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it will be observed that the human skin public schools, indifferent to this subject is punctured, as it were, with almost in- of ventilation. And yet these figures are numerable small orifices, probably aver. to be found in almost every book upon aging three thousand five hundred to the the subject. square inch. These orifices are the open. But am I not making the orst of a ings of the perspiratory ducts from which bad case-am I not exaggerating? Are the perspiration may be seen at times to these products of perspiration so poison. flow. Now, these ducts, or channels, or ous in their character as is set down tubes as they are variously called, commu- This has been tested in a very startling nicate with little cavities upon the under manner, and admits of very immediate surface of the true skin which contain proof. It was wished upon the occasion very small glands, whose function is to of some great celebration, to have a liv. receive the impure blood always passing ing.figure to represent the Golden Age, into them, and to purify it by casting out, and a poor child was innocently covered through the perspiratory ducts, the waste all over with gold-leaf and varnished. and offensive matters which it contained. The child died in about six hours. * The blood being thus purified, another I have confined myself, so far, in speak. set of vessels carries it back again to the ing of poisonous emanations of the skin body, and this work in the skin is con- to those which are given out in health ; stantly going on.

There are but to lend force to what I have just said, sixty feet of these little ducts, or canals, it may not be out of place to allude to to every square inch of the human skin. those which arise from disease. To be Now, the number of square inches of sure these may be said to be exceptional surface on a man of ordinary height and cases; nevertheless they are, to my knowl. bulk is 2,500; the number of pores 7,000,- edge, sufficiently common to warrant, if 000; and the number of inches of perspir- not to demand, some notice. There is a atory tube 1,750,003, that is, 145,833 feet, class of serious diseases which, by medi. or 48,600 yards, or nearly twenty-eight cal men, are known as contagious, and miles. Such a vast piece of mechanism by the public, as catching diseases;" must needs have very important duties to such for instance as typhoid fever, small perform, duties most cssential to the well pox, scarlet fever, meales, etc. Now, the being of the human economy. Not the poisonous matter of any one of these least important of these is the one already diseases given out in a school room by a alluded to—the casting out of the impur. diseased pupil is sufficient to so affect the ities of the blood, the retaining of which, school atmosphere as to convey the disbecause the pores are closed by winter ease. Hence, in time of epidemics, vencold air from upper sashes, or the impart. tilation becomes more than ever neces. ing of which to another, because of want sary, since it is the only practicable means of ventilation, is equally destructive to the only means the teacher possesses, health and to life.

that can be used as a preventive of disease: That these impurities, or emanations it being well understood that where ren. from the skin, should in quantity be com- tilation is complete, in other words, where the mensurate with the mechanism employed gaseous poison is freely diluted with atmos. for the purpose of casting them off, you pheric air, the sphere of its operation is would be prepared to expect. Conse. very limited.quently, it is not a matter of surprise to There is yet another source of poison. learn that it amounts to about thirty-three ous emanation to which schools are ex. ounces in twenty-four hours. With these posed; I mean the clothing of children. figures before us, it is incredible that any Concerning cleanliness in general, the one should be found in connection with teacher can not lay too great stress; but

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uncleanliness in the scholar's clothing, pure air-it is rather to be regarded, I mean uncleanliness as well to the nose oft times, as an atmosphere of poisonas to the eye-is a matter that should not such as is to be found in ships which are escape notice. There is a very peculiar unclean, badly ventilated or over-crowdand most marked odor attached to wool. ed, or in prisons or hospitals. Conseen clothing that has been shut up in some quently it must and does give rise to and close and neglected dwelling, if only for become, as I have witnessed in this city, a night, and be assured such odor is of the exciting cause of typhoid fever. You poisonous character.

cannot live on poison; and whether you But sometimes disease and death are eat it, or drink it, or breathe it, the result carried by woolen clothing, that gives is the same. I cannot easily imagine a you no notice by its appearance, or un- , more prolific source of disease than the pleasant odor. A London physician of one we are now considering, especially, the highest standing in his profession, as I have before said, when an epidemic relates, in one of his lectures, that a piece atmosphere prevails; the predisposed beof flannel used on a child's neck in a ing ready to take on disease. family that had suffered from scarlet But beside the ills which arise to health fever, gave rise a year afterwards to the from air filled with animal emanations, same disease, in the same house, which there is another class of ills which occur had been vacant during the time. The from the presence of too much carbonic flannel had been shut up in a close draw. acid gas, so freely and so constantly er, and not been exposed to the air. poured forth by the breath and the skin.

