« ForrigeFortsett »
long exclusively to the domain of reason. /efits, which may very properly come in A regular construction may be readily here, although they have reference rather analysed by the comparatively young to the æsthetic than the intellectual napupil, and studied in its principles and ture; that is, the literary excellence of application; and these laws of construc- the ancients. The style, though pri. tion, in their varied uses and complicated marily a matter of taste, is largely also relations, present precisely the kind of dependent upon the reason; and from this mental exertion which the pupil needs. point of view we find the study of the In proportion, therefore, as a language is ancient authors as serviceable as that of syntactical rather than idiomatic, it is the ancient languages is in the point of adapted to the purposes of mental disci. view already considered. This is an adpline; and while German and Greek vantage that can be obtained only from possess this character in a high degree, the study of the original, not of translathe Latin possesses it in the highest de- tions; for the very essence of a good gree. No language, therefore
translation is that it should not preserve that is, of the languages commonly stud- the idioms and stylistic peculiarities of ied, can compare with Latin for this pur- the language from which the translation is pose. It should at the same time, be re. made, but should transfer the thoughts marked that in arguing for a classical and statements of the original into the language, it does not necessarily follow idioms and forms of expression which that it should be Latin. Many persons belong to the language into which the are in favor of beginning Greek first, and translation is made. if our text-books were adapted to this order, there would be no conclusive ob- ancient writers far surpass the moderns
The qualities of style in which the jection to this course. And if but one ancient language is to be studied, it and these qualities arise chiefly from that
are, symetry, precision and compactness; might very well be that the superiority
same inflectional character which is the of Greek literature might outweigh the superior disciplinary advantages of the The genius of the modern languages
source of their syntactical perfection. Latin language.
tempts to a loose, inexact and irregular As our subject is the disciplinary power style, so much so, that if a modern writer of the ancient languages, the discussion makes it his direct aim to reproduce these might end here; their disciplinary value distinguishing qualities of the classical consists essentially, in the two features writers, the result is almost sure to be just indicated — the rigorous application something at once obscure and ungraceful of laws, and the unfamiliar character of I can hardly think of any English writer the constructions, which enables them to except Lord Bacon, and perhaps Milton be studied from a more independent and and Ralph Waldo Emerson, who have deobjective point of view. This does not veloped a style as elegant and perspicuby any means exhaust the benefits of ous, and at the same time as tersé, exact classical study, but the other benefits and vigorous as the ancients. Now it is come under a somewhat different head. of no use for a modern writer to imita'e The philosophy and institutions of the these qualities of the ancients; but it is ancients, for example, indispensable as of the greatest use to study them, to be they are to any student of philosophy or familiar with them, to have the mind imof political science, may — for this pur. bued with them; and then, unconsciously pose — be as well studied through trans- when he is simply doing his best to write lations and modern commentaries and correct, idiomatic English, some traces treatises, as from the original writers. perhaps of their fine qualities will find There is, however, one large class of ben their way to his pen.
The course of study, therefore, which temperature is low, is a great source of I favor for those who have the opportu- evil; also the malarial poison generated nity and taste for a thorough disciplinary in such localities, and the emanations training, is to begin in childhood with from adjacent places of convenience, those branches that train the eye and ex. where deodorization and cleanliness are ercise the memory; drawing, coloring, apt to be neglected, and whose drainage natural history, the elements of geom. is more or less impracticable. Internaletry, simple applications of numbers, ly, take into consideration the unscientific stories from history, and the descriptions system of warming; the poison thrown of foreign countries. All of these, in a out by respiration, by perspiration, by greater or less degree, admit of some ex- unclean clothing, or clothing saturated ercise of the reasoning powers; and as with the matter of infectious disease, etc.; these powers become more vigorous and added to which is the almost absolute ab. mature, their exercise should occupy a sence of any proper ventilation; and it larger and longer share of time, until at will appear to you as it does to me, that some period, between twelve and four- a school-room must of necessity become, teen, or even later, the pupil may to the even in times of health, a fruitful source best advantage take up the study of the of disease, and in an epidemic season, a ancient languages, with a view to regu- focus from which disease must and does lar and systematic intellectual discipline. radiate, with as much certainty and con
It has been necessary for me, in pre- stancy as effect follows cause. senting my views as to the place of the The progress that sanitary science has ancient languages in educational made of late years has taught us the great scheme, to touch somewhat upon the fact that almost all diseases enter the province of others, so far as to assign system through the impurity of the attheir respective places to other studies. mosphere we breathe. When this truth All parts of an educational scheme hang was first propounded, inen ridiculed its so closely together, that one cannot be ad. teaching, and regarded the asserters of it justed without reference to the others. as speculative enthusiasts. Time has No apology therefore is due for thus trans- now furnished statistics from which we gressing
can deduce, with unerring certainty, that Sanitary Regulations of the School Room and such is the fact, and which at the same Number of School Hours.
