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upon direct perception of the facts, and once itself, and nothing is worthy of its practical exercise of the observing and tears but eternity. logical faculties upon them. Even in WONDERS OF CHEMISTRY.-Linen can such a simple matter as the mere compre. be converted into sugar; sugar into alcohension of form, ask the most practised hol and carbonic acid; alcohol into ether and widely-informed anatomist what is and water. Sugar can also be converted the difference between his knowledge of into oxalic acid, and likewise into pure a structure which he has read about and charcoal and water. Alcohol will readily his knowledge of the same structure when change into acetic acid or vinegar. Coal he has seen it for himself, and he will tell tar is transformed into dyes that surpass you that the two things are not compar. the Tyrian purple of old. Starch may be able—the difference is infinite. Thus I transmuted into gum; alcohol into sugar, am very strongly inclined to agree with vivegar or oxalic acid. And these are some learned school-masters who say but a few of the magical changes which that, in their experience, the teaching of modern chemical science has made familscience is all waste time. As they teach iar as household words: it, I have no doubt it is. But, to teach it
THE BOY AGASSIZ. otherwise, requires an amount of personal labor and a development of means and
CHAPTER 1.-HIS HOME. appliances, which must strike horror and It was in Switzerland. The country of dismay into a man accustomed to mere mountains and lakes. A small country, book-work, and who has been in the hab. not much larger than the State of Massa. it of teaching a class of fifty without chusetts and shut up in the centre of much strain upon his energies. And this Europe, far away from the sca. In the is onc of the real difficulties in the way western part of Switzerland, near France, of the introduction of physical science is the lake of Neuchatel, a long lake, deep, into the ordinary university course, to blue, and as clear as crystal. On the west which I have alluded. It is a difficulty stand the Jura Mountáins, and towards which will not be overcome, until years the east one can see the High Alps. The of patient study have organized scientific Jura Mountains come close up to the teaching as well as, or I hope better than, lake, so that the vineyards that are plantclassical teaching has been organized ed on the steep slopes almost overhang hitherto.-PROF. HUXLEY, in Popular the water. The mountains on the oppoScience Monthly for May.
site side do not come so near the lake,
and there is a strip of level country SCRAPS,
along the shore. Near the northern end
of the lake is another smaller lake called CONTRIBUTED BY MRS. 8. C. SIRRINE.
Lake Morat. Between these two lakes EVERY heart has a secret drawer, the stands the little village of Mottier. It was spring of which is only known to the here that John Louis Rudolph Agassiz was
born on the 28th day of May, in 1807. TRUE MORAL COURAGE is the diamond
His father was a Huguenot clergyman. pen which may write poetry, and mild. His grandfathers for several generations
had been ministers of Protestant churchness with a world-braving stoicism.
es, and the family were originally from SATURDAY NIGHT, of nature and of the France. His mother was a native of this year, is a breathing moment, where time part of Switzerland, or the Canton of of light and darkness form a sublime Vaud, as it is called. So Louis was a naarch.
tive of Switzerland, though belonging to HOW HOLY is the joy and pain of pure a French family. unspotted music. Its jubilee and its Mottier was a fine place for a boy. The sounds of woe are not for any one cir. village was small, and the woods, the cumstance in life, but for life, for exist. grassy fields, the lakes, and the high bills
were all within easy reach. There was bird in the woods; he was personally acno end of sport to be found everywhere. quainted with the family of storks that There were birds in abundance in the had such a ragged nest on the top of the woods, and as for fish, the lakes seemed chimney of one of the houses; and as to swarm with them. As for boating, it for the fishes, he knew all their names, was the one thing that afforded unending and where they lived, and what they best delight to every boy in Mottier. Louis liked to eat. On the matter of bait, he did not go to school till he was eleven could satisfy the most diffident shiner years old. What he did with himself up that swam, or suit the most hungry pickto this time is not fully known. All we erel that ever leaped out of the water for can be sure about is that he had the free a fly or grass-hopper. run of the woods and hills, and had a The boats on the Lake of Neuchatel are glorious time fishing. No boy in Mottier rather rude affairs. Round the landings had ever been known to like to fish quite of some of the towns, where the visitors so well as Louis Agassiz. He thought it from the hotels go out sailing, are boats was certainly the greatest fun that had that look like boats on the Hudson or ever been invented for the delight of small Connecticut. The native boats, such as boys like himself.