Another source of impure air is only I mean nervous diseases. too noticeable in schools heated by fur. That we may appreciate the action of naces, particularly when from the com- this poison in our schools, it is only neparative mildness of the weather little cessary to run over its effects in the order fire is required, but is liable to occur at in which they commonly occur. When other times, as I have personally observ. this gas has accumulated to the extent of ed in the Second Ward School House of one per cent. in the air respired, feelings this city, which is claimed to be one of of faintness and uneasiness across the our best arranged buildings.

| brow begin. At two per cent. the heart We have seen how the foul air of the 1 is quickened, the faintness greater; there neglected school room is constituted. is some giddiness and nausea. At three Robbed of its life-preserving oxygen; per cent. there are vertigo, fluttering of filled more or less with life-destroying the heart, nausea and sickness, followed carbonic acid gas; loaded with poison-, by an overwhelming sense of muscular ous emanations from the breath, from the prostration. At this moment the conskin, from the clothing, and sometimes, tractions of the heart become very feeble, from external emanations; the room the skin relaxes, and is bedewed with a warmed with air at times more or less de. cool, clam my perspiration. These symp. prived of its moisture, and at times toms deepen with the increased quantity loaded with the products of combustion; of carbonic acid in the air respired, until ventilated in a way calculated to do the utmost limit of toleration is reached. almost as much harm as good ;- :-we have From these effects it is certain that con. already heard all this,—but it is not pos- finement in an atmosphere charged with sible that we shall ever hear the amount carbonic acid, even to the extent of one of mischief of which it is the cause, be. per cent. only, quickly deranges the cause too general and possibly spread functions of the heart and ultimately deover a life time. * * * The atmos. teriorates the tissues themselves of that phere of a school room is not simply im- ' organ. It is certain that in this func

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tional disturbance lie the germs of or- must determine the age, which shall be ganic mischief, and that frequent repe. included in the operation of this law. titions of this cause will undoubtedly This will be attended with some dif. end in organic disease. • We can at ficulty. Select any five years of a child's most," says Hufeland, “ breathe the same life, and there will be some difficulty to air only four times; for it is then, from say that the law shall lay its hand upon the finest support of life, converted by the child, and take him from the control ourselves into the most deadly poison.” of the parent who may need his services

in manual labor. Executive Session of the State Teachers' Asso

2. This measure involves the superseciation. Madison, Wis., Dec. 29, 1878.

dure of parental authority, or rather the Pursuant to public notice, the Execu-' assumption of parental authority by the tive Committee of the Wisconsin Teach.' State. This is an innovation. At first ers' Association, with a large number of thought this may not seem far out of the the teachers of the state, met in the room way. As we look at the dangers of the of the bank comptroller, in the state cap- State from ignorance, and the right of itol, and organized under the chairman-, the State, it may not seem very objectionship of B. M. REYNOLDS, of La Crosse, able, but it is an innovation, and one President of the Wisconsin State Teach which will meet with opposition. And ers' Association. J. Q. EMERY, of Fort it may be questioned whether the State Atkinson, was chosen Secretary. has the right to assume all the authority

Prayer was offered by Dr. Chapix, of which the enforcement of this law would Beloit College.

require. This supersedure of parental The discussion of the first topic upon authority involves other matters - it the programme,

Compulsory Attend. brings with the question the right of the ance," was opened by Supt. CHANDLER parents to exercise their judgment as to of Dane county.

the propriety of patronizing certain Mr. CHANDLER said that the pressure schools. Certain parents felt loth to pat. of official business had prevented him ronize the public schools, and knowing from making a full preparation, but he the circumstances surrounding the public would make no apology. This subject schools, he himself would not only neg. had been fully discussed elsewhere, and lect, but refuse to send to the public a strong pressure was being brought to school. adopt this measure here. All of us, no It was a serious question whether the doubt, wished to do right. He would assumption that the merest rudiments of call attention to a few points which learning wonld make the child a better should be attended to. The topic of com- citizen. He would not argue against pulsory attendance, involves :

learning, but he thought that a little learn. 1st. The enforced attendance of every ing was a dangerous thing. child upon the public school long enough

3. It involves the assumption that the to enable him to read, write and cipher in merest fragment of learning thus acquired simple numbers. We must insist that would render the child a better citizen. this attendance be long enough to reach He was in not in favor of ignorance. He these results. This cannot be accom

was in favor of the most widely spread plished in as brief a time as one would at education. But take away the stimulus first think. It usually takes from five to of love and bring him into bondage to eight years. This then, involves the en. compulsion, and he did not believe that forced attenciance upon school during we would gain as good results as now. this length of time. We must look at

This law implies, this question i. all its bearings. We 1st. Such an indifference to and neglect of our present school facilities, as to re- The figures taken from his notes of quire it. It would be unwise to ask for visits showed that but one-half of the such a law if there is not the most seri. children in 29 districts were attending ous demand for it. Is there such indiffer- school. But this was not the fact. His ence! To answer this we must fall back visits were all before Christmas: if he to statistics. The figures published show should make his visits now he would find that a large number of our children are fifty per cent. of these absentees at school. not attending school, and our last census The school-houses in his district avershows that illiteracy is on the increase. aged $600 in value. There was expended He had a theory on this point, and did on an average $4.25 for every pupil in the not think it proved this indifference. district. This did not argue indifference.

