to the second and most the pupils formal education, the claims important argumentthe character of the of some modern tongue could hardly be languages themselves. The reason that resisted. Any language can be made translating from French or German is highly disciplinary: and every course much more a matter of the memory than must have an eye to practical profit as from Latin or Greek, is that their diffi. well as to discipline. Our concern is culties consist in so much greater degree, with courses that admit of more than one in idioms, rather than constructions; a language.
natural result of their analytical charMy proposition is that, apart from prac. 'acter, or use of auxiliaries and preposi. tical considerations, the Latin and Greek tions instead of inflections. There is of languages are intrinsically the best for course a difference in this respect. Gerthe purposes of discipline; so much the man is far less idiomatic than either best, that, if a course were exclusively French or English ; and is for this reason disciplinary, there should be no hesita- , the best adapted for purposes of mental tion, and in any course that admits of discipline; Greek, on the other hand, even but two languages, one of these is more idiomatic than Latin, and for should be one of the two.
this reason less adapted for purposes of The most obvious, although not the mental discipline. It is in the language, weightiest reason, is the very fact of the as in the institutions of Rome, that the remoteness and strangeness of the lan- pupil comes most completely under the guage. It is a mistake, at the age in dominion of law. Now the analysis of question, to try to make the work too idioms is a most useful and interesting easy for superficial labor. Real work, practice at a more advanced stage, but but not too much of it, is the right prin for beginners they are a matter of pure ciple. The English language, for ex. memory, while laws of construction be