time prove just as certainly that by the [Extracte from a Paper read before the Stue purification of such atmospheres, such
Teachers Association, at Madison, Dec. 30. diseases can be and are daily prevented. 1873, by logp Ph HOBBINS, M. D ]
The first, and by far the most import. A school-house, especially in a new ant feature of the sanitary regulations of country, where from a variety of causes our schools, is that of Ventilation; to malaria is more apt to prevail, should this, therefore, I would first call your at have for its site a more or less clevated tention. When one comes to consider situation. This secures comparative freethe manifold sources of contamination of dom from soil-emanations and low temthe atmosphere of our school-rooms, so perature. It should not be surrounded much suggests itself, so much there is to too closely by buildings or trees, but be say which ought to be said and repeated open to the winds—to a plentiful supply a thousand times, that one shrinks from of pure air. All external sources of ani. the task of laying open the subject of mal and vegetable poisons should be school ventilation. Externally the low regularly and carefully removed, and all situation of some school-houses, being stagnant ponds and sluggish mud-streams built in the vicinity of marsh land, where, and mill-dams avoided; for science has owing to rapid evaporation, the average taught us to regard with dread the ema.
nations of decomposition in such places, out that it should be admitted from or as sources of disease and death.,
near the floor, and from the heavier naA school-room should be high in order ture of cool air, it is equally clear that if. not only that it may be airy, but well light- a pure atmosphere is to rise in the room, ed; inasmuch as light has a strong simi- it also must be admitted at about the larity to heat-both being but modifica- same level. And just so far as Nature is tions of the same cause. Therefore as in imitated in this respect-and only so farnature, so in our artificial structures, one will ventilation be successful, and doubt. should be considered as much as the oth- and questioning set at rest. er, and proper arrangements must be made Objections, however, are raised to this for ventilation.
* To prove the mode of admitting cold air. The answer necessity of all this, I will quote the old to these objections may be given with experiment: Place a lighted candle on some such explanation as this: Just so the floor of a room at the open door; soon as a stream of cold air is admitted and, if there is no other access for air where lot air is being forced into the into the apartment, it will be observed same room, the cool air in all its purity that a current of cold, and therefore becomes immediately expanded by the dense air, on entering, will drive the warmth, rises to the top, carrying with fame of the candle inwards. By holding it the impurities being generated by the the candle midway between the top and occupants of the room, and then floats bottom of the door-way, the flame will away by its own law of expansionbe quite still, because no current exists through the apertures made in or near in that position. If the candle is held the ceiling for that purpose, the very so as that its flame shall be near the top warmth derived from the breath and of the door, it will be observed to be bodies of those present, giving additional driven outwards, because thence the hot impetus, by the union of currents they and lighter air makes it escape. * effect, with the general current in the It is evident then that a supply of pure room. air must be made to enter at the lower But in order to see that we are not at. part of a room, and an escape for hot air taching 100 much importance to the ne. should be arranged for at its top. And cessity for a proper mode and an adequate l'et, if you will walk into some of our amount of ventilation, let us briefly excity school rooms at your first opportu- amine the noxious influences brought to nity, you will find, as I have found, hot bear upon the atmosphere of a school air rushing into the room from the floor, room. First in importance, perhaps, is and cold air let in from the tops of the that arising from respiration. From fif. open windows. A system-or rather teen to twenty pints of vitiated air is upon practice-opposed to natural laws, and the average expired each minute from the therefore opposed to science, and one lungs. At each expiration a volume of affording but a very questionable venti- poison is cast into the air about us. In lation.
addition to having robbed the atmosphere Let us for a moment question it. It of a portion of its vital part, we also set should be borne in mind that gaseous free at the same time its nitrogen, which bodies, such for instance as air, expand forms four-fifths of its bulk, and which on the addition of heat; that expanded is a gas that will not support life. air being lighter of course tends to rise, Then follow the exhalations from tire inducing air of a more dense and a cool- skin. Here you must permit me, for er nature to rush in to take its place. reasons which will afterwards appear, to Now the very fact of the expansive and make a little digression. rising character of hot air clearly points Under a microscope of sufficient power
2-Vol. IV, No. 1.
it will be observed that the human skin public schools, indifferent to this subject is punctured, as it were, with almost in- of ventilation. And yet these figures are numerable small orifices, probably aver. to be found in almost every book upon aging three thousand five hundred to the the subject. square inch. These orifices are the open- But am I not making the worst of a ings of the perspiratory ducts from which bad case-am I not exaggerating! Are the perspiration may be seen at times to these products of perspiration so poison. flow. Now, these ducts, or channels, or ous in their character as is set down? tubes as they are variously called, commu- This has been tested in a very startling nicate with little cavities upon the under manner, and admits of very immediate surface of the true skin which contain proof. It was wished upon the occasion very small glands, whose function is to of some great celebration, to have a liv. receive the impure blood always passing ing.figure to represent the Golden Age, into them, and to purify it by casting out, and a poor child was innocently covered through the perspiratory ducts, the waste all over with gold-leaf and varnished. and offensive matters which it contained. The child died in about six hours. The blood being thus purified, another I have confined myself, so far, in speakset of vessels carries it back again to the ing of poisonous emanations of the skin body, and this work in the skin is con- to those which are given out in health ; stantly going on.