2. Such an absence of parental care le had a better remedy. It was to have and such indifference to the future wel better schools. He was fearful that in fare of their children as to demand such our great zeal to have schools of a certain a law. It might be well in some cases to kind, we had lost sight of one of the pass laws to provide against some future greatest aims of the common school. It evils. If the depraved tendencies of our is the duty of the teachers, if there are nation are such as to warrant us in be. scholars in the district who do not attend, lieving that our citizens will thus neglect to know the reason why. The old plan their children, then it might be well to of boarding round was not an unmiti. pass such a law. But we need the most gated evil. It would be a good thing if positive proof that such depravity exists. we could have a missionary or two in

3. Such a mercenary spirit and prac. every district. tice in the employment of children of J. Q. EMERY, of Ft. Atkinson contintender age in manual labor, as to demand ued the argument. He found himself such a law. If this is the case here alone in his advocacy of compulsory atamong us, we ought to protect the chil. tendance. If he believed in the question dren, and give them at least the care we as stated by Mr. CHANDLER he would also give to dumb animals. But does this state oppose it. The child had a right to an of things exist in Wisconsin? On one education, and no person had a right to side of his district they raised tobacco, take it from him it. He would not favor and it interfered with the schooling of sending all children to the public schools. the children. He would go so far as to We have academies and colleges which favor a law forbidding children to be kept are not public schools. He would hold out of school to tend tobacc.). But on that the child had a right to an educathe other side of his district they raised tion and that the State has the right to onions, and to be consistent, he must also enforce this education. The State has a prohibit children from being employed right to say how much we must know at in weeding onions.

least that we may be safe citizens; and it He had alluded to the census report of has the right to demand this education. growing illiteracy. His theory was that the child may get it anywhere, at home the illiteracy does not grow out of neg. or in college, but lie must have this. lect of our schools, but it was imported Prof. North of Pewaukee, said he did illiteracy. It was largely composed of not question the right of the State to see grown up young people who were kept that each child should have an educafrom school by their pride. He knew of|tion. He would go further, it was the cases where young men grown were read- duty of parents to bring up their chil. ing in the same class with children of dren to habits of industry. A close logi. six or seven years. This did not look cian might go on and prove that law. like neglect of school privileges.

It is not expedient, for it would fail. No board of supervisors would dare to school. Looking at the working of the put it in force. The dog law could not laws in European countries and in the be enforced.

States in this country where it has been It is not necessary. In Waukesha Co., adopted, and looking at the 54,000 per. the per centage of attendance from 7 sons in this State who could not write, he 14, was over 86.

thought that the law should step in. Mr. CHANDLER said the attendance in There were over 50,000 children in Wis. his district was over 90.

consin who never attended school at all. Mr. NORTH said he knew that Wauke. Dr. CHapin asked if Gen. Fallows had sha county was not at the head, but he discovered any way by which the law held that an attendance of 86 per cent. could be enforced : gave no caase for alarm for the common. Dr. FALLOws said he had not. wealth, and this was the only reason for

Dr. CHAPIN said that GuIZOT said that this law.

GRIGORY failed as a reformer from atIn Waukesha county cach child had on tempting too much. an average 40 weeks schooling. A per.

Dr. TWOMBLY said that he was in favor son so educated was not a dangerous cit- of compulsory attendance. This involvizen.

ed a necessity for it. If there were no A man was not necessarily a bad citi. children to be educated, then there was zen because he could not read and write. need for it, but if children were being He knew plenty of them in Waukesha neglected, then he would be in favor of county. Whenever there was a really a law compelling them. He was satis. good school, there was a good attendance. fied that educational statistics were unre. The idea that every good-for-nothing liable. He knew the law had worked teacher should have the power to compel well at the east. But he was not in favor the children to drink of his muddy water of laws which the moral sentiment of the was an outrage. To make a horse eat, people would not enforce. The first duty give him something better than an empty would be the missionary work. rack. To give better advantages was all

Mr. Marsu criticised the statistics. He the compulsion necessary.

knew that many clerks made out these Dr. CHAPix, of Beloit College, said: figures without leaving the house. In Two or three questions had arisen in his one instance he visited every family in mind which had been partially answered, the district, and found the number twen. These questions were:

ty-five too high in the clerk's report. 1st. Is it necessary to attain the end : Mr. Rait, of Sheboygan, said that he con. 2d. Is it practicable ?

gratulated Messrs. NORTH and CHAND3d. Supposing such a law was enacted, LER upon living in such enlightened rewould it accomplish the object? In some gions. He did not; of all the children communities such might be the only in Sheboygan, only about one-half of the remedy. But such did not seem to be census attended school. He said that in the case in Wisconsin. He thought that the factories there were boys deformed illiteracy had been referred to its true by being put to labor before they were

He thought that other agencies strong enough, and he knew they were would reach the end quicker than legisla. deformed. mentally. tion, of which he thought we had ten Rev. Mr. PRADT said it was unsafe to times too much.

reason from exeeptional cases; and he Dr. Fallows said that he had been , knew that the state of things at Sheboyslow in reaching the conclusion that in gan was wholly exceptional. He thought this State the law should step in and com- that our present work should be to make pel the parent to send his children to the schools better; and he thought that

cause.

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