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are two districts, or to wait till that A. It becomes, in a certain sense, comes about.

general election day," but cannot be con. Q. If two towns are quite unequal in sidered the general election day.” refer. their liberality in raising money for red to in Chap. 32 of Gen. Laws of 1872. schools, it operates unequally in a district

Q. Our district treasurer died and the joint between them; what is the remedy? surety on his bond took possession of the

A. One remedy is for the liberal town, books and papers, and likewise of the if it contains the school house, to adopt funds, and refuses to give them up to the the town system.

treasurer newly appointed; how can he Q. The clerk gave notice on the 22d, get them ? of a special meeting to be held on the

A. So far as the books and papers are 28th; was that a sufficient notice?

concerned he can proceed under Sec. 9, A. It was not; both the days could not

Chap. 156, Rev. Statutes. The funds should be counted, therefore the notice was less have passed into the hands of the adminthan the six days required. (See Revised istrator on the estate. The new treasurer Statutes, Chap. 140, Sec. 52.)

can complain to the Judge of Probate of Q. If the district pays for the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, to whom does it belong, the district treasury. But in matters like

the retention of the funds belonging to the district or the clerk : A. What the district pays for of course

these, not provided for by the school laws,

it is best to obtain professional counsel. belongs to the district. The JOURNAL, like the School Code, is for the especial

Q. Is a certificate valid which does use of the clerk and other members of not state the holder's standing? the board; it may be loaned, discreetly, A. A distinction may be made between but should be taken care of by the clerk, the form and substance of a certificate. and handed over to his successor. It is If it sets forth that the holder is qualified well to have each volume bound.

to teach and is licensed to do so, for a Q. Where should saw-logs be assessed, certain time and within certain limits, it in the district where they are, or where is, pro tanto, the “certificate of qualificathey are to be sawed and where should tion” required by Section 107, and is not lumber be assessed!

rendered invalid from the neglect of the A. Merchants' and manufacturers' superintendent to give the standing, if a stock is to be assessed in the district school board is willing to contract with where it is “situated." (See Sec, 63.) the teacher without this information. Logs may be considered as manufactur

Q. Can a teacher's certificate be an. ers' stock, and lumber, when manufac- nulled because she is obnoxious to the tured, as merchants' stock.

district, no charges being preferred Q. Should a town clerk fill an alleged against her? vacancy in a district board on the infor.

A. Certainly not. This would be conmation and request of an individual voter demnation and punishment without any of the district :

trial. It does not follow that a teacher is A. The certificate of the other mem- seriously at fault because she has become bers of the board is the proper informa- obnoxious. It may have been brought tion to act upon. If this is neglected by about through malicious gossip. the board, the resolution and request of a Q. Can a district treasurer take a per. special meeting of the district would be a centage for the collection of a special proper basis of action.

district tax ? Q. Our county superintendent says the

A. There is no authority of law for day of spring election is a legal holiday his doing so. whenever a judge or other general officer is to be elected; because, he says, it then If you have a bright thought, express becomes a general election day. Is this it in the simplest language possible. A correct?

diamond should have a plain setting. 2-Vol. IV, No, I.

EDITORIAL MISCELLANY. aught, it has been in practical suggesAMONG INSTITUTES.

tions for that after-growth in "light and

sweetness" for which they have kindled At the present writing the educational the desire,-in stronger suggestion and interests of the State largely center in advice for self-culture, for Normal and other Institute work. Eight Institutes have school culture, and for a livelier interest in been successfully completed, in as many and knowledge of the principles and counties, three more are now in progress, measures and men of our wonderfully and six remain for the two weeks succeed. active and inquiring age. ing the present one. Of those already

Upon public sentiment the influence completed, or now in progress, we have for good of these Institutes is consider. personally visited and addressed six, have able. We have in many places found caught somewhat of the spirit animating them to be gatherings not only of teachconductors, teachers, and people, and beers, but of the friends of schools. The fore the restless iron horse whirls us away Institute is frequently an important event to new fields and faces, we employ a quiet in the locality in which it is held. Many hour in recording for April readers our of the best men and women of the place first impressions.