Louis must have used, were queer looking Mottier is not like any village you ever skiffs, broad and flat at the bottom, very saw in this country. The houses are made square at the stern, and with a low, broad of stone, and the roofs of red tiles hang bow that looked as if any extra big wave over the walls so that there are deep shad- would certainly come aboard, and swamp ows under the eaves. There are balconies the whole clumsy affair. As for oars, no on nearly every story, with stairs on the American boy would think of using such outside, and as the roof hangs over them, clumsy things. It was all the same to these balconies are sheltered from the sun Louis. It was a boat, and it would take and rain. The family often sit out there him out on the wide, blue lake, so deep in pleasant weather, and the railing is and clear, and would float him right over sometimes surmounted with rows of the pools where the best fishes lived. plants in pots, and bunches of dried There are two ways of going a-fishing; grasses, onions, squashes, and the like, so one way is to catch as many fish as you that it looks from the street as if the fam. can, take them home, cook them, and ea'. ily kept their store-closet out of-doors. In them up; another way is to catch them the streets are stone troughs with streams for the sake of seeing what they look of cold water spouting in silvery toun. like, learning their habits, finding out tains out of iron pipes. Here the horses how they live, and then letting them go and cattle come to drink and the women again, or keeping them to show other come to fill their pitchers. There are no people how such fishes really look. Boys water pipes in the houses, nor gas lamps generally fish on the first plan and count in the streets, and the houses stand hud. their greatest gain in having good stringdled together in a curious jumble, one ful for the frying-pan. Louis went on house facing one way and the next the the other plan. He went to learn someother way, so that the streets arc crooked thing about the fish whether he caught and narrow. There are no gardens in the any or not. He was more anxious to village, but outside of the town the whole catch one of each kind than to get the country is one vast garden, extending extra big fellows that were so fine for the close up to the foot of the snow moun. cook. He wanted to see how they looked, tains.
to count the stripes on their backs, to Most of the children preferred to play look at their fins, and in fact to know all in the narrow and rather dirty streets. about them. If he caught an extra fine Louis always made his way into the open one he was more ready to cut him open fields or out on one of the lakes. He to see how many bones he had, and to knew the name and the song of every take bim apart like a watch, to see how he was made, than to make him ready your time and attention to your business, for the dinner table. Perhaps you think so that you may become active, energetic this very silly in him. Louis would not and live teachers. You will and that in have agreed with you. He cared more to order to become a successful teacher it know about the fish than to eat him. will require considerable sound, common
Then he used to catch fishes that were sense mixed with your book knowledge. not fit for the table. Minnows, horn. A mere matter of books, without origipouts, and other fishes that boys think nality, will be of but little use to you as very small game were his delight. He teachers. Acquaint yourselves with each did not wish to eat them, but he did want day's lessons; if you expect your pupils to know how they looked, and what kind to be prepared, you must set the example of eyes they had, and how the scales were by being prepared yourselves.-T. P. colored. The water of Lake Neuchatel MARSH, Supt. Jackson Co. is wonderfully clear, and when the waves
A TEACHER SHOULD are still one can see the bottom where it
Be kind, candid, and firm. is quite deep. Our ponds and lakes are
Put up a Programme and teach by it. brown or ruddy with iron stains. These
Make previous preparation for each Swiss lakes have blue and white water,
recitation. that is like glass when it is calm. Louis
Render the school-room attractive, and took advantage of this, and leaning over
keep it clean and tidy. the long bowe, where the shadow of the
Avoid scolding, or governing too much. boat kept away the reflection of the sun,
Have cognizance of all that transpires he would watch the fishes playing round
in school. his line for hours. He did not seem to
Labor to prevent communication. care much whether he caught anything
Not be interrupted while hearing a class.