There are but to lend force to what I have just said, sixty feet of these little ducts, or canals, it may not be out of place to allude to to every square inch of the human skin. those which arise from disease. To be Now, the number of square inches of sure these may be said to be exceptional surface on a man of ordinary height and cases; nevertheless they are, to my knowl. bulk is 2,500; the number of pores 7,000,- edge, sufficiently common to warrant, if 000; and the number of inches of perspir- not to demand, some notice. There is a atory tube 1,750,003, that is, 145,833 feet, class of serious diseases which, by medi. or 48,600 yards, or nearly twenty-eight cal men, are known as contagious, and miles. Such a vast piece of mechanism by the public, as “catching diseases ;" must needs have very important duties to such for instance as typhoid fever, small perform, duties most essential to the well pox, scarlet fever, meales, etc. Now, the being of the human economy. Not the poisonous matter of any one of these least important of these is the one already diseases given out in a school room by a alluded to—the casting out of the impur. diseased pupil is sufficient to so affect the ities of the blood, the retaining of which, school atmosphere as to convey the disbecause the pores are closed by winter ease. Hence, in time of epidemics, vencold air from upper sashes, or the impart. tilation becomes more than ever necesing of which to another, because of want sary, since it is the only practicable means of ventilation, is equally destructive to the only means the teacher possesseshealth and to life.
that can be used as a preventive of disease; That these impurities, or emanations it being well understood that “where tenfrom the skin, should in quantity be com- tilation is complete, in other words, where the mensurate with the mechanism employed gaseous poison is freely diluted with atmosfor the purpose of casting them off, you pheric air, the sphere of its operation is would be prepared to expect. Conse. very limited.” quently, it is not a matter of surprise to There is yet another source of poisonlearn that it amounts to about thirty-three ous emanation to which schools are exounces in twenty-four hours. With these posed; I mean the clothing of children. figures before us, it is incredible that any Concerning cleanliness in general, the one should be found in connection with teacher can not lay too great stress; but uncleanliness in the scholar's clothing- pure air-it is rather to be regarded, I mean uncleanliness as well to the nose oft times, as an atmosphere of poisonas to the eye-is a matter that should not such as is to be found in ships which are escape notice. There is a very peculiar unclean, badly ventilated or over-crowdand most marked odor attached to wool. ed, or in prisons or hospitals. Conseen clothing that has been shut up in some quently it must and does give rise to and close and neglected dwelling, if only for become, as I have witnessed in this city, a night, and be assured such odor is of the exciting cause of typhoid fever. You poisonous character.
cannot live on poison; and whether you But sometimes disease and death are eat it, or drink it, or breathe it, the result carried by woolen clothing, that gives is the same. I cannot easily imagine a you no notice by its appearance, or un- more prolific source of disease than the pleasant odor. A London physician of one we are now considering, especially, the highest standing in his profession, as I have before said, when an epidemic relates, in one of his lectures, that a piece atmosphere prevails; the predisposed beof flannel used on a child's neck in a ing ready to take on disease. family that had suffered from scarlet But beside the ills which arise to health fever, gave rise a year afterwards to the from air filled with animal emanations, same disease, in the same house, which there is another class of ills which occur had been vacant during the time. The from the presence of too much carbonic flannel had been shut up in a close draw. acid gas, so freely and so constantly er, and not been exposed to the air. poured forth by the breath and the skin.
Another source of impure air is only I mean nervous diseases. too noticeable in schools heated by fur- That we may appreciate the action of naces, particularly when from the com- , this poison in our schools, it is only neparative mildness of the weather little cessary to run over its effects in the order fire is required, but is liable to occur at in which they commonly occur. When other times, as I have personally observ- this gas has accumulated to the extent of ed in the Second Ward School House of one per cent in the air respired, feelings this city, which is claimed to be one of of faintness and uneasiness across the our best arranged buildings.
brow begin. At two per cent. the heart We have seen how the foul air of the is quickened, the faintness greater; there neglected school room is constituted. is some giddiness and nausea. At three Robbed of its life-preserving oxygen; per cent. there are vertigo, fluttering of filled more or less with life-destroying the heart, nausea and sickness, followed carbonic acid gas; loaded with poison- by an overwhelming sense of muscular ous emanations from the breath, from the prostration. At this moment the conskin, from the clothing, and sometimes tractions of the heart become very feeble, from external emanations; the room the skin relaxes, and is bedewed with a warmed with air at times more or less de- cool, clam my perspiration. These sympprived of its moisture, and at times toms deepen with the increased quantity loaded with the products of combustion; of carbonic acid in the air respired, until ventilated in a way calculated to do the utmost limit of toleration is reached. almost as much harm as good ;-we have From these effects it is certain that con. already heard all this,--but it is not pos- finement in an atmosphere charged with sible that we shall ever hear the amount carbonic acid, even to the extent of one of mischief of which it is the cause, be. per cent. only, quickly deranges the cause too general and possibly spread functions of the heart and ultimately deover a life time. * * The atmos. teriorates the tissues themselves of that phere of a school room is not simply im. 'organ. It is certain that in this func