are present at some time during the sesWe have always regarded this Institute sion. In not a few instances their visits work as one of great value, in several re- to it are frequent and protracted. Educaspects. Our observations during the past tion and educational methods are themes three weeks have fully confirmed former of discourse in many homes. The genimpressions. Institutes perform a neces- eral interest is attested by the almost insary, an important, and a peculiar work, variably large attendance at the evening and the State makes no wiser expenditure lectures. Public opinion is thus both enof money than that for their support.

lightened and strengthened, and educa. To teachers they impart, indeed, little tional progress thereby rendered easier of either knowledge or training. Short and surer. term Institutes, at least, are not designed We believe that much credit may be for this. They are not intended to supply given to the influence of the Institutes in the place of schools. They make direct- thus moving and molding public senti. ly neither better spellers, readers, geogra- ment. While they give to the communi. phers, nor arithmeticians. The time is ty better teachers, they make for the altogether too short for this. But they teachers a more appreciative community. lead teachers to desire to become better We are inclined to think their power for spellers, readers, geographers, and arith good in this direction-already consider. meticians. They give strong hints at able-may be largely increased. better methods of both learning and Of the peculiar fitness and ability for teaching these things. They infuse into their work possessed by the three Insti. even the dullest souls a desire to become tute conductors, Professors Graham, Mcbetter scholars and better teachers, and Gregor, and Salisbury, we have had ample wiser and nobler men and women. They evidence, both direct and indirect. They tend to give to teaching a dignity with are men of varied, full and exact attain. which ignorance, shallowness and sloth- ments, thorougly in earnest, and always fulness are not consistent.

commanding the respect, confidence, and Such is their influence upon teachers, attention of those under their instruction. who are thereby stimulated to larger acquirements, to fuller and more exact Not having time or space this month scholarship, to more thoughtful and wiser for a fuller record of our wanderings, we methods of instruction and discipline, to write only of our second journey, partly a higher ambition, and to a nobler en because the Institute at Stoughton, to thusiasm.

which we made our first visit, has been If the Institutes have failed hitherto in described elsewhere by another hand, and


partly because of the exceeding interest | woodland. The building we found to be of our experience in the remoter place. a substantial, square, wooden structure of

Whirled away something like 200 miles two stories, neatly painted without and northwest of the capital, it was only our well finished and furnished within. The strong faith in geography that could ex- school had opened only the previous week. orcise the impression of having nearly We were courteously received by Mr. reached the limits of creation. Did we Washburn, the principal, and found in not leave behind us the robins, blue- attendance a score or more of intelligent birds, and “ethereal mildness" of spring, and good looking young men and women. and, passing beyond the Infernal Lake, What manner of place is this which at and over many a league of desolate and scarcely two years of age points to an blackened and wearisomely level pine Academy as its best building ? lands, come at last to a region apparently thought as we stood before it and gazed given over to perpetual winter? Were we down into the really beautiful valley benot dragged at times between banks of neath, where nestled the infant village, snow fully up to the car windows ? Could that thus did the Pilgrim Fathers long Ultima Thule lie far beyond ? But we are ago in far away New England, and we anticipating.

felt kindly disposed toward this people, Amid the approaching shades of even- and hoped that from these beginnings ing we caught our first glimpse of Devils' might come results as great as have Lake (hold this not a typographical blun. blessed and distinguished many a town in der), a truly wierd and unique spot, of Massachusetts and New York valleys. whose remarkable features we had formed May Elroy Academy yet send out to the no adequate conception. After as full in- University, or to the Colleges of the State, spection as we could make from the plat- or to honest and successful business life, form of the car, and after a ready fancy an annual score of well prepared graduthat we were gazing upon the veritable ates. The day that shall see this will see Avernus of classic story, we felt an im- superior public schools in the village bepulse to offer sacrifice to the mighty neath, and in the country adjacent-even agencies which had wrought the wonder. far beyond the sound of its bell. There What more acceptable (and more conve- is no necessary antagonism between the nient), thought we, than a change of or public school and the academy or college. thography that should recognize plural The true prosperity of the one ought to .. forces as the more fitting theory of so be the prosperity of the other. great a marvel? Hence we have deliberately changed the place of the apostro. A few hours of patient endurance phe, as above, and here record our belief brought us at last to Menomonee and that the torn rocks which cover those filled us with the gladness the desert trav. lofty slopes must have tasked the utmost eler experiences when he reaches an oasis powers, not merely of one, but of at least of long desired delights. In our oasis the seven devils.