Give short lessons and require perfect habits and learn how they lived. In time
recitations. he found out where they laid their eggs,
Have frequent reviews of principles and he knew by heart all the different kinds
important points, with plenty of drill. of food they had, and knew just when
Have every pupil in school prepare his they came up to the surface to catch the lessons by printing or writing them. stray fics or when they sought out their soft beds, where they spent the winter. General Exercise on one of the following
Occupy at least 15 minutes daily for a After a while he knew the name of every subjects: Orthoepy, Orthography, Arithfish in the whole lake, and was personally metic, Grammar, Geography, History, acquainted with every finny family that
Constitution, or Physiology. swam or crawled in its waters.
So grade the spelling classes that every When he was eleven years old his father word in the lesson is learned. decided to send him to school, and with
Give the Reading classes constant and his younger brother, Louis set out for the
thorough drill. academy, or gymnasium as they called it, at Bienne, a small town in the next can. and drill in Penmanship.
Have 20 minutes daily for instruction ton. About this time the Agassiz family
Strive to teach Geography, History, and moved away from Mottier, and went to
Constitution topically. live in the Valley of the Orbe, at the
Make extra exertion to have the recita. other end of the Lake of Neuchatel, to- tion in Grammar a practical one in the wards Geneva. Concerning Louis' school
usc of language.-WM. J. WAGGONER, days at Bienne, and his vacations at Orbe,
Supt. Richland Co. more another time.-Chas. Barnard.
The experiment lately tried in Eastern A WORD TO TEACHERS.— The work you schools of using a newspaper for reading are engaged in is a great and noble one. exercises instead of a reading book is Fit and prepare yourselves for it; give proving a great success.
or not, provided he could study their a
OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT. Q. Is a district obliged to take orders
of a town treasurer!
A. Not unless it chooses to do so, Q. If a new district, formed from an rather than wait for money. old one, takes in two of the officers, will Q. Is a district entitled to school they continue to hold office in the new money if it has had less than five months district
school, provided the children attend a A. No, the new district will clect its private school several months also ? three officers at its first meeting. (Sec- A. Certainly not; there must be at tions 6 and 19).
least five months public school, taught by Q. Will the officers thus separated a qualified teacher. from the old district continue to hold of. Q. What is meant by a qualified teachfice there, until their terms expire ? cr, in the school code?
A. No, their offices are vacated by A. A person who holds an unexpired their being separated from the district, certificate authorizing him to teach in the and the town clerk will fill the vacancies. county, town or district named. (Section 50.)
Q. Can a tax for building a schoolQ. By a division of our town, the di- house be collected of those who, just berector of our district now lives in another fore being set into the district, had paid a town; does that vacate his office?
tax for the game purpose ? A. No, the division of a town has no A. The law provides for no exemption. effect upon a school district across which Those who seek to be transferred to anthe line of division runs, except to make other district should consider all the conit a joint-district.
tingencies. A town board, in altering a Q. If it is desired to dissolve a joint district, should do the same. district lying in two towns, and have two Q. Could not the district, by vote, exdistricts, what is the mode of procodure? empt the parties above named !
A. An order may be passed to “detach A. A district, as such, has no power to 80 much of joint district No.-, of do this. After the tax is collected, those and as lies in the town of from who choosc can privately pay back monsaid district;" to be signed by the super. ey, from their own pockets, to an equal visors of both towns, and to erect such amount. territory into a new district. The new Q. Cannot a district board allow a district will be entitled to its gharc of the school-house to be used for funerals ? property, under sections 12, 13 and 14. If A. A board would be justified of course a joint district is to be extinguished, an by common courtesy in doing this, under order for its dissolution may first be proper circumstances, and necd feel no passed, and then its parts attached to hesitation in the matter, unless some of other districts, as provided in section 16. the tax payers positively object.