palm trees and running brooks were After passing the night at Elroy, an im- purely metaphorical. In hard reality the mature but promising young village, former were pines and the latter were ice. whose years may possibly number one But are not the pleasures of soul as real and a halt, we sauntered out in search of as those of sense? And where have we the Academy, of whose founding we had met more cordial welcome, more genial heard. Climbing the hill along paths hospitality, more appreciation of the whose uncertain direction led us to seek worth of mind, of books, and of schools ? the guidance of a chance-met citizen, we We found a large and deeply interested at last reached the commanding but rude Institute in session. There were teachers site whence the building overlooks the enough to represent nearly all the schools village in the valley beneath. All around of Dunn county. Many of the best citi. were the trees and bushes of a primitive zens were present as spectators. Prof.

Salisbury was in his happiest mood, well attended, more so than usual in the Supt. Johnson was vigilant, and the Insti- spring. Sessions have already been held, tute was in all respects one of the most as announced, at Appleton, Amberst and profitable and interesting we have visited. Milton, by Prof. Graham; at West Salem, The address on Thursday evening was Stoughton, and by Prof. McGregor, and at listened to by a large and sympathetic New Richmond, Menominee and Ocono. audience, filling the floor and gallery of mowoc, by Prof. Salisbury. This com. the court room. The Menomonee brass pletes one half of the regular appointments. band furnished truly inspiring music, and the occasion was one we shall long hold We are favored with the following ac. in pleasant memory.

count of the one at Stoughton: Menomonee is thoroughly alive to the The Institute at Stoughton, Dane Co., interests of education. Its school build-held March 23-29, is spoken of by all in ings are good, its teachers still better. attendance with great satisfaction. The Mr. J. B. Thayer, the Principal and Supt., instruction of Prof. McGregor was highly is a thoroughly educated man, a college appreciated, and in all the branches cov. graduate, and a boru teacher. His sister, ered by the exercises of the week illus. Miss Thayer, and Miss Salisbury, the trated in the clearest and most impressive sister of the Professor, are equally skillful manner the difference between superficial in their departments. The school author. acquaintance with, and thorough mastery ities are enlightened enough to pay good of, the principles of the subjects. Many salaries to first class teachers and to make of the best teachers present were deeply their positions permanent. The result is" convicted” of their need of higher, deepa uniform management and a uniform er, broader culture to fit them for success improvement. Why does not this simple in their calling. wisdom govern more shool boards.?

No little interest was felt in the Lecture In speaking of these teachers of Me- announced to be given by State Superin. nomonee we cannot neglect mention of tendent Searing, in view of the possibil. one, Mr. J. H. Gates, whose peculiar and ity of his indicating therein his ideas of extraordinary talent in primary teaching the “ reforms” needed in the department we have never seen equaled. The illus- over which he has so recently been called tration before the Institute of his method to preside. His admirable address, clear. of teaching young children to read by ly, forcibly and elegantly delivered, was the “word plan,” was a beautiful exhibi. listened to with close attention, and was tion of genius and art, and as instructive made the theme of discussion subsequent.

it was entertaining. It received ly. He laid the axe to the root of the and merited our unqualified admiration, tree unsparingly, and his views concern. and we hope to see Mr. Gates present his ing the necessity for better teachers, bet. methods hereafter for the instruction and ter methods of teaching, more definite delight of Institutes in other places.

conceptions of the province and scope of When we left Menomonee our only regret the work to be accomplished by the comwas that we had not had audience with the mon school, and the great need of schools absent Lumber Kings whose genius and of intermediate grade all over the State, energy have so developed the resources of met with hearty response and accord. He that region, and whose wealth, as we saw

made a very happy impression. and heard abundant evidence to believe,

The lecture by Pres. Whitford of Mil. is equaled only by their liberality and ton delivered in the Methodist Church on good taste. To them are chiefly due those Thursday evening, to a crowded house characteristics which make the place a was in entire harmony with the work of rare and pleasant memory to all who have the Institute, and was warmly received. visited it.

The people and school officers of the vil.

lage, by their sympathy, co-operation and THE INSTITUTES thus far have been hospitality contributed much to the pleas


and Dumb.

ure and profit of the occasion. Eighty | most practicable method of securing this teachers were enrolled as attendants, and seems to be through the Teachers of pubthe average attendance was seventy-two. lic schools. It is supposable that every

H. deaf mute is known to one or more chil

dren attending those schools. If all the Wisconsin Institute for the Educution of the Deaf

Teachers of the State would make inquiry DELAVAN, Wis., March 3, 1874. of their pupils, and report the names of Hon. EDWARD SEARING, Supt. Public the parents of these deaf mutes, their atInstruction—DEAR Sır: When I was in tendance might be secured. The neglect your office recently you suggested an ed- of a teacher to make such inquiry or reitorial notice of this Institute as a means port, may deprive a child of its education, of reaching deaf mutes through the leaving it in perpetual darkness, intellectteachers of State. I would be very glad ual and moral, when a life of happiness to avail myself of this method of secur. and usefulness might have been secured. ing the attendance of the many whom I It is hoped therefore that all teachers, have failed to reach. I herewith send an and especially the principals of our pubaddress to Teachers as being better adapt. lic schools, will make the effort necessary ed to the end in view than the “circular" to secure the result sought. of which I spoke. Use one, or both, or Will you not, immediately on receipt neither, or substitute, as your own judg. (of this, call the attention of your pupils ment may suggest.

to the matter, and send the name of any I have used the list of County Superin. deaf mutes in your district, between the tendents you furnished me, and from them ages of nine and twenty, to the “Principal am daily receiving the names of Teach. of Institute for the Deaf and Dumb," ers. If you have an Editorial notice it is Delavan, Walworth county, Wis. my purpose to also send each a postal card, calling attention to the subject. Very truly yours,

LEGISLATION.-No important changes GEO. L. WEED.

were made in the school laws at the late

session of the Legislature. As usual, To the Teachers of Public Schools in Wiscon. some efforts were made for the abolition sin :

of the county superintendency and the This Institute is designed for those restoration of town superintendents, and children and youth of the State who, on

as usual, failed. These efforts generally? account of deafness, cannot be instructed originate with members from counties in common schools. It now contains one where there have been poor superintendhundred and fifty pupils. There is good ents, or where they pay but a pittance and reason for supposing that at least one so of course cannot expect much labor in hundred more should be enjoying its ad- return. vantages. But there are practical difficul- The bill of Mr. Kuntz, providing for ties in reaching them. Many parents are County Academies, passed the Assembly ignorant of the fact that such an Institute but not the Senate, having reached that is supported by the State. Other parents body too late for any proper considerado not understand its educational charac- tion. This is well, as public sentiment ter, or what results can be here secured. is not yet ripe for the measure, but it is Others, from sympathy with their unfor. only a question of time. Schools of this tunate children, and some, from a willing. nature we must have, in some form. ness to deprive their children of an edu. Chapter 56 of General Laws of 1873, cation for the sake of the labor they can (which amended section 16 of the School perform, detain them at home. These Code by providing that the Supervisors obstacles can, in a good degree, be'over. shall extinguish school districts that fail come if the Institute can be put in com. to maintain school two years) is amended inunication with these parents. The by dropping the words "thirty-days."

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