Q. Our director was elected (at annual Q. Is a pupil who comes into town meeting) on the wrong day; is he a legal from a country district and pays for his officer?
board in work entitled to frec tuition in A. No; neither an election nor any our public schools ? other business is legal, unless the meeting A. Not if said pupil's legal residence be held on the day required by the stat. is elsewhere and it is a mere temporary ute. A director may be appointed, and arrangement for the sake of attending a special meeting called to transact other the school. Paying for board in work necessary business.
does not give a pupil a different status Q. If the records of a district are lost, from one paying in money. Of course does this dissolve the district ?
tuition may be made nominal, if thought A. Not at all; some trouble might best, in any peculiar case. A young percome in the transaction of business, set- son at regular service in a family, or an tlement of accounts, etc., that is all. apprentice, stands in a different relation. Q. By mutual conseni, my school was A. The board is not justified in dissuspended two weeks; at the close of the charging a teacher without cause—that term a special meeting voted to continue is, some failure on his part to fulfill his it two weeks; am I obliged to teach contract. If it does, the teacher has a longer?
remedy in a suit for damages. A. Not unless you agreed to.
Q. Is a teacher exempt from poll-tax? Q. Is town meeting a legal holiday?
A. He is not. A. It is not.
Q. Can a teacher's wages be garni. Q. Can a board contract with a teacher sheed : to board around ?
A. Probably the courts would decide A. It has no such power; that is, to in the negative, as being against public oblige the people to board the teacher, in policy, the teacher being a public serturn. A mutual arrangement may be en- vant. tered into by which the teacher can be Q. In case à county superintendent boarded in this way, but it is not a very resigns in his first year, is successor to good way.
be appointed for the balance of the term : Q. Is it the province of the district or A. No, only for the balance of the the board to determine the division and year. At the Fall election a successor is length of school terms ?
to be elected for the second year. A. The district has power to do it; if Q. Am I justified in granting a first it does not, then the board may do it. If grade certificate, if the candidate has the board wishes to vary from the vote of taught but three terms? the district, a special meeting should be A. The rule for a State certificate is called.
satisfactory evidence of success in teachQ. Is a teacher's contract good altho'ling for at least three ordinary school his certificate expires before the end of terms. (School Code, p. 117). The county the term ?
superintendent need not require more for A. A teacher must keep himself pro- the highest certificate given by him. vided with an unexpired certificate, in or- Q. I licensed a teacher a year ago, and der to be a legal or qualified teacher. He she utterly failed in her school; ought I ceases to be such when his certificate ex. to grant her a certificate this year, if she pires, and his contract ceases to be ope- passes a good examination ? rative. Were it otherwise, a teacher whose
A. Not if you are satisfied of her inacertificate had but a week to run could bility to teach. The first time of course contract for a year, and teach the last 51 it is an experiment, but it should not be weeks without a certificate. Moreover, repeated if disastrous. the fact that a teacher holds a certificate now does not prove that he can get it re
Q. Can a county superintendent re. newed. The necessity of the renewal of quire all candidates for first and second limited certificates is a part of the pro
grade certificates to be examined in one
place? tective policy of the law. When a teacher gains a life certificate, and thus has a reg. the several grades, but requires the super
A. No, the law not only provides for ular professional standing, he is exempt intendent to divide the county into infrom the inconveniences of limited cer
spection districts, which is of course for tificates.
the accommodation of candidates for all Q. Suppose there is no fault found with a teacher's mode of teaching and
grades. disciplining his school, but from person. amining for a first grade because he is
Q. Can a superintendent decline exal prejudices and slanderous stories which
not prepared with questions? have been circulated, the board discharge the teacher before the expiration of his
A. No; he should be prepared, or at contract; will the teacher have a remedy; all events able to prepare questions, withand if so, what?
out delay, if required.